Oakland Unified School District 8th Grade – U. S. History Assessment Pilot Fall Semester, 2007-2008



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Oakland Unified School District

8th Grade – U.S. History Assessment Pilot

Fall Semester, 2007-2008
Topic:

The Federalist – Anti-Federalist Debate

Over Ratification of the Constitution








Daniel Shay


James Madison







Part I - Designing a Government - Decisions to be Made
A.

Imagine that you are part of a group of people on a ship in the South Pacific. The year is 1789. Unfortunately for you and the other 400 people on board the ship there is a problem when the ship encounters a fierce storm. The ship is damaged beyond repair, but all the people on board survive when they make it to an uninhabited island. With no way to communicate what happened to other ships you are basically stranded on this island until someone else comes along to rescue you, which may be a very long time. You quickly realize that in order for all of you to get along and survive some sort of government is needed. Because you have exhibited great courage and intelligence in the face of what has happened, you have been asked to serve on a committee to design the government for the group on the island. In order to accomplish this job you have to make choices about the government that will be created.


But before making those choices you need to answer an important question,
Why do you even need a government?”
Write your response to this question in the space below. Consider what might happen if there was no government or rules to live by.


B.

Now that you have written about why you need a government your next task is to make some decisions about what kind of government you will create. Read the two pairs of statements below and decide, based on why you think government is needed, which statement (a or b) you would want to exist in your government. Explain your choice.


Decision # 1 -

a) A government with the most democracy possible - that is, one that considers what all the people on the island want and then makes their wishes into the laws people will follow. For example, everyone on the island votes on all the laws.

Or
b) A government with representatives elected by island residents to a governing council. You want the chosen representatives to be the smartest and most able people on the island. The council then makes the laws according to what it thinks is best for the people on the island. For example, if someone proposed a law that all people on the island need to contribute some of their personal possessions to people who may not have enough to survive, only the representatives would vote on the law.
1. Given the options of these two possibilities for the government I want to design, I decide on option .
Below is my explanation for this decision.



Decision # 2 -

a) A government that is set up so that individuals and minority groups can, at times, block what the majority of the people on the island wants. For example, if a majority of people on the island proposed a law requiring all people to be part of the same religion, an individual who did not want this to happen could block the law from being enforced.

Or
b) A government in which the majority always makes the rules, even in the face of opposition by a minority. What the majority wants always becomes law.
2. Given the options of these two possibilities for the government I want to design, I decide on option .

Below is my explanation for this decision.



Part II - The Constitution and Federalist - Anti-federalist Debate

Important Vocabulary and Terms

In the left hand column are 16 words and terms connected to the Constitution of 1787, and the Federalist - Anti-Federalist debate over its ratification..

Before we start studying this topic, check the number that applies to your knowledge of the words or terms. After we study this topic you will be asked to check again the number that applies to your knowledge of the word, term, or event.
4 = I know the word so well I could teach it

3 = I am pretty sure I know what the word means

2 = I’ve seen the word but need a review

1 = I have no clue what the word means



Word, Term, Event

Before Studying

4 3 2 1

After Studying

4 3 2 1
  1. Articles of Confederation


























  1. Shay's Rebellion

























  1. Constitution

























  1. ratify

























  1. compromise

























  1. republic

























  1. democracy

























  1. Federalism

























  1. Federalists

























10) Anti-Federalists

























11) amendment

























12) Checks and balances

























13) Legislative branch of government

























14) Executive branch of government

























15) Judicial branch of government

























16) Bill of Rights



























Important Words, Terms, and Events (Continued)

Below are explanations and definitions or the words, terms, and events from the previous page read over the definitions in column II and explanations. For column III fill in the blanks for numbers 1-4 and then, as you learn more about these terms, write your own sentences that demonstrate your understanding of the word, term, or event.



