Japan: The Meiji Restoration
“pacified, but not really unified”
. Tokugawa Period (1600-1868)
Ruled by Shogun
Capital City of Edo (Tokyo)
Rigid Social Structure
- Daimyo, Samurai, Farmers, Artisans, .
5. Highly regulated trade (Limited: China, Korea, Dutch)
6. Commercialization develops (Edo: Largest City)
- Economic problems due to taxation based on agriculture
- Power begins to shift to merchants
II. 1853: Makes “Friends” with Japan.
In 1852, Perry was sent by President Millard Fillmore to establish trade with Japan
In July, 1853 Perry leads a squadron of four ships into Tokyo Bay and presented the Japanese Emperor with the text of proposed commercial and friendship treaty.
Perry returned in February, 1854. This time he appears with seven ships - four
sailing ships, three steamers – and 1600 men.
Question: If you were the Shogun, what decision would you make regarding the requests of the Americans?
2. On March 31, 1854, the was signed.
Established: _____________________ between the two countries
Proper treatment for shipwrecked Americans
Fuel for American ships.
•It also opened the opportunity for trade between Japan and the U.S.
•The signing of this treaty signaled the end of Japanese ______________
Unequal treaties were seen as humiliating and some daimyo wanted to remove the Shogun from power.
Sakamoto Ryoma created a plan for Japan to modernize and unify under the rule of the Emperor. He convinced the Shogun to resign. He was assassinated shortly after by a pro-Shogun supporter
IV. The Meiji Restoration
By 1868, a group of young samurai claimed that they were restoring power to ___________, the 15 year old Japanese Emperor.
This period is known as the ____________ , Meiji meaning ____________.
Over the next generation the whole society and its institutions were transformed to serve the needs of _____________.
“When I saw a hospital [abroad], I wanted to know how it was run – who paid the running expenses; when I visited a bank, I wanted to learn how the money was deposited and paid out. By similar firsthand questions, I learned something of the postal system and the military conscription (draft). A perplexing institution was representative government.”
- Fukuzawa Yukichi, Japanese Scholar
World Events – Taiping Rebellion, Suez Canal, U.S. Civil War
Question: How will the selective borrowing policy and these world events impact the future of Japan?
V. “Rich Country, Strong Army”
•Equality under the law
•1889 – Emperor issues a “voluntary gift” to the people – a ____________
•Developed a Parliament called the ___________
•Emperor still had power – influenced by oligarchy
2. Military Reforms
Silk Factories in Japan
End of the Samurai class
Abolished ______________ class
•No longer allowed to carry swords
•Created modern __________ based on conscription from all classes
•Created modern navy
3. Economic Reforms
•State Sponsored Industry: _________________________ 1870
•Newly developed ________________ funded new roads, railroads
•Guilds and road tariffs abolished to create national market
•Land reform/new agricultural techniques increased food
•Government dominated mines, shipyards, heavy industry
•Created ___________ system, commercial laws, _________________
VI. Reactions to Westernization3.
Some Samurai found new opportunities in political and business areas
1868- Iwasaki Yataro won government contracts for _____________________ lines and competed with British
Created a loyal management group of former _________________
Expanded business to include shipbuilding, mining, transportation and banking
_______________families – Large firms that owned most private industry
Many samurai were desperate with their situation and the loss of their former status
They gathered under Takamori Saigo, the head of a powerful clan who worked for the new Meiji government but became dissatisfied with the direction of the Meiji emperor.
The battle of Satsuma In 1877. It was a clash of _____________ samurai weapons against a
modern army. 60,000 _____________ troops faced 40,000 rebels. The battle was a short
one. The samurai rebels were completely defeated in a bloody battle
Takamori Saigo was wounded and committed __________ in samurai tradition. He became a hero for the Japanese.
Universal ____________system stressing science, technology, and loyalty to the nation.
Adopted western fashions in dress, personal care, calendar, metric system
________________________ led to smaller families, high divorce rate, poor treatment of workers
High taxes caused poverty and violent protests
• _________ gained followers, loyalty to the emperor.
• Women still seen as _______ - some daughters were sold
• Confucian based moral instruction, formalities, and diet remained constant
•Tradition of selective borrowing
•Pride and honor in military power
II. Social Changes and Continuities
3. Strains of Modernization
•Poor living standards existed in crowded cities
•Political differences led to instability and frequent assassinations of leaders
•Constant questioning and debate about Westernization
•Disgruntled ______________________________ class
• Need for raw materials
•Urged loyalty to the Emperor as a center of _________________.
•Sino-Japanese War 1894-1895
•Russo-Japanese War 1904
•Imperialism of Korea: Annexed in 1910
Despite an astonishingly fast and successful modernization the constitutional structure, military orientation, and nationalist ideology the Meiji Restoration led Japan to the disastrous imperialist adventures of the 1930s and 1940s.
Japanese Battleships defeat the
President George Bush visits the Japanese Diet Chinese in Sino-Japanese War
By observing the two pictures, what impact did westernization have on Japan?