THE USE OF STATE BROADCAST MEDIA AS PROPAGANDA MACHINERY BY STATE GOVERNMENT
OKOYE, GLADYS GINIKACHUKWU.
A RESEARCH PROJECT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF MASS COMMUNICATION IN PARTIAL FUFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (B.Sc.) DEGREE IN MASS COMMUNICATION.
DEPARTMENT OF MASS COMMUNICATION, FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES, CARITAS UNIVERSITY, AMORJI-NIKE, EMENE. ENUGU STATE.
This is to certify that this project has been read and graded in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Bachelor of Sciences (B.Sc.) degree in Mass Communication.
FERDINAND OBASI DAMIAN.U.AGBOEZE
PROJECT SUPERVISOR HEAD OF DEARTMENT
DATE -------------------- DATE---------------------
I, dedicate this work first to the Glory of God, to my darling and loving parents. Mr. and Mrs. Daniel Okoye for their care and support towards me. May God continue to keep them alive to reap the fruit of their labour.
My special thanks go to the Almighty God for His mercy and kindness towards me, may all the Glory, adoration be escribed unto his holy name. I am deeply grateful to everyone who has helped me in one way or the other to put this work together, more especially my loving and darling parents Mr. and Mrs. Daniel Okoye, who stood solidly behind me in the course of writing this project, I also give a lot of thanks to my worthy and loving siblings, Notably: Miss Chinwendu Okoye, Mr. Daniel Emeka Okoye for his financial support and care towards my career, I say may God reward him, Mr. Okoye Tochukwu, Mr. Okoye Solomon for his words of advice and encouragement always given to me, Mr. Okoye Chinonso also for his care, for they are wonderful siblings and I say more greece to their elbow.
Also, I am especially grateful to my dear lecturers – first and foremost – my project supervisor – Obasi Ferdinand who helped me to make sure I put this work together, may God bless him, Obi Tina – my academic adviser and a mother–indeed, Damian Agboeze my head of department, that is like a father to me, Ugwuanyi Felix, Edeh Jude, Eluwa Virginia Benson, Emeka Anyalebechi and Ukaegbu Francis, Nwonu Clifford for all their supports towards my education and stay in school. I say, may the Almighty God reward them bountifully.
Again, worthy of immense gratitude to my dear friends, classmates and well wishers who have been there for me notably Ekene, Ebuka, Ikenna, Attah Celestine, Francis, Aunty Joy, Mrs. Uzoh, Sopuluchi, Ifeoma, Chioma, Lilian Chike, Ijeoma, Helen, Mr. Fredrick, Chinedu, Sunday, Precious, Esther, ND, Calista, Mr. Obasi ,whose encouragements and kindness inspired me to complete this work. God bless you all.
Finally, I shall not forget my dear typist that made sure that this work is perfectly done. May the Almighty and Good God bless you all.
Thank you all.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Approval page ii
Table of contents vii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study 1
1.2 Statement of the study 4
1.3 Objectives of the study 6
1.4 Significance of the study 8
1.5 Research questions 9
1.6 Research hypotheses 10
1.7 Definitions of terms 11
1.8 Assumptions of the study 13
1.9 Limitation of the study 14
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Sources of literature 18
2.2 Review of the literature 18
2.3 Theoretical framework 31
2.4 Summary of the literature reviewed 32
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 The research design 37
3.2 Area of the study 37
3.3 Population of the study 38
3.4 Research sample and sampling techniques 38
3.5 Instrument used for data collection 40
3.6 Data collection 41
3.7 Data analysis 41
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
4.1 Data presentation and analysis 43
4.2 Hypothesis testing 50
4.3 Discussion of findings 54
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON FURTHER STUDIES.
5.1 Summary 60
5.2 Conclusion 61
5.3 Recommendations on further studies 62
In several quarters, there have been allegation making round, that state governments use their state Broadcast media as propaganda machinery. The focus is to investigate such allegation using Enugu State Broadcasting Service (ESBS) radio/TV as a case study. The study was based on critical theory by staurt Hall. The theory views the means by which the “haves of society gain the willing support of the “have nots” to maintain the status quo. The study uses empirical method observing the five chapters structural arrangement, with each chapter assigned a specific role to play for the overall success of producing a reliable result. The researcher consulted relevant literature to raise secondary data while survey method was used to generate primary data for analysis. The data generated using questionnaire techniques were tested using chi-share goodness of fit test formular. Data were presented in tables and extensively discussed to enable the researcher draw his conclusion and make some recommendations. The researcher though did not find Enugu state government using it’s broadcast outfits as propaganda machinery, but strongly recommends that the management of the broadcast stations should overhaul it’s programmes in order to drop those perceived by the media audiences as sycophantic, wherein presenters use them to sing praises for the state government unnecessarily.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Broadcasting, according to Robert White (1999:485) was introduced as a form of military communication in the 1920’s, the apogee of nationalism and government propaganda. Dominick (1990:175) one of the striking facts about broadcasting is that it was invented by young people for example, Marconi who developed wireless transmitter was only twenty-three when he did that and Reginald Fessenden made his first radiophone broadcast when he was thirty-four. But, can the adult misuse or abuse broadcasting media because it was the brainchild of the young people? So it could be misused by the powers that be. Quoting Aiyetan (2002) Galadima (2003:260) “public office holders believe they can do anything and get away with it as long as they can control media, or get a good journalist to do the dirty job of lying with facts”.