Word, Term, Event

Column II Definition/Explanation

Column III

Sentence/Example

  1. Articles of Confederation


The Articles of Confederation (ratified in 1781) was the United States' first constitution. They limited the powers of the national government. Under the Articles of Confederation the national government did not have the power to tax and to regulate trade between the states.

The weak national government under the Articles of Confederation did not have the power to _____________
____________________________.

  1. Shay's Rebellion

A farmers rebellion against the state of Massachusetts in 1786 because they felt they were paying too much in taxes. One leader of the uprising was Daniel Shays.

_____________, the leader of Shay’s Rebellion, rebelled because he thought that the farmers in Massachusetts were ____________

____________________________.



  1. Constitution

The fundamental law of the United States, written in 1787, ratified in 1789. Outlines the powers of the national government and the rights of the people.

The Constitution of 1787 outlines the powers of the ______________; it gave this national government more powers than it had under the _____________________________.

  1. ratify

To approve and confirm.

In 1787 the ______________ urged the states to ratify the Constitution.

  1. compromise

A settlement of differences in which each side gives up something.



  1. republic

A nation that has a government in which power is held by the people who elect representatives to make and enforce the laws.




  1. democracy

Government by the people; a form of government have in which all citizens have the power to make political decisions, either directly by them or through their elected representatives.




  1. Federalism

A system of government in which power is divided between national government and the states.




  1. Federalists

Federalists urged the states to ratify the Constitution of 1787 because they wanted to establish a stronger national government.




  1. Anti-Federalists

Anti-federalists were the opponents of the Constitution of 1787 who urged the states not to ratify because they wanted more powers kept with the state governments.




  1. amendment

The process of formally altering or adding to a document. Changes to the Constitution are called amendments.




  1. Checks and balances

The Constitution contains laws that allow one branch of government the power to limit the power of another branch of government. This is sometimes called the separation of powers.




  1. Legislative branch of government

The part of the government authorized to make laws.




  1. Executive branch of government

The part of the government authorized to enforce and carry out the laws.




  1. Judicial branch of government

The part of the government authorized to interpret whether the laws and acts of the legislative and executive branch are legal and constitutional.




  1. Bill of Rights

The first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution, which protect the rights of individuals from the powers of the national government. Congress and the states adopted the ten amendments in 1791.





Part III - "Point-of-View" Study Guide

- for use with United States History: Independence to 1914, pages 114 - 135


Read the following directions and then complete the activity that follows. You are about to be interviewed as if you were a number of different individuals living in the newly independent thirteen colonies between the years of 1776-1790.
Describe your reactions, as the identified individual, to each of the events discussed below. The page numbers for each connect to pages in your textbook.
"The Right to Vote" - p. 115

1. As a poor white person who did not own any property of his own - what do you think about the suffrage [voting] laws being passed by many of the states.


Sample response – I believe the state constitutions that allowed only white, male, landowners the right to vote [suffrage] were unfair to those of us too poor to own land. It is not fair to be governed by laws we have no choice in making.
"Articles of Confederation" - p. 116

2. As one of the individuals who wrote the "Articles of Confederation" - what powers did you give to the national Congress? What could it do and could it not do? Explain why you gave or did not give the national government these powers?




Trade with Spain” – p. 121

3. As a western farmer or merchant – what do you think about increasing the powers of the national government? Should they be increased or decreased? Why?




Shay’s Rebellion” – p. 123

4. As Daniel Shay, explain why you led a rebellion against the state of Massachusetts in 1786. What angered you and your followers?




5. As an individual who was scared by Shay's actions. Why did you decide to call for a meeting of state representatives in Philadelphia in May, 1787?


Compromise is Reached”- p. 127

6. As Roger Sherman, explain the compromise between small and large states that you proposed – what problem did it solve? How did the compromise work?




The Three-Fifths Compromise” - p. 128

7. As Gouverneur Morris (the individual quoted in the box on page 128 - explain what came to be called “The Three-Fifths Compromise” and your view as to whether it was a good or bad idea for the new nation.




