One factor model



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Marker Scale Items (English translations) for Factor Constructs from Previous Studies, Used in Chinese Lexical Study (with Xinyue Zhou and colleagues)
ONE FACTOR MODEL
SD (Socially Desirable Qualitiesw)

Honest, Responsible, Patient, Clever/Deft, Warm, Sociable/Agreeable Vs. Cruel, Disorganized, Irritable, Corrupted


TWO FACTOR MODELS
S (Social Propriety or Morality)

Patient, Responsbile, Incorruptness/Cleanhanded, Forgiving (Tolerant) Vs. Harsh, Cruel, Irritable, Rude, Selfish



D (Dynamism)

Humorous, Bold, Talkative, Clever/Deft, Sociable/Agreeable, Sexy Vs. Shy/Bashful, Dull, Timid


INTERNALIZING-EXTERNALIZING FACTOR DUO
Internalizing Disorder Tendencies

Depressed, Fearful, Nervous, Sad, Anxious, Withdrawn Vs. Energetic



Externalizing Disorder Tendencies

Impulsive, Careless, Aggressive/Assertive, Rogue Daring, Vicious/Cutthroat Vs. Honest, Responsible, Considerate


THREE FACTOR MODEL
See Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientious markers from Big Five below.
BIG FIVE (based on 3M40 from Saucier, 2002)
E

Extraversion, Talkative, Assertive, vs. Introverted, Quiet, Shy, Reserved, Withdrawn



A

Undemanding, Kind, Sentimental, Forgiving (Tolerant) vs. Harsh, Unsympathetic, Cold



C

Organized, Meticulous, Cautious vs. Disorganized, Negligent, Inefficient



ES (emotional stability vs neuroticism)

Unexcitable/Composed, Not Envious vs. Emotional, Fearful,Nervous, Fretful, Anxious



Intellect/Imagination (O)

Intellectual, Complex, Sagacious/Philosophical vs. Unintellectual, Unreflective


CROSS-LANGUAGE SIX (based on Ashton et al, 2004)

H

Honest, Humble, Sincere, Virtue and Morality, Dependable (Trustworthy) vs. Sly, Greedy



E

Emotional, Sentimental, Anxious vs. Brave, Unemotional, Tough



X

Lively, Talkative/Conversational, Sociable/Agreeable vs. Untalkative



A

Patient, Gentle, Good-tempered, Forgiving (Tolerant) vs. Impatient, Irritable



C

Hardworking, Organized, Neat vs. Impulsive, Lazy



O

Intellectual, Imaginative vs. Unintellectual, Unimaginative, Conservative


MULTI-LANGUAGE SEVEN (Saucier, 2003a)
Gr (gregariousness)

Talkative/Conversational, Sociable/Agreeable vs. Quiet, Untalkative, Serious, Withdrawn



Sa (self-assurance)

Brave, Active, Confident, Tough vs. Fearful, Weak, Insecure



Et (even-temper)

Patient, Undemanding vs. Impatient, Quick-tempered, Irritable, Jealous



Cfo (concern for others)

Generous, Humble, Helpful, Sentimental vs. Selfish, Big-head/Arrogant, Hard-hearted



Co (conscientiousness)

Neat, Diligent/Thrifty, Meticulous, Strict, Pious vs. Sloppy, Forgetful



Ov (originality/virtuosity)

Artistic, Sagacious/Philosophical, Imaginative, Intelligent and Capable vs. Unreflective, Ordinary , Unsophisticated, Unimaginative



Nv (negative valence; social unacceptability)

Abnormal, Crazy, Evil, Idiot, Odd vs. Uncorrupted, Dependable (Trustworthy)


Emic Chinese Factors
Personality Structure of Wang et al.

Cui, H., & Wang, D.F. (2003). The Confirmation of Chinese Personality Structure and The Result of Adjective Ratings. Studies of Psychology and Behavior,1 (2), 89-95.



  1. 精明干练 Wisdom15

自信self-confident/confident

精明 astute/shrewd/smart/bright/sagacious/sharp/adiriot

深谋远虑be circumspect and far seeing /have forethought and foresight /think deeply and plan carefully

软弱 week/effete/feeble/ineffective/feckless

温文尔雅refined/cultured/gentle and cultivated/pleasant and courteous

土气rustic style/rustic/uncouth/countrified

自卑self-abased

机伶clever/smart/sharp/intelligent

畏缩 recoil/flinch

机智 resourceful

死板rigid/stiff/inflexible

迟钝slow/obtuse/slow-witted/dull-witted

胆小timid/cowardly/faint-hearted/chicken-hearted

潇洒natural and unrestrained/elegant and unconventional/handsome and debonair/great presence

处事周到attentive/thoughtful/considerate/solicitous


  1. 严谨自制 Behavior Style(20)