Odumegwu Ojukwu, also observed thus:
When a public office holder does something outlandish,the media sing his praises instead of condemning him than concentrating on more important national or state issues. (cited by Gdadima, 2003: 261)
In a vehement support of Ojukwu’s Observation, Ternakur (2003:236) Citing Nwankwo (1987), describes the Nigerian mass media as “government said” media is not out of place. Government reflects the will and interests of the class that controls the existing mode of production, power bloc and political machinery in their media outfits.
Neither the government nor their media workers ever agree that they misuse the media. Every journalist disassociates himself or herself from the term “propaganda”. But Casey (1960:232) “the problem every media of communication faces is separating news from propaganda”. Under a free system, one can distinguish between journalist and a propagandist. Both are interested informers. But, journalists seek news and serve the producers of news and not the consumers of news. In the Nigerian government - owned media, journalists are propagandists. They use all known propaganda devices to achieve the aim of their pay-masters.
According to Junhao Hong, (1997:223), “Chinese government uses broadcast media to conduct propaganda campaigns”. The question is, is propaganda bad? In answer to this question, Ebeze (2003: 219) “Propaganda is not composed of lies and tell stories. It operates with many different kinds of truth, half-truths, limited-truths and truth out of context.”
The author quoted Braque (1999) “modern propaganda introduces new dimensions which tend towards education and enlightenment.
Broadcasting media started in Nigeria in the 1930s. Ebo (1994:43) by 1936, radio made its debut when the first Radio Distribution Service through rediffusion sets became operational in Lagos, Nigeria. But, what is today known as Enugu State Broadcasting Service (ESBS) was first opened on October 1, 1960 when it was called Eastern Nigeria Broadcasting Corporation (ENBC). Having operated for forty-eight years now, it will be proper for a study of this nature in order to ascertain from an independent source whether government has used it as propaganda machinery or other wise.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
All over the world, especially third world countries with less degree of free press, government has manipulated the masses using broadcasting media. Broadcasting is volatile and its potentials are unending satisfaction, as in print media. It has great potentials in information dissemination, education enlightenment, political socialization, and socio-cultural orientation. Most people form their opinions based on what they learned from the mass media. Regrettably, observed schramm (1971), quoted by Ebeze (200:221)
Forming an opinion becomes more difficult when a person does not have access to adequate information ……… this information will help individual to form an opinion.
When the masses are disinformed, or uninformed due to excessive censorship or punitive control measures of state owned media by the government, the public might react and take law into their hands. For instance, between 2000 and 2002, there were instances when aggrieved media audiences in Anambra, Imo and Abia states resorted to jungle justice by invading and attacking Anambra Broadcasting Service (ABS) Awka, Imo Broadcasting Corporation (IBC) Oweri, and Broadcasting Corporation of Abia (BCA) Umuahia. The attacks on the broadcasting media stations were as a result of unprofessional reportage of election news. The three mentioned broadcast stations are not alone in unprofessional broadcasting.
Since ESBS is one of the state governments – owned broadcasting media stations, it could be involved in state government propaganda machinery, like others. Therefore, the problem of this study is what the use of state broadcast media as propaganda by state government can cause to opinion formation, information need, education and political socialization of those who expose themselves to state broadcast media. The tendency of disinformation and propaganda, the type defined by Lasswell (1937) “Propaganda are techniques of influencing human actions by the manipulation of representation” are prone to exist in a society where government misuses the media.
Moguluwa (2004:159). Government must avoid any form of deceit and misleading information. But, government often prefers negative propaganda while seeking support from the masses to good public relations practice.
Propaganda machinery in information dissemination has a lot of negative consequences on the media audience especially if it comes from state government via its media, so a study of this type can not be ignored at this time
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
Sycophancy flattery and praise singing have been promoted to higher disturbing levels, more especially in political broadcasting ……. State owned broadcast media stations have perfected the crude and irritating art of praise singing for governors and their officials (Umechukwu, 2000:13).
