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Reading

Language Arts

Vocabulary Builder

(Section Wise)

_____ of _______

_____ of _______

_____ of _______


Reading: Read the passage carefully and then answer the questions that follow:

Louis Pasteur was born at Arbois in France. He wanted to be a scientist. When he left his school, he trained himself as a scientist. At first he worked at problems in chemistry. Then he found the presence of certain bacteria, which causes souring milk. Bacteria are a very tiny and plantlike thing that cannot be seen with the naked eye. Pasteur observed them through his microscope. He found that bacteria can be killed by heat, raising the temperature to a certain degree. Heat treatment is still carried out today and in honour of Pasteur that is known as Pasteurization.

In the second phase he started to study of disease germs. He discovered that other than bacteria there is another small thing called virus that cause various other diseases. Pasteur studied a number of animal diseases. One of these was Anthrax. He discovered how to grow anthrax bacteria that is less powerful. He showed by experiment that if animals were inoculated with the weakened bacteria and then infected with really powerful bacteria, they would not die.

His most important discovery was to prevent rabies. The disease may be taken by dogs, wolves, jackals, other animals and men. Pasteur gradually started to experiment on the infected part of the rabbits suffering from rabies. He treated the infected parts, obtained the virus in a weakened form. With this he inoculated animals. Some he inoculated before causing them to be bitten or otherwise infected. In both cases the animals remained healthy and did not develop the terrible symptoms of the disease.

Pasteur’s patients were animals. He had not ventured to try his methods on human beings, because he was not certain that the same treatment would have the same effect on human beings. Then one day-the sixth July, 1885, a very memorable day for Pasteur-a woman came to him in great distress. “Save my son” she cried. “Save him, sir. He has been bitten by a mad dog.”The boy had indeed been badly bitten and he was sure to die. What was Pasteur to do? Should he try on a human being the treatment that had been so successful with animals? He made up his mind to treat the dying boy. He took the boy into his own home so as to watch him carefully, and gave him a series of inoculations. He waited anxiously to see what would happen. At last the danger period had passed. The boy was well and strong again. A method of preventing rabies had been found!

Pasteur’s fame spread and he received honours from many countries. In 1888, the French Government founded the Pasteur Institute in Paris. This institute carried on the work of preparing vaccines and furthering research into the many problems which still confront the scientist in his battle against disease.



1. This passage primarily deals with-----

A. Invention of microbes. B. Inventions of medicines of various diseases.

C. Invention of inoculation for Rabies. D. Inventions of inoculation for Anthrax and Rabies.

2. When the author was narrating about Louis Pasteur, his tone was-----

A. absolutely bewildered. B. completely mesmerized.

B. filled with excitement. C. meaninglessly cool.

3. What makes milk go sour?

Ans. ______________________________________________________________________________



4. Write two identifying features of Bacteria.

Ans. _______________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________

5. It can be inferred from the passage that Bacteria and virus can only be observed through-----

A. magnifying glass. B. high powered lens.

C. simple spectacles. D. microscopes.

6. According to the passage Pasteurization destroys------

i). bacteria that cause souring.

ii) germs that cause disease to human beings.

iii) kills virus of anthrax.



Ans: ---

A. (i) B. (ii) and iii) C. (iii) D. (i) and (ii)



7. Fill in the following blanks with proper information taking from the passage, to complete the sentences.

A. The Rabies may be taken by dogs, _________________________________and men.

B. Pasteur’s patients were ___________________.

C. Pasteur took the dog- bitten boy into his own home and gave him a __________________________.

D. In 1888, ______________________________________________ founded the Pasteur Institute in Paris.

8. The author uses the sentence, ‘a very memorable day for Pasteur’----‘. Can you give a favorable reason to establish the given comment of the narrator?

Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________



9. It can be implied from this passage that----------

A. Pasteur preferred to research on various diseases.

B. he wanted to protect people against disease by inoculating them with much weakened bacteria or Virus.

C. he wanted to find medicines for the animals.

D. he built a research centre for research work on microorganisms.

10. Choose the best title for the passage from following options.

A. The story of Louis Pasteur. B The inventions of Louis Pasteur.

C. Louis Pasteur and his famous works. D. A life history of an inventor.

Read the passage carefully and then answer the questions about it. For each question, decide on the basis of the passage which one of the choices best answer the question. Circle the answer in multiple choices.

The source of this passage is a biography of Gugliemo Marconi, the great inventor of wireless telegraphy. During the summer of 1894, he went with his brother to the mountains of Bellies. As Marconi lay sleepless in a bed at night in an Alpine hotel, he suddenly got an idea that electric signals could be sent through the air from one place to another. The idea completely obsessed him. His mother, Signora Marconi encouraged him.

He read in an Italian electrical Journal about the work and experiments of Hertz. It was a long and interesting article. He returned to the villa Griffon in the autumn, and his mother allotted two large rooms at the top of the house for him. There he began experiments in earnest. Marconi had the key of these rooms, and even when he was working in them on his experiment, he kept the doors locked. He rose early to get back to his work and he worked later. His mother was very much concerned about his development. She used to observe that night after night, a light was burning at the top of the house. As she was worried about his health, she would often knock softly on the door before going to bed. Marconi used to open the door and drew her inside, showing her his batteries, the home made apparatus, the seemingly endless tangle of wire and coils. Marconi’s first, and for all times his most faithful, disciple was Signora, his mother.

Hertz was only happy to know that there was proof that electric waves when radiated into space could be detected by means of a metal hoop. This theory was the basis of Marconi’s experiment. Then he continued his experiment and he understood that if the radiation of the electric wave could be increased, developed and controlled, it would be possible to signal across space, for very considerable distance. So he started experimenting relentlessly on it.

One December night, she went to bed. She had been asleep for some hours; Marconi came and shook his mother. He called his mother urged her to accompany him into his room. He told his mother that he had finished his work and wanted to show her. Signora saw at her great surprise that one end a mass of apparatus and a tangle of wiring loomed above this apparatus. Through the archway, in the attic beyond was a compact group of batteries, Zinc rods and coils. At other side, as they stood was a small table on which was a key.

“Listen Mother,” said the boy. He pressed the key. From the far end of the attics came a buzzing. Signora was shivering and said it’s wonderful! He had succeeded in making an electric bell rang. This had been done by means of a radiation at a distance of some 30 feet across space.

Later, this young man was destined to bridge the English Channel with message carried in a manner unknown to the world. Again he continued many experiments. The greatest thrill came when the electric bell connected with his experimental set tinkled out its shrill note. He earned his fame as the master of space.

1. The passage primarily deals with-------

A. the continuous effort of Marconi. B. the invention of Marconi.

C. Marconi’s effort to invent electric bell. C. the contribution of Marconi.

2. What kind of apparatus did Marconi use for experiment?

Ans. _____________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________



3. Some words, taken from the passage are given below. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word to complete the following sentences.(One word is extra.)

(Obsessed, metal hoop, loomed, radiation, bridge)

A. Making an electric bell ring had been done by means of a __________________ at a distance of some 30 feet across space.

B. Marconi was destined to ____________________ the English Channel with message carried in a manner unknown to the world.

C. Marconi got an idea that electric signals could be sent through the air and this idea completely ____________________ him.

D. Hertz said that radiated electric wave into space could be detected by means of a _______________

4. The author uses the phrase ‘in earnest’ to show Marconi’s-----------

A. good nature. B. diligent work.

C. hard work. D. comfortable zone.

5. It can be inferred from the passage that Marconi continued----------

A. his experiment relentlessly. B. to bridge the gap.

C. various jobs. D. experimenting various function of electric wave.

6. What great qualities, according to the passage Signora Marconi showed in associating herself with her son’s work?

Ans. ______________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________



7. What traits of Character did Marconi reveal in the given passage? Find the most appropriate one from the following options.

