Office: Parran 230 Phone: (412) 624-3124



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BCHS 2572: Risk Communication (2 credits)

Graduate School of Public Health

Fall 2006

Tuesday, 5:00-6:55 PM

Instructor: Sandra Quinn, Ph.D.


Office: Parran 230

Phone: (412) 624-3124


Email: squinn@pitt.edu

Office hours: Tuesday, 3:30-4:30 PM


Classroom: Crabtree A216

Course website: http://courseweb.pitt.edu.

TA: Keisha Tyler

TA’s contact: ket16@pitt.edu



Catalogue Description

This course focuses on risk communication within the context of terrorism, infectious disease outbreaks and natural disasters. The didactic and experiential course will include core principles of risk communication, examine special challenges of risk communication with diverse audiences, and prepare students to create a crisis and emergency risk communication plan.


Objectives

By the end of this course, each student will be able to:



  • Articulate and apply the basic principles of crisis and emergency risk communication;

  • Analyze and address different responses to risk by diverse publics and communities;

  • Determine effective means to increase community and citizen engagement in health emergencies; and

  • Develop an immediate response communication plan that addresses either a terrorist event or a natural disaster.



Teaching Philosophy


In the classroom, we will explore and apply concepts that inform risk communication in a diverse society. While I intend to work diligently to provide you with the resources and foundation for your experience, your active participation in the classroom is essential to learning for us all. I see the class as a partnership between teacher and students in which we each bring experience and perspectives that can enrich our interaction. I encourage each of you to create an atmosphere in which all students can speak freely. With an atmosphere of respect and trust, I believe we can flourish as a learning community.

Effective teaching of any class requires an ongoing assessment of the class activities, readings, and assignments. There is a formal course evaluation conducted by the departmental registrar at the end of the semester. However, I believe feedback from students while the class experience is fresh is valuable for my planning. Therefore, please feel free to provide comments on the class activities, readings, or classroom atmosphere via an appointment or email message. Please consider these questions in your comments: What did you like about the class; what would you change; what did you learn and what concerns/issues do you have. Please remember it is equally helpful to hear positive reactions as well as constructive criticism.


Ground Rules for Class: Please turn off your cell phone.

Faculty Availability


I will maintain office hours for those students who have questions, comments or concerns. If it is not possible for you to see me during office hours, please e-mail Caitlin McCullough (cmccullough@gsphdean.gsph.pitt.edu) to set up an appointment. E-mail is an excellent way to reach me as I check my E-mail several times a day. Because I get so many messages, please indicate what your message is about in the subject line.

Academic Integrity


The Provost Office maintains a website that provides details on the Code for Academic Integrity; please see http://www.pitt.edu/~provost/ai1.html. This code includes obligations for faculty and students, procedures for violations and other critical information. Please take time to read the code.

Disability


If you have a disability for which you are or may be requesting an accommodation, please contact me as soon as possible. Additionally, you should contact the Office of Disability Resources and Services, 216 Pitt Union, (412) 648-7890 or (412) 383-7355 (TTY) as early as possible in the semester. DRS will verify your disability and assist with determining reasonable accommodations for this course.
Course website

All readings and course material will be found on the Blackboard site for this class. The website for Blackboard is http://courseweb.pitt.edu. To login, you must have a Pitt account. Your login ID is the same as your login ID for your Pitt account and your password is the same as for your Pitt account. To access the site for this class, double click on the course title, BCHS 2572-Risk Communication. The site will contain all readings, power point presentations, assignments, and additional information. The power point presentations and required readings for each class will be found under the course documents main menu option. It will be imperative to print out power point presentations and readings before class, as copies will not be available in class.


Class requirements

Attendance and Participation: (10 points; 10%)

Attendance and active participation is expected. I also expect that you will have read all the assigned readings prior to class. Occasionally, I will ask you to complete a brief worksheet in class that will help to illustrate a lecture or contribute to preparation of your communication plan. These will not be given a letter grade.