谨言慎行watch your step and mind what you are saying/speak and act cautiously/be cautious with one’s words and actions/be discreet in word and deed

敬业dedication/commitment/devotion

懒惰lazy/indolent

耐心patient/patience/endurance

认真conscientious/earnest/serious/seriousness

稳重steady going/steady/staid/sedate

成熟mature/ripen/be full-grown

老练seasoned/experienced

谦虚modesty

冲动impulse

粗心careless/thoughtless/inadvertent

刻苦耐劳assiduous/hardworking

调皮naughty/mischievous

有条理properly and logically arranged/methodical/systematic/orderly

毅力willpower/will/stamina/tenacity

冒冒失失rash/abrupt/thoughtless/without due consideration

努力make an effort/efforts/exert oneself(to do sth)/ be at pains(to do sth)

迷糊blurred/indistinct/misted/muddled/confused/dazed/muddle-headed

节俭thrift/thrifty/frugal

勤劳diligent/industrious/hardworking


  1. 外向活跃 Extroversion(18)

乐观optimism/hopeful/sanguine

活泼lively/vivacious/vivid

积极positive/active/energetic/vigorous

开朗sanguine/optimistic

内向introverted

热情enthusiasm/warmth/zeal/zest/ardour

多愁善感be sentimental/emotional/sensitive

合群get on well with others/be sociable/gregarious

消极negative/passive/inactive

沉默reticent/ taciturn/ silent/ uncommunicative/ undemonstrative

害羞shy/bashful

含蓄reserved

健谈 brilliant in conversation/talkative

善交际sociable

主动on one’s own initiative/of one’s own accord

好静serene/placid

忧郁melancholy/heavy-hearted/somber/dejected

拘谨overcautious/reserved/stiff/punctilious


  1. 淡泊诚信 Ways of Life(13)

诚实honesty/truthful/trusty/veracious

老实honest/frank

大方generous/liberal/large-handed/easy/natural and poised

自私selfish/self-centered/egoistic

宽宏大量broad-minded/magnanimous/having a large heart

诚恳sincere/genuine

淳朴honest/modest/simple/unsophisticated

光明磊落upright and honourable

斤斤计较haggle over every ounce/be calculating and unwilling to make the smallest sacrifice

善良good and honest/kind hearted

贪心greed/avarice/rapacity

小心眼的selfish/scheming

爽快refreshed/comfortable/frank/straight/forward/outright


  1. 温顺随和 Interpersonal Relations (6)

强悍fierce/intrepid/doughty

温柔gentle and soft/sweet/mild

随和amiable/easy-going

脆弱fragile/frail/weak/vulnerable/delicate

粗暴rude/rough/crude/brutal/savage/violent/coarse/boorish

威猛 brave and fierce


  1. 善良友好 Well-Disposed(4)

好脾气good temper

急躁irritable/irascible/testy/hot-tempered/impetuous/rash/impatient

暴躁irascible/irritable/fiery/testy/explosive/hot/inflammable/volcanic

易怒 irritable


  1. 热情豪爽 Neuroticism(3)

胸无大志have no ambition/ideal at all/cherish no aspirations/ambitions/aims

充满斗志will to fight/fighting spirit/morale/fight

勇往直前march right ahead courageously/ march forward without hesitation/set off at a ruthless pace/ advance bravely

Chinese Five-factor Structure

Terms from Yang and Bond
1. social-orientation­ --self-centeredness
诚实 honest

狡猾 sly

负责 responsible

自私 selfish

仁慈 gracious

顽皮 naughty

和善 good and gentle

真诚 cordial

友好 friendly

严厉 harsh

贪心 greedy

好人 kind

德高望重 morally clean

坦率 frank

冷酷 ruthless
2. competence-impotence
独立 independent

勇敢 brave

能干 capable

聪明 smart

庸俗 vulgar

孩子气 childish

机敏 tactful

肤浅 shallow

害羞 shy

坚定 determined

foolish

迟钝 dull

胆怯 timid

坚定 resolute and firm

睿智 wise

敏捷 quick and sharp

3. expressiveness-conservatism


慷慨 generous

保守 conservative

固执 stubborn

活泼 vivacious

开朗 optimistic

内向 introverted

热情 passionate

宽宏大量 broad-minded

亲切 gracious

健谈 talkative

冷漠 indifferent

严肃 solemn

正直 straightforward

严格 rigid

守旧 old-fashioned
4. self-control-impulsiveness
沉稳 steady

偏激 extreme

谦虚 modest

任性 headstrong

冲动 impulsive

光明正大 upright and correct

镇定 self-possessed

文静 quite and refined

易怒 irritable

顽固 stubborn
5. optimism-neuroticism
乐观 optimistic

悲观 pessimistic

忧心 worrying

敏感 sensitive

焦虑 anxious

自怜 self-pitying

喜怒无常 moody

高兴 pleasant

自信 self-confident


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