Federalist Government” – p. 129

8. As a 5th grade teacher – explain the idea of “federalism” to your students




Checks and Balances” - p. 129

9. As a member of Congress – explain how the Constitution balances and checks your powers to make laws for the nation?



Bill of Rights” - p. 135

10. As a citizen of the new nation, discuss your views on the new “Bill of Rights.” Why might it be an important document?


Conclusion
Now that you have learned about various individuals and groups that lived through the time period of adopting the Constitution you have one more task to complete.

You are an historian writing a history book for 5th-grade students, who are also studying this time period. Your work for numbers 1-15 represents your research into what various individuals and groups were thinking and doing during this time period. Use these responses as your “source documents” and write a 1-2 page section of the book for 5th-graders. The topic of this section is “The Constitutional Period: Who, What, and Why?”




Part IV - Comparing the Articles of Confederation and Constitution*

The Articles of Confederation set up the first government of the United States. The Constitution was written to replace this government with a new government. The “Federalists” supported the new government. The “Anti-Federalists” opposed the new government.


(Read the chart below and then complete the activity on the next page.)


Power or Organization

Articles of Confederation

Constitution

Executive Branch – The President

The national government had no president and no executive branch.

A president is elected by an electoral college. The president can provide a check on the powers of legislative and judicial branches.

Judicial Branch – the Courts

The national government had no national judicial branch. Each state had its own court system.

A system of federal courts headed by the U.S. Supreme Court. (Each state still had its own system.)

Legislative Branch – Congress

The legislature of the national government was a one-house Congress in which each state, no matter what is population size, had one vote.

A two house Congress:

  • Senate: each state, no matter what its population size, has two votes.

  • House of Representatives: The number of representatives from each state is based on population size. The states with the largest population get the most numbers of representatives.

Passing a Law

In order to pass a law nine of the thirteen states must be in favor of the law.

A majority in each house of Congress (the Senate and the House of Representatives) must pass the law and the president must sign it.

Amending (Changing what it says)

To change the Articles of Confederation, every state had to agree.

Two ways to change the Constitution:

  1. 1. An amendment passed by both houses of Congress and 2/3 of state legislatures.

  2. 2. An amendment passed by constitutional convention called by ¾ of state legislatures.

Establishing an Army

The national government had no power to establish a United States army. The national government could only ask each state for soldiers.


Gave the national government the power to raise (establish and recruit) an army.

Taxing

The national government had no power to tax. The national government could only ask each state for money to carry out its powers.

Gave the national government the power to tax.

Controlling Trade

The national government had no power to control trade between the states or with other nations.

Gave the national government the power to control trade between states and other nations.

Bill of Rights that protects individual freedoms

None. Left up to each state.

None in the original draft of Constitution. Bill or Rights, (Amendments 1-10) added to support ratification.



Part IV (cont.) - Comparing the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution of 1787 –

Activity: Developing Academic Language

Developing the Language to Write a Compare and Contrast Essay
Skill overview – When writing a compare and contrast piece it is important to use specific words that will the reader better understand the similarities and differences between the two items you are comparing and contrasting. For this activity you will be comparing and contrasting the organization and powers of the Articles of Confederation to the organization and powers of the Constitution written in 1787.
The following words to help you complete this activity.

Words that can be used to show a comparison - similarities

Words that can be used to show a contrast - differences

  • Similarly

  • Like

  • Also

  • In the same way

  • As

  • Likewise

  • Both

  • But

  • Otherwise

  • Although

  • On the other hand

  • However

  • Yet

  • Still

  • Even though

  • In contrast


A. Use the information on the Constitution and the information on the Articles of Confederation, and the words in the chart above, to fill in the blanks in the following sentences. Each sentence illustrates a similarity of a difference between the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution.

Numbers 1 and 2 are already done so you have a model of how to complete numbers 3 – 10.


  1. Under the Articles of Confederation there was no president of the executive branch of government, but under the Constitution there is a president.