Infact, a sycophant journalist is a source of irritation to media audiences who often see them through the falseness of the media content packaged by the unethical singer. Sycophancy, in every ramification, kills the spirit of investigative journalism, especially among young reporters, who meet praise-singing and see it as the mainstream in journalism practice.
Based on this seemingly observation, the objectives of this study includes.
1. To determine whether ESBS is involved in sycophantic formalism.
2. To find out whether its audiences have ever risen to attack its premises and stations for unethical reporting.
3. To determine the level of government censorship of the broadcast media outputs.
4. To find out how friendly is the station to state ruling political party’s opposition groups.
5. To determine the pattern of recruitment of journalists into the organization.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The benefits of this study are numerous. The Use of state Broadcast media as Propaganda Machinery by State Governments, demands serious empirical investigation because of it’s significance. For example.
a. The study result will confirm whether state governments use state broadcast media as propaganda machinery
b. The study will expose the level of state government involvement in the management, and staff recruitment in the stations.
c. The study will expose the level of sycophantic practise in the state broadcast media.
d. The result of the study will serve as reference materials for further studies in management, government and mass communication
e. Both state government and management of ESBS will find the study useful in many aspects
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
A number of questions have been raised and answers to such questions definitely shall provide solution to the problem of state government misuse of state broadcast media organizations. The belief of this researcher is that the following research questions will provide focus and direct his attention to major issues in the identified problem, and the questions are.
A. Do the respondents observe ESBS as practicing sycophantic broadcasting?
B. Whether the respondents can remember any time ESBS audience rose against its unprofessional reportage of state matters?
C. Are the respondents aware that state government do censor their broadcast media news items?
D. Can the respondents recall any time state broadcast media ever showed equal and balanced coverage and reportage of opposition groups activities with state government own activities?
E. Do the respondents know the method and pattern of staff recruitment in ESBS organization?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
Ho: Respondents do not observe that ESBS practice sycophantic broadcasting.
H1: Respondents do observe that ESBS practice sycophantic broadcasting.
Ho: Respondents cannot remember when the aggrieved ESBS audience rose against it’s unethical broadcasting.
H2: Respondents can remember when the aggrieved ESBS audience rose against it’s unethical broadcasting.
Ho: Respondents are not aware that state government do censor their broadcast media news items.
H3: Respondents are aware that state government do censor their broadcast media news items.
Ho: Respondents cannot recall when ESBS was balancing event coverage between the state government and its opposition groups.
H4: The respondent can recall when ESBS was balancing event coverage between the state government and its opposition groups
Ho: Respondents do not know very well how media workers are recruited in ESBS organization.
H5: Respondents know very well how media workers are recruited in ESBS organizations.
1.7 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
In order to avoid the readers misinterpretation of certain words or terms contained in the title of this work, the researcher defined the terms conceptionally and operationally. Such words and terms are:
1. State broadcast media
3. State government
A. CONCEPTUAL DEFINITIONS
i. State Broadcast Media: They are very potent mass media which combine audio, vision and motion in transmission of news and programmes.
ii. Propaganda: This is an expression of opinion or action by individuals or groups deliberately designed to influence opinions or actions of other individuals or groups with references to predetermined ends
iii. State Government: A type of government, according to the Nigerian constitution, described as the second. tier of government.
B OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS.
i. State Broadcast Media: broadcast media of the Enugu state of Nigeria which comprises Enugu state broadcasting service [radio station and television station] ie ESBS Fm radio and ESBS UHF television.
ii. Propaganda: It is any process in which the government of Enugu state, military or civilian, uses to manipulate information and news via its broadcast media to the audiences.
iii. State Government: This is the government of Enugu state of Nigeria, with its capital in Enugu.
1.8 ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STUDY
The researcher’s interest in carrying out this study at this time is informed of the fact of mounting criticisms against state governments misuse of state government broadcast media. Infact between 2000 and 2005 across South East Geo- Political Zone the state broadcast media audiences had cried foul of unprofessional broadcasting. In Abia, Anambra and Imo aggrieved media audiences rose against unethical political broadcasting and attacked both the media workers and stations’ property in several occasions. Also at Ebonyi, it was observed that state broadcast media was on extension of the state governor’s wife kitchen. It was alleged that the governor’s wife could sit down in her kitchen and give order for any presenter to be punished for saying what she did not like.
Therefore, this researcher assumes that:
That ESBS, being a state broadcast media outfit cannot be exempted from state government manipulation.
That the station must be involved in sycophantic broadcasting in order to please state government.
Staff recruitment in the station may has strong political undertone or biases.
1.9 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Uzoagulu (1998:167) limitations of the study refers to shortcomings, difficulties and problems found in the design and the execution of the research project which in the views of researcher could affect the fidelity and generability of the findings. In this study which is a part of class work, there are some obvious limitations which include:
Limited time frame for indepth investigation
Lack of fund to sample many respondents in the three geo-political zones of Enugu North, Enugu East and Enugu West.