Short Paper: Evaluating a case study (30 points; 30%)

The purpose of this 6-8 page paper is to have you examine a case study to identify key messages, audiences and stakeholders, communication channels, underlying theory, and other pertinent factors (outrage, trust issues, credibility, etc). To examine the study, you should consider media coverage, agency press releases and public information materials, websites, etc. Cases may include the smallpox vaccination effort, SARs, avian influenza, a natural disaster, or others. See handout for more details. Due: October 31


Completion of Emergency and Crisis Risk Communication Plan (60 points; 60%)

Each student will receive an Emergency Risk Communication CDCynergy CD-ROM. You will use many of the materials from that CD-ROM to complete a communications plan. Please see a separate handout for details on this assignment. Actual Paper Due: December 12



Grade scale

A 90-100


B 89-80

C 79-70


D 69-60

F 59 and below


Readings

This class will use required readings assigned for specific weeks. Some are in the book listed below; others will be available online through our course website under course documents or on the CDCynergy CD-ROM. Under course documents, you will find the semester broken into weeks, and the readings for that week are attached.

For many of the online documents, access is free and quite easy even from remote sites off campus. To access the Health Sciences Library system, go to http://www.hsls.pitt.edu. Double click on either PubMed or Ovid. If you are accessing the site from a remote site (outside of Pitt), your login will be the same as Pitt account login and your password will be the same as your Pitt account password.

There are a few readings that are accessible by electronic reserves. You must go to http://www.library.pitt.edu/books/pittcat.html, and go to course reserves. The readings will be under BCHS 2572.


Book and other resources: The book and CD-rom are available as a package and will be ordered as a group.


Week 1: August 29 Course Overview: Risk Communication in Emergency Situations


By the end of this class, each student will be able to:

  • Articulate a basic understanding of crisis and emergency risk communication as a public health tool in the context of terrorism and natural disasters.



Class Activities:

  • Introductions

  • Brief lecture and discussion

  • Course expectations and organization including introduction to courseweb

  • Review of the syllabus and ground rules; news items


Week 2: Sept 5 Risk Communication in the Age of Terrorism, Natural Disasters and Emerging Infectious Diseases

By the end of this class, each student will be able to:



  • Identify the role of risk communication in preparedness activities;

  • Determine how terrorism affects risk communication efforts; and

  • Articulate the challenges for risk communication in the context of preparedness.



Class Activities:

  • Lecture

  • Introduction of the anthrax attack study

  • Discussion


Required readings:

  • Reynolds, B. & Seeger, M. (2005). Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication as an Integrative Model. Journal of Health Communication, 10, 43-55. Available online at: http://taylorandfrancis.metapress.com/media/3n259brwvm2yqj32wmf0/contributions/q/j/c/5/qjc5wky16jxpdueb.pdf.

  • Sandman, P. (2003). Obvious or suspected, here or elsewhere, now or then: paradigms of

emergency events. Emergency Risk Communication CDCynergy. Available online at: http://www.psandman.com/articles/obvious.pdf

  • Glass, T., & Schoch-Spana, M. (2002). Bioterrorism and the people: How to vaccinate a city against panic. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 34, 217-222. Available online at: http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/CID/journal/issues/v34n2/011333/011333.html.

  • Glass, T. (2001). Understanding Public Response to Disasters. Public Health Reports, 116 (supplement 2), 69-73. Available online at: http://staff.ttu.ee/~vsiirak/bioterr.pdf.

  • Mileti, D., Nathe, S., Gori, P., Greene, M. & Lemersal, E. (2004). Public Hazards Communication and Education: The State of the Art. Update of Informer Issue 2: Public Education for Earthquake Hazards. Available online at: http://www.colorado.edu/hazards/informer/informerupdate.pdf

  • Journal of Health Communication (2003). Anthrax Case Timeline. Journal of Health Communication, 8 (supplement 1), 1-2.

  • Quinn, S., Thomas, T. & McAllister, C. (2005). Postal Workers’ Perspectives on Communication during the 2001 Anthrax Attack. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice and Science, 3 (3), 207-215. Available online at: http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10.1089/bsp.2005.3.207.



Optional readings:

  • Sandman, P. (2003). Four Kinds of Risk Communication. Available online at: http://www.psandman.com/col/4kind-1.htm

  • Sandman, P. (2004). Crisis Communication: A Quick Introduction. Available online at: http://www.psandman.com/col/crisis.htm

  • World Health Organization (2005). WHO Outbreak Communication Guidelines. Available online at: http://www.who.int/infectious-disease-news/IDdocs/whocds200528/whocds200528en.pdf

  • Sandman P. & Lanard J. (2005) Bird Flu: Communicating the Risk. Perspectives in Health, 10(2), 2-8.