A. obsessed and sincere. B. dedicated and punctual.

C. obsessed, dedicated and sincere. D. Casual and fickle.

8. “Signora Marconi was shivering and said it’s wonderful!” In reference to this extract answer the following question in brief.

A. Who was Signora Marconi?



Ans. _______________________________________________________________________________

B. Why was she shivering?



Ans. _______________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________

C. Why did she say it was wonderful?

Ans. _______________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________



9. Which of the following questions is answered by the passage?

A. what was Marconi’s Father’s name?

B. who was Marconi’s uncle?

C. Why did he want to be a scientist?

D. How did he invent electric bell?

10. Which of the following is the most suitable title for the passage?

A. Marconi and his invention.

B. Marconi rings a bell.

C. Marconi and signora.

D. Marconi, the great inventor.

Read the passage carefully and then answer the questions about it. For each question, decide on the basis of the passage which one of the choices best answer the question. Circle the answer in multiple choices.

It has been said that nearly every invention of man is akin to some part of his own body. Spectacles and microscopes are simply eyes. The pillars which hold up great buildings, such as cathedrals are like the limbs .There are so many other things like this. One of man’s earliest problems was how to cross water. At last, however man hit on the plan of building a bridge. The greatest bridge-builders of olden times were the Romans. At first their bridges, even those in the city of Rome and across the Thames at London, were made of wood; then, since wood was liable to rot or to be washed away in time of flood, they began to build stone bridges. Such bridges were built upon arches that were full of great strength, which was understood by the Romans at first.

In later times many bridges were built over most of the great rivers of Europe. Over some of them stood shops and houses as well as a road way. The most famous of such bridges was London Bridge, which was built in 1200. In the nineteenth century the great increase in trade and commerce made bridge-building more important than ever. Engineers had to make many experiments Stephenson built a railway bridge over the Menai Straits in North Wales in the form of an iron tunnel or tube, supported by lofty stone pillars.Sometimes, too there were failures and disasters. In France a bridge collapsed while a regiment soldiers was marching across. More dreadful still was the end of the first Tay Bridge. The engineers who designed it, had not allowed enough for the fierce gales which often blow on this part of the Scottish coast, and on a wild night storm, in December 1879; part of the bridge fell, carrying with it a train. Nevertheless, engineers learnt a lot from failures and even from disasters. As a result, greater and stronger, even more wonderful bridges are being built as the years go by.

Iron and steel took the place of stone as the chief bridge-building materials. A good example is the bridge which crosses the Zambezi River in Africa, just below the famous Victoria Falls. The Zambezi River is crossed by the longest bridge in the world that is five hundred yards long. The Forth Bridge is said to be the strongest bridge in the world. It is called a “Cantilever Bridge” from the three immense diamond-shaped ‘cantilevers’ which form the main part of it. This Bridge is a mile and a half in length. Another cantilever bridge, with a single span six hundred yards long, crosses the St. Lawrence River near Quebec. To keep such large bridges in good condition they must be painted and maintained regularly. Another common type of bridge is the suspension bridge. The largest and most wonderful of them all is the one which spans the entrance to San Francisco Harbor in Western America. Within San Francisco Bay is another bridge. These bridges cost twenty-four million pounds to build. We cannot help thinking that the name for the entrance to San Francisco Harbor, ‘The Golden Gate,’ is a very fitting indeed! Another of the world’s great bridges stands astride the harbor of Sydney, in Australia It is called as ‘Bow String Bridge’. The famous Tower Bridge across the Thames in London is praise-worthy. Another kind of movable bridge is the ‘swing bridge’. The great Howrah Bridge at Calcutta in India is one of the famous cantilever road bridges. There are innumerable bridges in this world, so it’s very difficult to mention all.