  1. Both the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution had a legislative branch that passed laws.




  1. The Constitution gave the national government the power to tax, the Articles of Confederation could only ask the states for money.




  1. Under the Articles of Confederation there was no national judicial branch, each state had its own courts, the Constitution included a federal court system headed by the .




  1. The Constitution gave the national government the power to control trade between states; the Articles of Confederation did not include this power.




  1. Neither the Articles of Confederation nor the original draft of the Constitution included a Bill of Rights, one was added to the to support its ratification.




  1. Under the Articles of Confederation the national government did not have the power to form a national army, the Constitution gave the government the power to establish an army and recruit soldiers.




  1. In the Congress set up by the Articles of Confederation all states were equal; this was true for the Senate set up under the Constitution.




  1. Under the Articles of Confederation Congress had all the power, under the Constitution power was divided up and shared between the executive, legislative, and judicial branches.




  1. Under the Constitution the national government appears to have a lot power, the Articles created a system in which the national government has few powers.



Part V – What arguments did people have over ratification of the Constitution?

On pages 13-15 are arguments for three possible choices for the nation after the Constitution was sent to the states for ratification. The writer of each choice is making an argument for a particular position on whether to ratify, or not

Your task it to understand the reason why each writers took that position – what reasons do they give to support their argument? Use the chart below to help gather that information.



Choice #1 – “Ratify the Constitution

Choice #2 – “Ratify the Constitution, but only after a Bill of Rights is Added”

Choice #3 – “Do not ratify the Constitution”

Identifying the Argument

1. What are the main reasons (in paragraphs I-IV) the writer argues for ratifying the Constitution? (identify at least three)

a. _________________

b. _________________

c. _________________

2. Write one sentence that summarizes this argument in support of ratification of the Constitution.

__________________________

__________________________

___________________________


Identifying the Argument

1. What are the main reasons (in paragraphs IV and V) the writer argues for adding a Bill of Rights to the Constitution ? (identify at least three)

a. _________________

b. _________________

c. _________________

2. Write one sentence that summarizes this argument for adding a Bill of Rights to the Constitution.

__________________________

__________________________

__________________________



Identifying the Argument

1. What are the main reasons (in paragraphs I-VI) the writer argues against ratifying the Constitution? (identify at least four)

a. _________________

b. _________________

c. _________________

d. _________________

2. Write one sentence that summarizes this argument against ratification of the Constitution.

__________________________

__________________________

__________________________

__________________________

__________________________



Identifying the “Counter Argument”

3. What are the main reasons (in paragraphs V-VII) the writer argues the Anti-Federalists are wrong? (identify at least three)

a. _________________

b. _________________

c. _________________
4. Write one sentence that summarizes this argument in against the Anti-Federalists..

__________________________

__________________________

__________________________

__________________________


Identifying the “Counter Argument”

2. What are the main reasons (in paragraphs I-III and VI) the writer argues the Federalists are wrong? (identify at least three)

a. _________________

b. _________________

c. _________________
3. Write one sentence that summarizes this argument in against the Federalists.

__________________________

__________________________

__________________________

__________________________


Choice #1 – "Ratify the Constitution"

(adapted from “A More Perfect Union: American Independence and the Constitution,” The Choices Program, Brown University, August, 2005)




  1. Our nation is in trouble. At home, there is a threat of rebellion (Shay’s), and trade is made more difficult because each state has its own laws and taxes. France and England are threatening us on our borders, and nations in Europe insult us for being weak and for being unable to pay our debts.




  1. These current problems are caused by the Articles of Confederation and the states unwillingness to give money to the national government. But we now have a way to escape this situation. If we want to save our nation, we must immediately adopt the Constitution that was drafted in Philadelphia.




  1. The states have shown they are not able to look out for our well-being as a nation. They have not been willing to provide the national government with the money needed to pay America’s debts, raise an army, or carry out all the actions needed by a nation. Several states have been taken over by the common people and printed worthless paper money, passed laws that prevented banks and creditors from collecting what they were owed, and stopped trade from neighboring states.