  • World Health Organization. (2004). Sixth Futures Forum on Crisis Communication.

  • Freedman, L. (2005). The Politics of Warning: Terrorism and Risk Communication. Intelligence and National Security, 20 (3), 379-418.

  • Fischhoff, B. (2002). Assessing and communicating the risks of terrorism. In Teich, A., Nelson, S. & Leta, S. (Eds). Science and Technology in a Vulnerable World. Supplement to AAAS Science and Technology Policy Yearbook 2003. Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 51-64.

  • Fischoff, B. (2006). The Psychological Perception of Risk. In Kamlen, D. (Ed). The McGraw-Hill Homeland Security Handbook. New York: McGraw Hill, p. 463-492. Retrieved online at: http://www.hss.cmu.edu/departments/sds/faculty/Fischhoff/pdf%20files/PsyPerRiskHomelandSecurity.pdf.



Week 3: Sept. 12 Introduction to Emergency Risk Communication CDCynergy and Planning for Risk Communication

By the end of this class, each student will be able to:

  • Utilize the CDCynergy CD-rom;

  • Assess an event and determine level of communication response necessary; and

  • Identify the components of a complete communications plan.


Class activities:



  • Demonstration of CDCynergy and mini-lecture on communication plans

  • Scavenger hunt to find certain items on CDCynergy


Required readings:

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2002). Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication. Module 1: Introduction.

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2002). Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication. Module 4: Crisis Communication Plan.

  • HHS Pandemic Influenza Plan Supplement 10 Public Health Communications. S10-1-21 Available online at: http://www.hhs.gov/pandemicflu/plan/sup10.html


Optional reading:

  • McIntryre, J. & Venette, S. (2006). Examining the CDCynergy Event Assessment Tool: an investigation of the anthrax crisis in Boca Raton, Florida. Disasters, 30 (3), 351-363.



Week 4: Sept. 19 Theories to Inform Risk Communication
By the end of this class, each student will be able to:

  • Describe the theories that underlie risk communication; and

  • Examine the applicability of these theories in the context of a terrorist event or natural disaster.


Class Activities:

  • Lecture

  • Small group exercise and discussion


Required readings:

  • McComas, K. (2006) Defining Moments in Risk Communication Research: 1996-2005. Journal of Health Communication, 11, 75-91.

  • Wray, R., Kreuter, M., Jacobsen, H., Clements, B. & Evans, R. (2004). Theoritical Perspectives for Public Communication Preparedness for Terrorist Attacks. Family and Community Health, 27(3), 232-241. Available online at: http://gateway.ut.ovid.com/gw1/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&PAGE=fulltext&D=ovft&AN=00003727-200407000-00010&NEWS=N&CSC=Y&CHANNEL=PubMed.

  • Fischhoff, B., Bostrum, A. & Quadrel, M. (1993). Risk Perception and Communication. Annual Review of Public Health, 14, 183-203.

  • Covello, V., Peters, R., Wojtecki, J., and Hyde, R. (2001). "Risk Communication, the West Nile Virus Epidemic, and Bio-terrorism: Responding to the Communication Challenges Posed by the Intentional or Unintentional Release of a Pathogen in an Urban Setting." Journal of Urban Health. Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 78(2): 382-391. Available online at: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/oup/jurban/2001/00000078/00000002/art00382?token=005b1f2a96124871ffe3c054e26634a492f2530332976335a666f3a7b2f534044767c6b66473e6b6c42cf902d05.

  • Kasperson, R., Renn, O., Slovic, P., Brown, H., Emel, J., Goble, R., Kasperson, J. & Ratick, S. (1988). The Social Amplification of Risk: A conceptual framework. Risk Analysis, 8 (2), 177-187.

  • Slovic, P. (1987). Perception of Risk. Science, 236, 280-286.

  • Keller C., Siegrist M., Gutscher H. (2006) The Role of the Affect and Availability Heuristics in Risk Communication. Risk Analysis, 24(3), 631-639.