1. The passage primarily deals with -------
A. Evolution of bridge. B. Information of various bridges.

C. Construction of bridge. D. History of bridge.


2. The author would most likely agree that------
A. Bridge did not exist in ancient time.

B. many of man’s inventions are related to some part of his body.

C. it was very difficult to make a bridge.

D. he had no idea about the procedure of bridge making.


3. Who were the oldest bridge-builders?
Ans. _______________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________


4. The style of the passage is -------
A. narrative B. informative

C. descriptive D. analytical.


5. It can be implied from the passage that --------
A. wooden bridges were very weak.

B. Romans understood that wooden bridges were liable to rot, so it was replaced by stone arches.

C. there were many difficulties to construct stone bridges.

D. Stone – bridges were very strong.


6. According to the passage the longest bridge in the world is-----
A. London Bridge.

B. Zambezi River is crossed by five hundred yards long bridge.

C. Tay Bridge of France.
7. The author implies that from the disaster of Tay Bridge -----
A. people got a lesson.

B. engineers learnt a lot from its failures and even from disasters.

C. it was a heart wrenching incident

D. Tay Bridge was built in France.


8. Why is the Forth Bridge considered as the strongest bridge?
Ans. _______________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________

9. According to the passage all of the following are true except-------
A. Other than cantilever bridge there are suspension bridges also.

B. The entrance to San Francisco Harbor is called the Golden Gate.

C. Names of the builders or constructors are written on every bridge.

D. The famous Tower Bridge in London is praise worthy.


10. Do you have any idea how do these bridges withstand weathering? Write on your own within three sentences.
Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________

Read the passage carefully and then answer the questions about it. For each question, decide on the basis of the passage which one of the choices is the best answer the question. Circle the proper answer for multiple choices.

Robert Edwin Peary was born in Pennsylvania in 1856 and grew up in Maine. Later, he became a civil engineer in the US Navy. His burning ambition was to reach the unexplored North Pole. In 1886, Peary made his first trip to Greenland and was able to travel about 100 miles inland. It was a far cry from the North Pole, but an important step all the same. In 1891-92, he reached Greenland’s northern coast after a 1300 mile journey. He proved that Greenland is an island. This was an important geographical discovery because no one had imagined there was a sea to the north of Greenland.

Peary wanted to become the first man to set foot on the North Pole. His first attempt to reach the North Pole in 1893-94 failed. In 1905, Peary set out once more to reach the North Pole. He sailed in the Roosevelt, a ship that had been especially built to sail among the ice floes, which are huge masses of moving ice. The party left the ship on the Northern Coast of Ellesmere island and pushed northward on sledges over the ice fields of the Arctic Ocean. But hardships forced them to turn back. Peary’s book ‘Nearest the Pole’ tells of this journey which was published in 1910.

In 1908, Peary set out for the North Pole again, travelling over the ice from Ellesmere Island. In august 1908 he was ready to make the journey with the polar party, consisting of 69 men including 49 Eskimos and 246 dogs. The decks were heaped with tons of coal and meat. Besides these, there were tons and tons of flour, sugar and many other things. The final 350 miles of the voyage proved extremely difficult, the narrow channel between Greenland and Ellesmere Island was packed solid with slabs of ice. The weather too was rough. By September he reached Cape Sheridan, which was the northern -most point that any team had ever reached.



Now the long Arctic winter set in. They kept the larder well-stocked with fresh meat. And they waited for the following spring. In late February 1909, everything was ready. The sun was still below the horizon, but for twelve hours every day there was a pale twilight, bright enough for travel. Travel was extremely difficult. Describing the Arctic Ocean, Peary said that it was ‘a gigantic skating pond,’ with a level floor over which the dogs drag us merrily. But the frozen surface of the Arctic is in slow but constant motion, pulled by currents, pushed by winds, stretched by unseen tides. Whatever hurdles were there, they were determined to carry on their journey. On 28th March, Peary’s men broke the ‘farthest north’ record of 1906 and travelled further into the icy landscape.