  1. The national government proposed in the Constitution will have the authority to act for all our citizens. The President will make sure that America’s laws are enforced fairly and consistently. The Supreme Court will make sure the Constitution is used to judge the laws of each of the states. The Congress will pass laws to solve the nation’s problems and end the arguing between the states.




  1. Some people [Anti-Federalists] doubt that all this is true. Some say the United States is too large to be governed as a single nation. We respond by saying that the size of the nation is our advantage. In a nation so large and diverse, no one region or group of people will be able to control the national government and act against the public good. The Constitution’s system of checks and balances will also protect our freedoms and liberties. The executive [president], judicial [courts], and legislative [Congress] will each have the power to check the abuses of power of the others.




  1. Our opponents, the Anti-Federalists, are trying to frighten the public. They say that the state governments will be done away with. In fact, the Constitution balances powers between the national and state governments. The Anti-Federalists argue that the national government will take away the natural rights of life, liberty, and property. On the contrary, the preamble to the Constitution, which states “We, the people..” emphasizes the importance of individual rights.




  1. Finally, our opponents cry that the Constitution will return the nation to “aristocracy and monarchy!” This is not true. The Constitution will assure that our nation will be governed by leaders of wisdom, experience, justice, and virtue. Elected officials may be voted out of office. The Constitution allows men of high standing to take their rightful place in government.


Choice #2 – "Ratify the Constitution, but only after a Bill of Rights is Added"

(adapted from “A More Perfect Union: American Independence and the Constitution,” The Choices Program, Brown University, August, 2005)




  1. Beware the Federalist Constitution! This document that is being forced on the country has many problems. Like sellers of bad merchandise, the Federalists are hiding the problems of their goods, exaggerating the benefits, and insisting that you act immediately. The American people are smarter than that.




  1. Almost all of us know that the present system [Articles of Confederation] has problems. That’s why the convention in Philadelphia was held. Indeed, the delegates might have been justified in writing a new Constitution, and it is worthy of our consideration. But are we to accept their judgment without question, as if they speak with the voice of God?




  1. We are told we must rush to ratify the Constitution. But if we look at the present situation, there is no crisis that demands immediate response. We are not threatened with invasion. The best approach is to go slowly. We must calmly and deliberately go about revising the Constitution to make sure we have a solid foundation for forming a more perfect union.




  1. First, we must recognize that people who are given power over others frequently misuse it. This is human nature. Power tends to corrupt the soul. As citizens of these United States of America, we must carefully define and limit that power we give our government. In particular, we must guard against the danger of placing an army in the hands of a powerful president. The history of the world is full of examples of military leaders who have taken away the rights of their people. We must learn from the past and not assume that our country will always be led by selfless patriots like George Washington.




  1. Second, and most important, we must add to the Constitution a bill of rights to protect the liberties of America’s citizens. Only a few short years ago we fought the British to defend our rights. The smartest of the state leaders of state governments have put bills of rights in state constitutions. Should not these same rights be guaranteed in our national Constitution? We should not take anything for granted. The rights we hold most dear – trial by a jury of our peers, freedom of religion, and a free press – must be clearly stated and included in our Constitution.




  1. The Federalists admit that a bill or rights is needed, but they want you to adopt the Constitution first and then address this problem. They want to establish a strong government and ask its leaders to then voluntarily reduce their powers. Should we expect that from the men in authority? We must have the Bill of Rights in place before ratification.


Choice #3 – "Do Not Ratify the Constitution"

(adapted from “A More Perfect Union: American Independence and the Constitution,” The Choices Program, Brown University, August, 2005)




  1. Free citizens – defend your rights! For six years, we fought to get rid of the tyranny of the British. Now we face a threat from our fellow countrymen. The self appointed aristocracy that met in Philadelphia last summer at the Constitutional Convention has put together a plan to rob Americans of their liberties. They say that the American people are not able to govern themselves and that we must turn the affairs of the nation over to the so-called “better classes.” Is this the freedom for which we fought and shed our blood? Are we to trade liberty and freedom for tyranny? Never!