Optional Readings

  • Masuda JR., Garvin T. (2006). Place, Culture, and the Social Amplification of Risk. Risk Analysis, 26(2), 427-454.

  • Scherer , C. & Cho H. A social network contagion theory of risk perception. Risk Analysis. 2002; 23(2):261-267. Available online at: http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/1539-6924.00306.



Week 5: Sept. 26 Trust, Credibility and Participation in Risk Communication
By the end of this class, each student will be able to:

  • Apply current knowledge about participation to risk communication efforts;

  • Describe the role of credibility and trust in risk communication;

  • Identify 2 ways in which to build and lose trust in risk communication.



Class Activities:

  • Lecture and Discussion

  • Exercise or video


Required readings:

  • Mullin, S. (2003). The Anthrax Attacks in New York City: The “Giuliani Press Conference Model” and Other Communication Strategies that Helped. Journal of Health Communication, 8, 15-16. Available online at: http://taylorandfrancis.metapress.com/(chz43w55mte0nmieo3u3az2d)/app/home/contribution.asp?referrer=parent&backto=searcharticlesresults,1,1;journal,1,1;linkingpublicationresults,1:100673,1.

  • The Working Group on “Governance Dilemmas” in Bioterrorism Response. (2004). Leading during Bioattacks and Epidemics with the Public’s Trust and Help. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice and Science, 2 (1), 25-40. Available online at: http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1089/153871304322964318.

  • Deurenberg-Yap, M., Foo, L., Low, Y. Chan, S., Vijaya, K. & Lee, M. (2005). The Singaporean Response to the SARS Outbreak: Knowledge Sufficiency versus Public Trust. Health Promotion International, 20 (4), 320-326.

  • Cronin, S., Gaylord, D., Charley, D., Alloway, B., Wallez, S. & Esau, J. (2004). Participatory Methods of Incorporating Scientific with Traditional Knowledge for Volcanic Hazard Management on Ambae Island, Vanuatu. Bulletin of Volcanology, 66, 652-668.

  • Department of Health and Human Services. Citizen Voices on Pandemic Flu Choices: A Report of the Public Engagement Pilot Project on Pandemic Influenza (2005). Executive Summary


Optional readings:

  • Peters, R., Covello, V, & McCallum, D. (1997). The Determinants of Trust and Credibility in Environmental Risk Communication. Risk Analysis, 17(1): 43-54.

  • McComas, K. (2003). Citizen Satisfaction with Public Meetings Used for Risk Communication. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 31 (2), 164-184.

  • Chess, C. (2000). Improving public participation in solving environmental health problems. Journal of Environmental Health, 63(1), 24-28.

  • Trumbo, C. & McComas, K. (2002). The function of credibility in information processing for risk perception. Risk Analysis, 23(2), 343-353.

  • Kasperson, R. (1986). Six Propositions on Public Participation and their Relevance for Risk Communication. Risk Analysis, 6 (3), 275-281.

  • Slovic P. (1999). Trust, emotion, sex, politics and science: Surveying the risk-assessment battlefield. Risk Analysis, 19(4): 689-701. Available online at: http://www.springerlink.com/content/h67842730l95/?sortorder=asc&p_o=10.



Week 6: Oct. 3 Psychology of a Crisis & Emotions, Risk Perception and Risk Communication

By the end of this class, each student will be able to:



  • Describe the psychology of a crisis;

  • Articulate the role that emotion plays in risk perception and communication;

  • Understand current research on the impact of emotions related to terrorism;

  • Contemplate implications of emotions in crisis situations for risk communication


Class Activities:

  • Lecture

  • Discussion


Required readings and other resources:

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2002). Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication. Module 2: Psychology of a Crisis.

  • Lating, J. (2005). The Psychological Contagion Effect. Everly, G. & Parker, C. (Eds). Mental Health Aspects of Disaster: Public Health Preparedness and Response. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Center for Public Health Preparedness.