Problem of accesing information as some of the ESBS staff refused to open-up and give responses to some probing questions.
Lack of co-operation by the members of public as some prospective respondents refused to accept the researcher’s questionnaire copies for undisclosed reasons.
Anikpo, Mark (1990) Foundation of Social Sciences Research: a Methodological Guide for Studies. Enugu: Abic Publishers.
Casey, Ralph D. (1960) “The Press, Propaganda and Groups” in Willbur Schram (Ed) Mass. Communications. London. University of Illionis Press.
Ebo, Stella Joan (1994) Broadcasting Production and Management . Enugu; Chukstar Press.
Moguluwa, Shed Chinwuba, (2004) “Towards Effective Combination and Utilization of Public Relations, Propaganda and Publicity an Conflict and Crisis Management”, in Ikechukwu E. Nwosu and Des Wilson (eds) Communication, Media End Conflict Management in Nigeria. Enugu: Prime Target L.T.D.
Ternakur, Jude (2003) “Mass Media and Political Violence in Nigeria”, in Ikechukwu E. Nwosu (ed) POLIMEDIA:Media and Politics in Nigeria. Enugu: Prime Targes L.T.D.
Uzoagulu,Aloysius E. (1998) Practical Guide Writing Research Project Reports in Tertiary Institutions. Enugu. John Jacob Classic Publishers L.T.D
2.1 SOURCES OF LITERATURE
Literature for this study was sourced from books and materials, including reports of earlier studies done in this area. Books on research methodology, political sciences, mass communication, government and humanities were consulted and reviewed.
2.2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.2 A BRIEF HISTORY OF ENUGU STATE BROAD CASTING SERVICE, (ESBS).
What is today known as Enugu State Broadcasting Service, (ESBS) was first opened on October 1, 1960, when it was called Eastern Nigeria Broadcasting corporation, (ENBC) and located in the African Cooperative Bank, (ACB) Building at No 1 Ogui Road, Enugu. Since that time till now, the broadcasting station has undergone “a great deal of metamorphosis” (ESBS publication, 1992:10). Such changes witness various chief executives serving under numerous state rulerships in form of state military administrators and civilian governors. Between 1967 till date, the geographical location referred to Enugu state, with capital in Enugu has been governed by eighteen different rulers; two, under the name East Central state; seven under Anambra state and nine under Enugu state. Also, sixteen different Chief executives have headed ENBC/ABS/ESBS: eight under civilian administrations and eight under military regimes (ESBS, planning, research and statistics unit, 2008).
2.2. B THE ORGANIGRAM OF ESBS SHOWS THUS:
(Source: Planning, Research & statistics Unit, ESBS).
2.2.C CHANNELS / FREQUENCIES:
The station has channels and frequencies, such as: Enugu Television (ETV), channel 50 UHF, ESBS Radio, Am, 585KHZ in the medium Wave Band and ESBS Radio, Fm, 96.1 MHZ in the frequency modulated Band. The stations Fm band is otherwise known as “Sunrise station” or “star station”.
At the embryonic stage the radio system consisted of a single continuity studio with one medium wave and one short wave transmitter, located at the Hill Top in Ngwo. The ENBC Television on inception had a double camera studio and control room, one Television room and one slide projector, with a 100 watts gates transmitter that could only cover Enugu capital territory. But with the installation of 6 kilowatt RCA TV transmitter on Okpatu Hills along Enugu/Nsukka Road, and on Ogbo Hill Aba, (in the present Abia state) the television could cover the whole of the Eastern region. Before the Nigerian /Biafra civil war, 2 No. 250Kw continental Electronics medium wave transmitters were acquired to be installed at the Nineth-mile corner and that facilitated brighter and clearer TV broadcasting and louder and greater outreach for the radio station. But before the installation could be completed, the civil war broke out. Though before, the war, ENSC had relocated from Ogui Road to its present premises at independent layout, Enugu.
It is important to remark that after the civil war, the station was splitted into two with the creation of Imo State out of East central state in 1976. That exercise resulted to the establishment of Imo Broadcasting Service, using the transmitter installed at Ogbor Hill Aba, and ESBS had to change it’s name to Anambra broadcasting corporation (ABC). The ABC maintained two stations, ABC I (with transmitting mask at the 9th Mile corner) and ABC. II (at Hill Top Ngwo).
In 1980, ABC II opened it’s Onitsha commercial station and in 1981, the ultra-modern ABC TV channel-50 building was opened and commissioned. “Both studios –ESBS TV and ESBS radio have never compromised excellence in it’s determination to serve the people”.