|III Fascism in Italy
Understand how conditions in Italy favor Mussolini’s rise to power
Explain the values and goals of fascism.
Rise of Mussolini
1. Italy upset by peace treaty, did not get the land they wanted
2. Russian Revolution inspired a lot of people, peasant took land workers went on strike or took over the factories, plus the veterans faced unemployment, taxes rose and trade decline, The gov’t split into feuding faction(Weak Leaders)
3. Fiery speaker
a. Benito Mussolini
b. organized veterans and discontented Italians
c. Their name came from the Latin word “ Fasces” A bundle of sticks rap around an ax (symbol of ancient Rome) to revive Rome’s greatness, by ending corruption and replace turmoil with order.
d. combat squads (black shirts) used violence, terror and intimidation.
e. Italians accepted this because they lost faith in the constitutional gov”t.
f. 1922 King Victor Emmanuel III allows Mussolini to become prime minister.
B. Mussolini’s Italy
1. Take title of IL Duce “The Leader”
a. suppresses rival parties, the press, limits the number of voters, and rigged elections. Replaces elected officials with Fascist supporters.( Critics were thrown in prison, forced exile, or murdered outright
b. Secret police and propaganda bolstered the regime (page 775 propaganda)
2. Economic policy
a. State control , persevered capitalism not like the socialist. Help the production and business but with the expense of the workers who were not allowed to strike or did they get paid very well.
3. Social Policies
a. everyone were bombarded by slogan, Believe, Obey and Fight
b. Men urged to fight “A minute on the battlefield is worth a life time of peace.
c. Women , the battle of motherhood over14 children would receive a medal by Mussolini. Were not valued in the work place. Women donated their golden wedding bands to the treasury in exchange for iron ones showing their contribution to a stronger nation.
d. Youth , Fascist youth groups strict discipline, singing patriotic hymn sang chants “Mussolini is always right” By 1930 had his young soldiers.
C. What is Fascism
1. Any authoritarian gov’t that is not communist.
2. 1930 meant different things to different countries
a. rooted in nationalism, violence, discipline, and above all loyalty to the state.
b. rejects Enlightenment( equality, liberty and democracy) .claimed led to greed, corruption, and weakness individual or class interest above national goals.
c. believe in expansion (aggression) which is linked by Social Darwinism.
d. Compared to communism
Fascist Communism 1.Business leaders, wealthy landlords 2. world revolution of proletariats
lower middle class two ideology , both flourished during economic hard times by promoting programs of social change . Imposed totalitarian gov’t
Totalitarian Rule Chart on page 777
single party dictatorship
State control of the economy
Police spies and state of terror
Strict censorship and gov’t control of media
Use of schools and media to indoctrinate and mobilize citizens
Unquestioning obedience to single ruler
promised a strong , stable gov’t and end to political feuding
Mussolini revived nationalism
Mussolini projected confidence at a time of disorder and despair.
democracy Britain, France communism Russia, Italy Fascism