  • Sandman, P. (2002). Beyond Panic Prevention: Addressing emotion in emergency communication. Emergency Risk Communication CDCynergy [On-line]. Available online at: http://www.psandman.com/articles/beyond.pdf

  • Sandman, P. (2004). Coping with the Emotional Side of the Crisis: Part 1. Available online at: http://www.psandman.com/handouts/AIHA/page3.pdf

  • Sandman, P. (2004) Crisis Communication: Panic, Panic and Fear of Fear. Available online at: http://www.psandman.com/handouts/AIHA/page24.pdf


Optional readings:

  • Lerner, J. & Keltner, D. (2001). Fear, Anger, and Risk. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 165-176. Available online at: http://computing.hss.cmu.edu/lernerlab/pdfs/Lerner_and_Keltner_2001_JPSP_Paper.pdf

  • Fischhoff, B., Gonzalez, R. M., Lerner, J. S., & Small, D. A. (2005). Evolving judgments of terror risks: Foresight, hindsight, and emotion. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 11, 124-139. Available online at: http://gateway.ut.ovid.com/gw1/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&PAGE=fulltext&D=ovft&AN=00042740-200506000-00005&NEWS=N&CSC=Y&CHANNEL=PubMed.

  • Lerner, J., Gonzalez, R., Small, D., & Fischhoff, B. (2003). Effects of fear and anger on perceived risks of terrorism: a national field experiment. Psychological Science, 14(2), 144-150. Available online at: http://computing.hss.cmu.edu/lernerlab/pdfs/Lerner_2003_PS_Paper.pdf.

  • Perry, R. & Lindell, M. (2003). Understanding Citizen Response to Disasters with Implications for Terrorism. Journal of Contigencies and Crisis Management, 11 (2), 49-60



Week 7: Oct. 10 Case Studies in Risk Communication: Lessons Learned for Best Practices

By the end of this class, each student will be able to:



  • Articulate lessons from prior risk communication efforts for terrorism and disasters today;

  • Identify the core principles of risk communication; and

  • Understand how those principles and rules can shape an effective response during a terrorist event or natural disaster.


Class Activities:

  • Informal presentations of case studies

  • Lecture & Discussion


Required readings:

  • Mullin, S. (2004). New York City’s Communications Trials by Fire from West Nile to SARS. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science.

  • Seeger, M. (2006). Best Practices in Crisis Communication: An Expert Panel Process. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 34 (3), 232-244.

  • Covello, V. (2003). Best Practices in Public Health Risk and Crisis Communication. Journal of Health Communication, 8, 5-8.

  • Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. A Primer on Health Risk communication Principles and Practices. Available online at http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/HEC/primer.html

  • National Research Council (1989). Chapter 1: Introduction. Improving Risk Communication. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. See access to this chapter through the books section of Courseweb.

  • Sorenson, J. (2004). Risk Communication and Terrorism. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science, 2 (3).


Potential readings to inform your discussion of a case example:

  • Sandman, P. & Lanard, J. (2003). Duct tape risk communication. Emergency Risk Communication CDCynergy [On-line]. Available online at http://www.psandman.com/col/ducttape.htm

  • Sandman, P. (2002). Smallpox Vaccination: Some Risk Communication Linchpins. Available online at http://www.psandman.com/col/smallpox.htm

  • Lanard, J. & Sandman, P. (2003). Practicing for the Big One: Pennsylvania’s Hepatitis A Outbreak and Risk Communication. Available at http://www.psandman.com/col/hepatitis.htm

  • Sandman, P. & Lanard, J. (2005). Pandemic Influenza Risk Communication: The Teachable Moment. Available at http://www.psandman.com/col/pandemic.htm

  • Lanard, J. & Sandman, P. (2005). Superb Flu Pandemic Risk Communication:
    A Role Model from Australia. Available at http://www.psandman.com/col/abbott.htm

  • McCally, M., Garg, A., & Oleskey, C. (2001). The challenges of emerging illness in urban environments: An overview. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 78(2), 350-357. Available online at: http://www.springerlink.com/content/41h0557p81154356/fulltext.pdf.

  • Takeuchi, MT. (2006). Avian Influenza Risk Communication, Thailand. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(7),1172-1173. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol12no07/06-0277.htm

  • The Trust for Americans Health (2005) It’s not Flu as Usual: What Faith-based and Community Organizations Need to Know about Pandemic Flu. Available at http://healthyamericans.org/reports/flu/brochures/FluBrochureFaith.pdf.

