OCEAN CITY HIGH SCHOOL
Advanced Placement United States History I
Summer Assignment 2012
READ THIS FIRST!!!!!
In order to work on and complete the Advanced Placement United States History I summer assignment, you will need the photocopied textbook that is used for this course, as well as this packet. Instead of giving you the textbook over the summer, I have photocopied the first chapter. If you DID NOT get a photocopy packet of the course textbook and packet from your meeting with Mr. Clark before the end of the school year, you will have to stop by the Ocean City High School Guidance Office and ask for these packets. Please do not wait for the end of the summer to pick up your assigned packets!!
How to Contact Mr. Clark:
Mail: 501 Atlantic Ave.
Ocean City, NJ 08226
Phone: School- (609) 399-1290
CHAPTER 1 - The Meeting of Cultures
The discovery of American did not begin with Christopher Columbus. It began many thousands of years earlier when human beings first crossed an ancient land bridge over the Bering Strait and began to people a new continent. Year after year, a few at a time, these nomadic peoples entered the new continent and moved ever deeper into its heart.
** All of the following page numbers are in your American History: A Survey textbook packet (the photocopied pages from the textbook).
Copy all Significant Events from your textbook into your notebook.
Outline the following sections of Chapter 1 in your notebooks:
a- America Before Columbus
b- Europe Looks Westward
c- The Arrival of the English
Read Where Historians Disagree: Why do Historians so often Disagree?
Read America in the World: The Atlantic Context of Early American History
** All of the following documents are from The American Spirit Reader (these are reproduced in your assignment packet). You are to read each primary source document and answer the question that accompanies each document (usually found in the background paragraph before each primary source reading).
Juan Gines de Sepulveda Belittles the Indians: 1547
Bartolome de Las Casas Defends the Indians: 1552
Hernan Cortes Conquers Mexico: 1519-1526
You will write a formal, five-paragraph essay answering the essay topic. This essay should be researched, proofread, spell-checked, etc.
The essay should be typed (single-spaced, size 12 font), spell-checked and proofread before submitting.
The essay is due no later than midnight August 1, 2012.
The essay should be submitted to www.turnitin.com by this date; the website will “lock out” after midnight on August 1st and you will not be able to submit (so I suggest that you try and submit it early to make sure it works)
For www.turnitin.com, (1) Enroll in class 5113268 and then (2) use the password assign1.
Any essays that are late will be penalized for each day late… THERE ARE NO EXCUSES!!!!
When submitting your essay to www.turnitin.com, it is VERY important that you title your essay as APUSH1 Clark… this will be the only way that I will be able to tell that you have submitted an essay to me.
If you are having any problems with www.turnitin.com (you should try it BEFORE the August 1st deadline), you MUST contact me as soon as possible so that we can try and rectify the situation. At the very least you should e-mail me the essay by the deadline so that I have a record that you completed this assignment by the due date.
I will check both www.turnitin.com on August 2nd for any and all essays; Any late essays will be penalized for each day late
Choose ONE topic to answer for your essay and please indicate what topic you selected!
The so called, Indians arrived in the Americas over a 30,000 year period. Discuss some possible theories of their migration to America?
How might have the cultural attitudes of the Indians and Europeans lead to ethnocentric conflict?
Vine Deloria (a Native American) points out that the history of Native Americans was, for the most part, not written by them. Who wrote it? How do you think this fact might influence our judgment and understanding of Native Americans?
Francis Jennings says, “that America's discovery and exploration was really an unprovoked act of aggression (an invasion) that displaced and destroyed a resident people." Explain what he means by this statement?
What events were occurring in Europe between 1400 and 1600 that promoted exploration and discovery? Comment in each of the following areas: religion, political power, technology & commerce and trade.