On 1 April, Peary, Mathew Henson and four Eskimos stood ready to cross the remaining 133 miles of ice and water. Superhuman effort was required on the part of the members to overcome the extreme fatigue, and to cover the last lap of the journey. At 10 am, on 6 April 1909 they reached the exact top of the world. When they reached the exact top of the world, Peary exclaimed triumphantly – “The Pole at last. My dream and goal for twenty years. Mine at last!” The Stars and Stripes (nickname for the flag of the US) was planted at the North Pole. The world had accomplished yet another goal and achieved more glory. The explores spent thirty hours at the North Pole. They left The Pole on 7th April and arrived at the Roosevelt, which began its homeward journey. Peary became a hero for all. There is an area in North Greenland called Peary Land named after the great explorer.



1. The Passage primarily deals with -------

A. Robert Edwin Peary’s ambition.

B. The adventure of Robert Peary towards North Pole.

C. The perilous journey of Robert Edwin Peary towards North Pole.

D, The life history of Robert Edwin Peary.

2. What was special about the ship Roosevelt?

Ans. _______________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________



3. The author’s attitude towards the Polar Party and their leader was quite -------

A. enjoyable B. exciting C. overwhelming D amazing



4. It can be implied from the passage that -------

A. Robert Peary and his men struggled and suffered a lot in the hand of the nature.

B. Peary had made an arduous journey against all odds.

C. Peary did not want to accept defeat.

D. Peary was very casual about his journey that’s why he was unwilling to explore North Pole.

5. How did Peary and his men prepare themselves to make the journey to the North Pole in 1908?

Ans. _______________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________

6. The author would most likely agree that ------

A. Robert Peary was a man of determination and optimism.

B. He was a very tough fighter.

C. He was very submissive and weak man.

D. He had struggled a lot during his journey to the North Pole.

7. It can be inferred from the passage that ------

A, everybody was aware of a green sea.

B. Peary proved that Greenland is an island and there was a sea to the north of Greenland.

C. there was a huge sea to the north of Greenland.

D. anybody can visit the North Pole with comfort and ease.

8. According to the passage, tick the option that best explains the meaning of these following lines.

A. Now long winter set in.

i) The long winter of the Arctic came to an end.

ii) The long winter season of the Arctic began.

B. “to cover the last lap of the journey”---

i) Had to complete the final stretch of the journey.

ii) to cover their laps during the journey.

9. “The Pole at last--------Mine at last!”

A. Who said this word and why?

Ans. ______________________________________________________________________________

B. Why do you think Peary became a hero for one and all?

Ans. ______________________________________________________________________________

10. Which of the following will be the most suitable title?

A. Robert Edwin Pear’s expedition.

B. The Pole at last.

C. The North Pole at last.

D. Robert Edwin Peary, the explorer of the North Pole.

Read the passage carefully and then answer the questions about it. For each question, decide on the basis of the passage which one of the choices is the best answer the question. Circle the proper answer for multiple choices.

There has to be a first time for everything: to stand at North Pole, to fly faster than sound, to run a mile in within four minutes, to climb Mount Everest. Some men have always made it their ambition to be the first to perform these and many other similar feats. There was a time when no one had ever flown over the North Pole. Lieutenant-Commander Richard Byrd of the United States Navy wanted to fly in a three-engined aeroplane, the Josephine Ford.

In 1926, on 9th may Byrd climbed aboard Josephine with his pilot. Byrd was the navigator His job was to make sure that Bennett kept steering towards the Pole. It was a difficult task. There were no landmarks to guide him. He took with him a sun compass so that he could work out their position from the sun. The monoplane would be flying at about one hundred miles an hour, so their position would be changing very quickly. The faster they went, the more difficult Byrd’s job became. Good weather favoured them. Byrd had feared that winds might cause the low-flying aircraft to tilt from side to side or suddenly lose height. But not once did they feel a bump from the air. In bright sunshine, they roared over the ice-pack with the shadow of the monoplane dancing over the ice below them. Soon they were only one hundred miles from the North Pole. Suddenly, Byrd stared at the starboard engine. A trickle of oil was coming from it. He turned to Bennett. ‘What do you make of that?’ he asked. Byrd took over the control while the pilot looked out at the engine. ‘It looks bad,’ he said. ‘I’m afraid the engine won’t last very long.’

