Ötzi Ötzi the Ice Man was found in September 1991 by two walkers He died approximately 5200 years ago: the oldest human remain At death he was between 40 and

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  • This week’s assignment: Turnitin.com


  • Ötzi the Ice Man was found in September 1991 by two walkers

  • He died approximately 5200 years ago: the oldest human remain

  • At death he was between 40 and 50 years old and suffered from a number of medical conditions

  • The first clues to how old the Ice Man was came from many of the tools and objects found with him

  • A more exact date was given using a scientific test called Carbon 14 dating that can tell the age of almost anything that ever lived - dead animals, dead people, plants, or things like cloth, which comes from living matter

  • Early analysis led scientists to believe that Ötzi was caught in a heavy snowfall, fell asleep, and froze to death; this conclusion was reached on the basis that there were no signs of predator attacks

  • The above theory was discarded in June 2001 when the Iceman was x-rayed by a different team of scientists in Italy: they discovered that he had an arrowhead buried in his left shoulder. In June 2002, they also discovered that he had a wound to one hand

  • The second theory had flaws too: the new x-rays did not show any sign of broken ribs

  • Other theories:

    • According to author Brenda Fowler, Dr. Annaluisa Pedrotti speculated that the Iceman may have been shot by a hunter who buried Ötzi immediately: BUT, studies suggest he was killed

    • Dr. Markus Egg offered the theory that Ötzi was a shepherd who was killed by another shepherd who wanted a larger flock of animals

    • Dr. Eduard Egarter Vigl proposed other possibilities: a returning herdsman, he arrived home as his village was being attacked, or he arrived home to find that "another man had taken his wife during his absence"

    • A study published in early 2009 suggested that the Iceman was injured in a brawl (the deep gash in his hand) a few days before he was killed by the arrow: this may explain why he had unfinished arrows as he would have fled from his village in a hurry

    • Ötzi was a victim of attempted robbery and devised an unsuccessful plan to ensnare his assailant

    • Ötzi was a victim of power play

    • He was placed on a burial platform

    • He was sacrificed to please the gods who were responsible for a landing of an asteroid in Austria c. 3000 BCE


  • The most famous archaeological discovery: Lord Carnarvon sponsored Howard Carter’s excavation which in 1922 led him to Tutankhamun’s tomb; Read and annotate ‘profile’, Ant 1 p. 92, then read and annotate Carter’s recording process, p. 94

  • This tomb has made many people famous. Zahi Hawass currently serves as secretary general of the Supreme Council of Antiquities and director of excavations at Giza, Saqqara, and the Bahariya Oasis.

  • Who was Tutankhamun?

    • Family tree: Ant 1, p. 89

    • Read ‘Profile’ on p. 90, draw up a list of evidence, and indicate what the evidence leads us to believe

    • Evidence is ample

      • grandson of Tiye: “The DNA analysis of these royal remains has turned up some surprising results.  The research has confirmed that one of the female mummies found in the tomb of Amenhotep II, nicknamed the ‘Elder Lady’ is that of Queen Tiye, wife of Amenhotep III and daughter of Yuya and Thuya. It also showed that the male mummy found in KV55 was her son and the son of Amenhotep III, so was most likely to be the mummy of Akhenaten”

      • former name= Tutankhaten; wife= Ankhesepaaten -> Ankhesenamun

      • Aten symbolism and names of officials Ay and Horemhem; Cartouche, and Aten in image of Tutankhamun and Ankhesenamen http://www.ancient-egypt-history.com/2010/10/tutankhamun-in-details.html

    • analysis of the evidence is also ample, e.g. http://wysinger.homestead.com/tut5.pdf

    • King Tut died at about 18 or 19.

      • For a long time, theories revolved around his murder by a blow to the head

      • Then people thought the blow was caused by a horse-riding accident

      • Then archaeologists thought he died from poisoning from a fall on his knee, some thought this was a hunting accident, i.e. fall off horse

      • His burial was rushed and he was most probably given a tomb originally reserved for an administrator, such as Ay or Horemheb (too small)

      • The latest CT scans show that he was a frail individual, who had a club foot and a disease of the bones of his feet

      • The DNA evidence also showed that Tutankhamen was infected with the parasite that causes malaria, and that he had suffered multiple bouts of the most severe form of malaria, which would have weakened his immune system

  • For the tomb and its contents, in pairs/threes, research...

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