If you have any questions or problems please contact Mr. Clark:
E-Mail: email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org
School: (609) 399-1290
American Spirit Reader Documents
Juan Gaines de Sepulveda Belittles the Indians (1547)
Juan Gines de Sepulveda was an outstanding example of the “Renaissance man”. A Spaniard who studied in the cradle of the Renaissance, Italy, he achieved fame as a theologian, philosopher, historian, and astronomer. When Emperor Charles V convened a debate in Valladolid, Spain, in 1550-1551 to determine the future of Spain’s relationship with the American aborigines, he naturally turned to Sepulveda as one of the most learned men in his realm. As a student of Aristotle, Sepulveda relied heavily on the classical distinction between “civilized” Greeks and “barbarians”. The selection that follows is not a transcript of the debate at Valladolid but an excerpt from Sepulveda’s book The Second Democrates, published in 1547, in which he set forth his basic arguments. What differences does Sepulveda emphasize between Europeans (especially Spaniards) and the Indians, and on what grounds does he assert the superiority of European culture?
The Spaniards have a perfect right to rule these barbarians of the New World and the adjacent islands, who in prudence, skill, virtues, and humanity are as inferior to the Spanish as children to adults, or women to men, for there exists between the two as great a difference as between savage and cruel races and the most merciful, between the most intemperate and the moderate and temperate and, I might even say, between apes and men.
You surely do not expect me to recall at length the prudence and talents of the Spanish…. And what can I say of the gentleness and humanity of our people, who, even in battle, after having gained the victory, put forth their greatest effort and care to save the greatest possible number of the conquered and to protect them from the cruelty of their allies?
Compare, then, these gifts of prudence, talent, magnanimity, temperance, humanity, and religion with those possessed by these half-men (homunculi), in whom you will barely find the vestiges of humanity, who not only possess any learning at all, but are not even literate or in possession of any monument to their history except for some obscure and vague reminiscences of several things put down in various paintings; nor do they have written laws, but barbarian institutions and customs. Well, then, if we are dealing with virtue, what temperance or mercy can you expect from men who are committed to all types of temperance and base frivolity, and eat human flesh? And do not believe that before the arrival of the Christians they lived in that pacific kingdom of Saturn which poets have invented; for, on the contrary, they waged continual and ferocious war upon one another with such fierceness that they did not consider a victory at all worthwhile unless they sated their monstrous hunter with all the flesh of their enemies…. Furthermore these Indians were otherwise so cowardly and timid that they could barely endure the presence of our soldiers, and many times thousands upon thousands of them scattered in flight like women before Spaniards so few that they did not even number one hundred…. Although some of them show certain ingenuity for various works of artisanship, this is no proof of human cleverness, for we can observe animals, birds, and spiders making certain structures which no human accomplishment can competently imitate. And as for the way of life of the inhabitants of New Spain and the province of Mexico, I have already said that these people are considered the most civilized of all, and they themselves take pride in their public institutions, because they have cities erected in a rational manner and kings who are not hereditary but elected by popular vote, and among themselves they carry on commercial activities in the manner of civilized peoples. But see how they deceive themselves, and how much I dissent from such an opinion, seeing, on the contrary, in these very institutions a proof of the crudity, the barbarity, and the natural slavery of these people; for having houses and some rational way of life and some sort of commerce is a thing which the necessities of nature itself induce, and only serves to prove that they are not bears or monkeys and are not totally lacking in reason. But on the other hand, they have established their nation in such a way that no one possesses anything individually, neither a house nor a field, which he can leave to his heirs in his will, for everything belongs to their masters whom, with proper nomenclature, they call kings, and by whose whims they live, more than by their own, ready to do the bidding and desire of these rulers and possessing no liberty. And the fulfillment of all this, not under the pressure of arms but in a voluntary and spontaneous way, is a definite sign of the servile and base soul of these barbarians. They have distributed the land in such a way that they themselves cultivate the royal and public holdings, one part belonging to the king, another to public feasts and sacrifices, with only a third reserved for their own advantage, and all this is done in such a way that they live as employees of the king, paying, thanks to him, exceedingly high taxes….And if this type of servile and barbarous nation had not been to their liking and nature, it would have been easy for them, as it was not a hereditary monarchy, to take advantage of the death of a king in order to obtain a freer state and one more favorable to their interests; by not doing so, they have stated quite clearly that they have been born to slavery and not domination, but to a servitude a little less harsh, it will not be difficult for them to change their masters, and instead of the ones they had, who were barbarous and impious and inhuman, to accept the Christians, cultivators of human virtues and the true faith….