  • Kovats, R. & Ebi, K. (2006). Heatwaves and Public Health in Europe. The European Journal of Public Health.

  • Sandman, P. (2003). Public Health Outrage and Smallpox Vaccination: An Afterthought. Available online at http://www.psandman.com/col/smallpx2.htm

  • Sandman, P. (2001). Anthrax, Bioterrorism, and Risk Communication: Guidelines for Action. Available online at http://www.psandman.com/col/part1.htm (includes parts 2 & 3)


Week 8: Oct. 17 Understanding Your Audience: Formative Research to Improve Messages [please note special time and location of this class at 3:30 at Forbes Allies Center]

By the end of this class, each student will be able to:



  • Explain the importance of formative research for crisis and emergency risk communication;

  • Describe how the results for critical research activities at CDC can inform crisis and emergency risk communication


Class activities:

  • Guest lecture by Betsy Mitchell, Emergency Communication System, CDC

  • Class discussion


Required readings and other resources:

  • Wray, R. & Kupka, J. (2004). What Does the Public Want to know in the event of a terrorist attack using plague? Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science, 2 (3).

  • Glik, D., Harrison, K., Davoudi, M. & Riopelle, D. (2004). Public Perceptions and Risk Communication for Botulism. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science, 2 (3).

  • Becker, S. (2004). Emergency Communication and Information Issues in Terrorist Events Involving Radioactive Materials. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science, 2 (3).

  • Henderson, J., Henderson, L., Raskob, G. & Boatright, D. (2004). Chemical (VX) Terrorist Threat: Public Knowledge, Attitudes and Responses. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science, 2 (3).

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2002). Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication. Module 3: Messages and Audiences.



Week 9: Oct. 24 Developing Message Maps
By the end of this class, each student will be able to:

  • Employ Covello’s message mapping process to develop risk communication messages;

  • Create appropriate risk comparisons; and

  • Develop a message map that utilizes components that have been found, in the literature, to be effective.


Class activities:

  • Development and presentation of message maps by teams

  • Discussion


Required readings and other resources:

  • Covello, V. Message Mapping from ERC CDCynergy.

  • National Research Council (1989). Chapter 2: Understanding Hazards and Risks. Improving Risk Communication. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. You can access this through the books section on Courseweb.

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2002). Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication. Module 8: Channels.

  • Sandman, P. (2004). How to do Risk Comparisons. Available at http://www.psandman.com/handouts/AIHA/page44.pdf

  • Sandman, P. (2004). Is this a Good Risk Comparison? Available at http://www.psandman.com/handouts/AIHA/page45.pdf




Optional readings

  • Covello, V., Sandman, P., & Slovic, P. (1988). Risk communication, Risk Statistics, and Risk Comparisons: A Manual for Plant Managers. Available online at www.psandman.com/articles/cma-2.htm




Week 10: Oct 31 Evaluation and Communication Plans
By the end of this class, each student will be able to:

  • Distinguish phases of an evaluation;

  • Articulate how evaluation can assist in CERC efforts;

  • Apply basic evaluation strategies to their communication plan.


Class Activities:

  • Lecture

  • Team exercise on writing objectives and drafting evaluation strategies



Required readings:

  • Fischoff, B., Gonzalez, R., Small, D., & Lerner, J. (2003). Evaluating the Success of Terror Risk Communications. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice and Science, 1 (4). Available online at http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1089/153871303771861450

  • CERC CDCynergy. Post-event phase. D:\Content\activeinformation\resources\WKSHEET_evaluation_planning.pdf



Optional Readings:

  • Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.
    Evaluation Primer on Health Risk Communication Programs
    Programs and Outcomes
    . Available online at http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/HEC/evalprmr.html




Week 11: Nov. 7 Risk Communication and Working with Media
By the end of this class, each student will be able to:

  • Articulate the role of the media during a terrorist crisis;

  • Understand the relationship between public health and the media.



Class Activities:

  • Guest lecture by Guillermo Cole, spokesperson for Allegheny County Health Department


Required Readings:

  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2002). Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication. Module 5: Spokesperson and Module 6: working with the media.