  1. Look closely at the small circle of men that met in Philadelphia. They were almost all rich merchants, investors, and lawyers. These were not the men who stood bravely at Concord and Valley Forge in Revolutionary War battles. Yet, these men want us to bow down to them as if they were Roman patriarchs.




  1. The Federalists have spread fear to win support for the Constitution; they say our nation is in trouble. In fact, they are mainly concerned with protecting their wealth and investments. The proposed Constitution is not the answer to our problems. The strong national government outlined in the Constitution would allow only a handful of wealthy men to participate in the national government. Who else would be able to travel seven hundred miles to serve in Congress or seek justice in the national court?




  1. In contrast to the state governments, there is little room in the proposed Constitution for the common man to express his views. Our political system must be in the hands of the common citizen – not a privileged group of elite, wealthy men. The greatest number of our citizens should have the opportunity to participate in government. That can only happen if the states keep their powers, not if their powers are taken by a strong national government.




  1. Additionally, the slave owners of the southern states, in passing the 3/5 Compromise, have even insisted that their slaves be taken into account in determining representation, which would give the South more political power in the years to come. This will give them the votes in Congress to protect and defend slavery from those who want abolish it in the United States.




  1. Our patriots did not give their lives to create such a government. We must not give away the rights we shed our blood to gain.


Part VI - What people at that time said about the whether the draft Constitution should be ratified?

Part A - Read sources 1-6 and decide which choice, from the previous activity, the writer would have supported

#1 – Ratify the Constitution

#2 – Ratify the Constitution after adding a Bill of Rights

#3 – Do not ratify the Constitution.
Source #1

“We have reached the last stage of national humiliation…Do we owe debts to foreign nations and our citizens? Yes, and we have no means to pay them. Is part of our country in the hands of other nations? Yes, and we have neither the troops, nor the money, nor the government to get them back…”

- Alexander Hamilton



Supports choice # _____

Source #2


“If the people of the United States adopt the proposed Constitution, it will be their last act as the main power of the government. Whenever this Constitution or any part of it is not compatible with the state constitutions, it will abolish the state constitutions and do away with them…This proposed Constitution transfers power from the many to the few, who will be very smart in protecting their new powers…"

-Richard Henry Lee


Supports choice # _____

Source #3


"It is the opinion of this Convention that the addition of a Bill of Rights to the Constitution would remove the fears of the many good people of Massachusetts, and more effectively guard against too much power for the national government… it should be declared that all powers not given to the national government are reserved by the states [the 10th Amendment]…and that no person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law [5th amendment]."


- Statement of the Massachusetts Ratifying Convention

Supports choice # _____

Source #4



“A Bill of Rights is as necessary to defend the individual against the majority in a republic as against a king in a monarchy.”

- James Winthrop



Supports choice # _____

Source #5



“”What right had they [delegates to the Constitutional Convention] to say, We, the people? Who authorized them to the language of We the people, instead of, We the states?”

- Patrick Henry



Supports choice # _____

Source #6



“Checks and balances among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government will insure that no individual or group will gain too much power. Ambition must be made to counteract ambition...If men were angels, no government would be necessary...”

- James Madison



Supports choice # _____

Do part B on the next page.

B.

Primary Source Analysis –

What did people at that time said about the whether the draft Constitution should be ratified?





General description of what the quotation means or says in your words?

Which choice about ratification of the Constitution does this source support –

#1 – Ratify the Constitution

#2 – Ratify the Constitution after adding a Bill of Rights

#3 – Do not ratify the Constitution

Provide a quote from the source that supports your answer (use the exact words of the quote)

Analysis and commentary

Sample analysis sentence might include three words (underlined). Use one of those words in each sentence you write analyzing a quote:

  • This quotation illustrates...

  • This speaker/writer suggests...