Bartolome de Las Casas Defends the Indians (1552)
The Dominican friar Bartolome de Las Casas was Sepulveda’s great antagonist in the debates of 1550-1551 at Valladolid. As a young man, Las Casas sailed with one of the first Spanish expeditions to the West Indies in 1502. A humane, sensitive priest, he was soon repelled by his own countrymen’s treatment of the native peoples of the New World. He eventually became bishop of Guatemala and devoted himself to reforming Spanish colonial policies, for which he as recognized as the “Protector of the Indians.” His vivid and polemical account The Destruction of the Indies did much to spread the “Black Legend” of Spain’s brutal behavior in the New World- a legend not without substance, and eagerly exploited by the rival English. How are his views of the Indians different from those of Sepulveda? What ideas did the two debaters share?
Now if we shall have shown that among our Indians of the western and southern shores (granting that we call them barbarians and that they are barbarians) there are important kingdoms, large numbers of people who live settled lives in a society, great cities, kings, judges and laws, persons who engage in commerce, buying, selling, lending, and the other contracts of the law of nations, will it not stand proved that the Reverend Doctor Sepulveda has spoken wrongly and viciously against peoples like these, either out of malice or ignorance of Aristotle’s teaching, and, therefore, has falsely and perhaps irreparably slandered them before the entire world? From the fact that the Indians are barbarians it does not necessarily follow that they are incapable of government and have to be ruled by others, except to be taught about the Catholic faith and to be admitted to the holy sacraments. They are not ignorant, inhuman, or bestial. Rather, long before they had heard the word Spaniard they had properly organized states, wisely ordered by excellent laws, religion, and custom. They cultivated friendship and, bound together is common fellowship, lived in populous cities in which they wisely administered the affairs of both peace and war justly and equitably, truly governed by laws that at very many points surpass ours, and could have won the admiration of the sages of Athens….
Now if they are to be subjugated by war because they are ignorant of polished literature,… I would like to hear Sepulveda, in his cleverness, answer the question: Does he think that the war of the Romans against the Spanish was justified in order to free them from barbarians? And this question also: Did the Spanish wage an unjust war when they vigorously defended themselves against them?
Next, I call the Spaniards who plunder that unhappy people torturers. Do you think that the Romans, once they had subjugated the wild and barbaric peoples of Spain, could with secure right divide all of you among themselves, handing over so many head of both males and females as allotments to individuals? And do you then conclude that the Romans could have stripped your rulers of their authority and consigned all of you, after you had been deprived of your liberty, to wretched labors, especially in searching for gold and silver lodes and mining and refining the metals>??? For God’s sake and man’s faith in him, is this the way to impose the yoke of Christ on Christian men? Is this the way to remove wild barbarism from the minds of barbarians? Is it not, rather, to act like thieves, cut-throats, and cruel plunderers and to drive the gentlest of people headlong into despair? The Indian race is not that barbaric, nor are they dull witted or stupid, but they are easy to teach and very talented in learning all the liberal arts, and very ready to accept, honor, and observe the Christian religion and correct their sins (as experience has taught) once priests have introduced them to the sacred mysteries and taught them the word of God. They have been endowed with excellent conduct, and before the coming of the Spaniards, as we have said, they had political states that were founded on beneficial laws.
Furthermore, they are so skilled in every mechanical art that with every right they should be set ahead of all nations of the known world on this score, so very beautiful in their skill and artistry are the things this people produces in the grace of its architecture, its painting, and its needlework. But Sepulveda despises these mechanical arts, as if these things do not reflect inventiveness, ingenuity, industry, and right reason. For a mechanical art is an operative habit of the intellect that is usually defined as “the right way to make things, directing the acts of the reason, through which the artisan proceeds in orderly fashion, easily, and unerringly in the very act of reason.” So these men are not stupid, Reverend Doctor. Their skillfully fashioned works of superior refinement awaken the admiration of all nations, because works proclaim a man’s talent, for, as the poet says, the work commends the craftsman. Also, Prosper [of Aquitaine] says: “See, the maker is proclaimed by the wonderful signs of his works and the effects, too, sing of their author.”