  • 77 Questions commonly asked by journalists during a crisis. Available online at http://archive.naccho.org/NACCHO-Annual2002/a-journalistQuestions.pdf



  • 33 Most frequently used bridging statements employed by communication professionals in media interviews. Available online at http://www.in.gov.isdhlbioterrorism/bridging_statements.htm

  • Questions for reporters: Available online at http://www.state.in.us/isdh/bioterrorism/questions_%20reporters.htm



Week 12: Nov. 14 Risk Communication and Working with Media

By the end of this class, each student will be able to:



  • Articulate the role of the media during a terrorist crisis;

  • Understand the relationship between public health and the media.



Class Activities:

  • Lecture and video

  • Exercise



Readings:

    • Quarantelli, E. (2002). The Role of the Mass Communication System in Natural and Technological Disasters and Possible Extrapolation to Terrorist Situations. Risk Management: An International Journal, 7-20.

    • Vasterman, P., Yzermans, C. & Dirkzwager, A. (2005). The Role of the Media and Media Hypes in the Aftermath of Disasters. Epidemiologic Reviews, 27, 107-114.



Optional Readings

  • Winett, L. & Lawrence, R. (2005). The Rest of the Story: Public Health, the News and the 2001 Anthrax Attacks. The Harvard Journal of Press/Politics. Available online at: http://hij.sagepub.com/content/vol10/issue3/

  • Radio-Television News Directors Association and Foundation. A Journalist's Guide To Covering Bioterrorism--Second Edition. Available online at: http://www.rtnda.org/resources/bioterror.shtml

  • Fred Friendly Seminars (2004). The News Media and Public Health. Available online at: http://www.fredfriendly.org/conf_report.pdf

  • Media Interactions with the Public in Emergency Situations: Four Case Studies. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. Available online at: http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/pdf-files/Media_interaction.pdf

  • Roche, J. (2002). Print Media Coverage of Risk-risk Tradeoffs Associated with West Nile Encephalitis and Pesticide Spraying. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 79 (4), 482-490. Available online at: http://www.springerlink.com/content/y323v73076w13345/fulltext.pdf.




Week 13: Nov. 21 Dilemmas and Ethical Issues
By the end of this class, each student will be able to:

  • Articulate common dilemmas and critical ethical issues in risk communication;

  • Examine those issues in the context of preparedness for terrorism, disasters and disease outbreaks;

  • Apply ethical guidelines from public health and bioethics.


Class Activities:

  • Discussion

  • Small group activity


Required readings:

  • Eisenman, D., Wold, C., Setodji, C., Hickey, S., Lee, B., Stein, B.& Long, A. (2004). Will Public Health’s Response to Terrorism be Fair:? Racial/Ethnic Variations in Perceived Fairness during a Bioterrorism Attack. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science, 2 (3).

  • Johnson, B.B. (1999). Ethical issues in risk communication: continuing the discussion. Risk Analysis, 19(3), 335-348.

  • Sandman, P. (2003). Dilemmas in emergency communication policy. Emergency Risk Communication CDCynergy. Available online at http://www.psandman.com/articles/dilemmas.pdf


Optional readings:

  • University of Toronto Joint Center for Bioethics Pandemic Influenza Working Group. (2005). Stand on Guard for Thee: Ethical considerations in preparedness planning for pandemic influenza. November 2005, 1-27.



Week 14: Nov 28 Disease, Disaster and Democracy: Engaging Citizens in Preparedness

By the end of this class, each student will be able to:

  • Articulate the rationale for citizen engagement in preparedness activities; and

  • Develop strategies that will engage citizens and communities.



Class Activities:

  • Guest lecture by Dr. Monica Schoch-Spana, UPMC Center for Biosecurity


Required readings:


Week 15: Dec 5 Student Presentations
By the end of this class, each student will be able to:

  • Present a communication plan; and

  • Critique the strengths and weaknesses of a risk communication plan.



Class Activities:

  • Student presentations



Week 16: Dec. 12 Student Presentations and course evaluation
By the end of this class, each student will be able to:

  • Present a communication plan; and

  • Critique the strengths and weaknesses of a risk communication plan; and

  • Evaluate the course.



Class Activities:

  • Student presentations

  • Course evaluation

Sept. 20, 2006



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