The two men stared at each other. The same question was in both of their minds. Was it safe to carry on? But they decided to go on. Perhaps the starboard engine would grow too hot and break down. But they had two other engines. Those two engines might keep them in the air long enough to get back to Spitsbergen. In another hour, Byrd and Bennett were over the North Pole. They smiled at each other and shook hands. Lieutenant-Commander stood at attention and gave a salute in honour of Admiral Peary the discoverer of the North Pole.

Good luck stayed with them. The starboard engine kept going. Byrd and Bennett landed at Spitsbergen only sixteen hours after taking off. They had covered 1.300miles and flown where no aircraft had ever flown before. Some experts said, ‘One day, people will be travelling by air from Europe to Japan by way of the North Pole.’

Those experts were right. But another quarter of a century was to pass before their words came true. The first air route over the North Pole was not opened until 24th February, 1957. Then Scandinavian Airlines began to fly between Copenhagen and Tokyo. This new route was 2,300 miles shorter than the old route by way of the Middle East and India. The Journey took thirty hours. Over the old route it had taken fifty-two hours after that people could fly from London to Tokyo by way of the North Pole in thirty-one hours. But in 1967 one could fly from London to Tokyo in seventeen hours.



Q.1. The passage primarily deals either with an invention or a discovery. Establish with your own words whether it’s an invention or discovery.

Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________



2. What might happen to an engine leaking oil?

Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________

3. It can be inferred from the passage-------

A. Byrd and Bennett did an excellent job.

B. Byrd and Bennett were brave and took a risky challenge to be the first to flow over the North Pole.

C. They were great adventurers who did not care for their life.

D. Byrd and Bennett made an arduous journey by aeroplane.

4. The author would most likely to agree that -------

A. Byrd and Bennett were not supposed to go for that risky flying.

B. Three engined aeroplane was not at all well-equipped to fly such a long distance.

C. they accepted the challenge with bravery.

D. their work was not at all note-worthy.

5. Can you guess why a quarter of a century passed before the first air route over the North Pole was opened? Write the answer within three sentences.

Ans. ________________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________________



6. According to the passage some sentences are true and some are false. Write ‘true’ against the right sentences and ‘false’ against the incorrect sentences.

A. The author implied that no one wants to be first as there are many hazards on its way. (__________)

B. Richard Byrd was a Lieutenant-Commander of the US Navy that’s why he was so dauntless.(_______)

C. Byrd was afraid that winds might cause the low-flying aircraft to tilt from side to side or suddenly lose height. (__________)

D. Byrd’s Josephine had been crashed mid-air because of its malfunctioning in engine.(_________)

E. Byrd took a simple sun compass so that he could work out his position from the sun. (__________)



7. According to the second paragraph of the given passage; make three interrogative (question) sentences that match with the given information directly.

Ans: Example—what is the name of the Byrd’s aeroplane?

A.___________________________________________________________________________

B.___________________________________________________________________________

C. ___________________________________________________________________________

8. Fill in the blanks of the following sentences taking information from the given passage to make meaningful sentences.

A. Byrd gave a salute in honour of _______________________.

B. Byrd and Bennett landed at Spitsbergen only ______________________ after taking off. They had covered ___________________________ and flown where no aircraft had ever flown.

C. Experts said,’ one day, people will be travelling by air from ______________________________ North Pole.’

D. The Scandinavian Airlines began to fly between ____________________________

9. Think to give some important clues on the fact that ‘one could fly from London to Tokyo in seventeen hours” when people once used to travel this route in thirty hours.

Ans. _______________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________



10. According to the author, the most suitable title for the passage is ‘Wings over the Pole.’

Do you think it is really an appropriate title for this passage? If so, then give two reasons for your stand.

Ans. _______________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________



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