In the liberal arts that they have been taught up to now, such as grammar and logic, they are remarkably adept. With every kind of music they charm the ears of their audience with wonderful sweetness, They write skillfully and quite elegantly, so that most often we are at a loss to know whether the characters are handwritten or printed…..
The Indians are our brothers, and Christ has given his life for them. Why, then, do we persecute them with such inhuman savagery when they do not deserve such treatment? The past, because it cannot be undone, must be attributed to our weakness, provided that what has been taken unjustly is restored.
Finally, let all savagery and apparatus of war, which are better suited to Moslems than Christians, be done away with. Let upright heralds be sent to proclaim Jesus Christ in their way of life and to convey the attitudes of Peter and Paul. [The Indians] will embrace the teaching of the gospel, as I well know, for they are not stupid or barbarous but have a native sincerity and are simple, moderate, meek, and, finally, such that I do not know whether there is any people readier to receive the gospel. Once they have embraced it, it is marvelous with what piety, eagerness, faith, and charity they obey Christ’s precepts and venerate the sacraments. For they are docile and clever, and in their diligence and gifts of nature, they excel most peoples of the known world….
Hernan Cortes Conquers Mexico (1519-1526)
In 1519 the Spanish conquistador Hernan Cortes landed in Mexico and quickly conquered the Aztecs, a powerful people who had long dominated their neighbors in the central Mexican highlands. In the passage below, Cortes, writing to his king in Spain, describes the first encounter with the Aztec ruler Moctezuma, as well as his efforts to suppress the religious practices of the Aztecs, especially those involving human sacrifice. What advantages did Cortes possess in his confrontation with the Aztecs? How did his own cultural background influence his treatment of the native people?
The Second Letter
The Second Despatch of Hernan Cortes to the Emperor: Sent from Segura de la Frontera on the
30th of October, 1520.
Most High Mighty and Catholic Prince, Invincible Emperor, and our Sovereign Liege:
… Moctezuma himself came out to meet us with some two hundred nobles, all barefoot and dressed in some kind of uniform also very rich, in fact more so than the others. They came forward in two very long lines keeping close to the walls of the street, which is very broad and fine and so straight that one can see from one end of it to the other, though it is some two-thirds of a league in length and lined on both sides with very beautiful, large houses, both private dwellings and temples…. And while speaking to Moctezuma I took off a necklace of pearls and crystals which I was wearing and threw it around his neck; whereupon having proceeded some little way up the street of a servant of his came back to me with two necklaces wrapped up in a napkin, made from the shells of sea snails, which are much prized by them; and from each necklace hung eight prawns fashioned beautifully in gold some six inches in length. The messenger who brought them put them round my neck and we then continued up the street in the manner described until we came to a large and very handsome house which Moctezuma had prepared for our lodging. There he took me by the hand and led me to a large room opposite the patio by which we had entered, and seating me on a dais very richly worked, for it was intended for royal use, he bade me await him there, and took his departure. After a short time, when all my company had found lodging, he returned with many various ornaments of gold, silver and featherwork, and some five or six thousand cotton clothes, richly dyed and embroidered in various ways, and having made me a present of them he seated himself on another low bench which was placed next to mine, and addressed me in this manner.
“Long time have we been informed by the writings of our ancestors that neither myself nor any of those who inhabit this land are natives of it, but rather strangers who have come to it from foreign parts. We likewise know that from those parts our nation was led by a certain lord (to whom all were subject), and who then went back to his native land, where he remained so long delaying his return that at his coming those whom he had left had married the women of the land and had many children by them and had built themselves cities in which they lived, so that they would in no wise return to their own land nor acknowledge him as lord; upon which he left them. And we have always believed that among his descendants one would surely come to subject this land and us as rightful vassals. Now seeing the regions from which you say you come, which is from where the sun rises, and the news you tell of this great king and ruler who sent you hither, we believe and hold it certain that he is our natural lord: especially in that you say he has long had knowledge of us. Wherefore be certain that we will obey you and hold you as lord in place of that great lord of whom you speak, in which service shall be neither slackness nor deceit: and throughout all the land, that is to say all that I rule, you may command anything you desire, and it shall be obeyed and done, and all that we have is at your will and pleasure. And since you are in your own land and house, rejoice and take your leisure from the fatigues of your journey and the battles you have fought; for I am well informed of all those that you have been forced to engage in on your way here from Potonchan, as also that the natives of Cemposal and Tlascala have told you many evil things of me; but believe no more than what you see with your own eyes, and especially not words from the lips of those who are my enemies, who were formerly my vassals and on your coming rebelled against me and said these things in order to find favour with you: I am aware, moreover, that they have told you that the walls of my houses were of gold as was the matting on my floors and other household articles, even that I was a god and claimed to be so, and other like matters. As for the houses, you see that they are of wood, stones and earth.” Upon this he lifted his clothes showing me his body, and said: “and you see that I am of flesh and blood like yourself and everyone else, mortal and tangible.”
Grasping with his hands his arms and other parts of his body, he continued: “You see plainly how they have lied. True I have a few articles of gold which have remained to me from my forefathers, and all that I have is yours at any time that you may desire it. I am now going to my palace where I live. Here you will be provided with all things necessary for you and your men, and let nothing be done amiss seeing that you are in your own house and land.”…
There are three large halls in the great mosque where the principal idols are to be found, all of immense size and height and richly decorated with sculptured figures in both wood and stone, and within these halls are other smaller temples branching off from them and entered by doors so small that no daylight ever reaches them. Certain of the priests but not all are permitted to enter, and within are the great heads and figures of idols, although as I have said there are also many outside. The greatest of these idols and those in which they placed most faith and trust I ordered to be dragged from their places and flung down the stairs, which done I had the temples which they occupy cleansed for they were full of the blood of human victims who had been sacrificed, and placed in them the image of Our Lady and other saints, all of which made no small impression upon Moctezuma and the inhabitants. They at first remonstrated with me, for it should be known, they said, by the people of the country they would rise against me, believing as they did that to these idols were due all temporal goods, and that should they allow them to be ill used they would be wroth against them and would give them nothing, denying them the fruits of the earth, and thus the people would die of starvation. I instructed them by my interpreters how mistaken they were in putting their trust in idols made by their own hands from unclean things, and that they must know that there was but one God, Lord of all, Who created the sky, the earth and all things, Who made both them and ourselves, Who was without beginning and immortal, Whom alone they had to adore and to believe in, and not in any created thing whatsoever: I told them moreover all things else that I knew of touching this matter in order to lead them from idolatry and bring them to the knowledge of Our Lord: and all, especially Moctezuma, replied that they had already told me that they were not natives of this land but had come to it long time since, and that therefore they were well prepared to believe that they had erred somewhat from the true faith during the long time since they had left their native land, and I as more lately come would know most surely the things that it was right for them to hold and believe than they themselves: and that hence if I would instruct them they would do whatever I declared to be best. Upon this Moctezuma and many of the chief men of the city went with me to remove the idols, cleanse the chapels, and place images of the saints therein, and all with cheerful faces. I forbade them moreover to make human sacrifice to the idols as was their wont, because besides being an abomination in the sight of God it is prohibited by your Majesty’s laws which declare that he who kills shall be killed. From this time henceforth they departed from it, and during the whole time that I was in the city not a single living soul was known to be killed and sacrificed.
The images of the idols in which these people believed are many times greater than the body of a large man. They are mare from pulp of all the cereals and greenstuffs which they eat, mixed and pounded together. This mass they moisten with blood from the hearts of human beings which they tear from their breasts while still alive, and thus make sufficient quantity of the pulp to mould into their huge statues: and after the idols have been set up still they offer them more living hearts which they sacrifice in like manner and anoint their faces with the blood. Each department of human affairs has its particular idol after the manner of the ancients who thus honoured their gods: so that there is one idol from whom they beg success in war, another for crops, and so on for all their needs….
“Who aims at excellence will be above mediocrity; who aims at mediocrity will be far short of it.”