  • This writer argues the Constitution should

Source #1 –

Alexander Hamilton

Example:

This quote says that the United States government has not money to pay its debts to other nations, and that this is a national humiliation.

Example:

This writer would support choice #1. When he writes, “we have neither the troops, nor the money, nor the government to get them back…” he’s saying that there needs to be government that has the power to collect taxes and form an army.

Example:

Alexander Hamilton argues for ratification of the Constitution because the national government needs to have money to pay its debts.

#2

Richard Henry Lee









#3

Mass. Ratifying Convention









#4

James Winthrop









#5

Patrick Henry










#6

James Madison










Part VII - Secondary Source Analysis – What do Two Historians Say the Constitution of 1787?
To do: Read the following statements the Constitution of 1787 and complete the chart on the next page.
Historian #1 –

“The Constitution of 1787 was very different from the Articles of Confederation. The Constitution gave the new national government much greater power than it had under the Articles of Confederation. It created a powerful executive branch (the President) and a Senate that were not directly elected by the votes of the people. Many people praised the Constitution, arguing that it would bring stability to the country and resolve differences between states. Other people argued that the Constitution was a threat the liberty of the people.”

- from Voices of the American Past, Raymond Hyser and Chris Arndt, p. 95-96

Historian #2 –

“The new Constitution gave the central government power to regulate commerce, to tax, and to have its laws enforced in the states. But the constitutional convention could not have created this new government without making important compromises with the southern slave owners. The writers of the Constitution did not include the words slave and slavery, but they did include clauses and words designed to support the enslavement of African Americans in the southern states. These clauses supported the continuing the African slave trade for another twenty years, and provided for U.S. government military aid in putting down slave revolts. The Constitution also increased representation for slaveholders in Congress and in the electoral college that elected the president.”

- from African American History, Darlene Clark Hine, p. 149



Part VII (cont.) - Secondary Source Analysis Sheet –

What do Two Historians Say the Constitution of 1787?

Historian(s)

#1 - Raymond Hyser and

Chris Arndt

#2 - Darlene Clark Hine

Summarize the main points this historian is making about the Constitution.





What evidence does the author use in order to support his/her points?







Supporters of which choice might use this historian’s statement to support their position? Explain.
#1, #2, or #3










Part VIII – Below are the three decisions you faced in designing a government when you first started this study of the Constitution and the Federalist – Anti-Federalist debate.
Now that you know more about the reasons people wrote the Constitution, which decision did they make for each paired statement below? Write a brief statement explaining your response.
Decision # 1 -

a) A government with the most democracy possible - that is, one that considers what all the people on the island want and then makes their wishes into the laws people will follow.

Or

b) A government with representatives elected by the people. The representatives, who will be the smartest ablest, will then makes the laws according to what they thinks is best for the people.


1. Which decision did the writers of the Constitution make? .
Below is my explanation.




Decision # 2 -

a) A government that is set up so that individuals and minority groups can, at times, block what the majority of the people on the island wants. .

Or

b) A government in which the majority always makes the rules, even in the face of opposition by a minority. What the majority wants always becomes law.


2. Which decision did the writers of the Constitution make? .

Below is my explanation.

Name __________________________ School


Teacher
Final Assignment - Writing the essay
The Question:

In 1787 there was a huge debate across the new nation: should a new constitution be ratified? People took three different positions on this question. One group, the Federalists, said yes, “ratify the constitution.” A second group, Anti-Federalists said, “Ratify the Constitution, but only after a Bill of Rights is added.” A third group, also Anti-federalists, said no, “Do not ratify the Constitution.”


Which of these three positions do you most agree with? Why?
1. Write your thesis statement in the space below. This statement is your answer to the above question.


2. What information and evidence will you use to support or backup your statement?

(Jot down 3-4 pieces of evidence or information from the packet)

1.

2.

3.

4.

3. What information or evidence will you use to develop a counter argument? Why are people who argue for the other positions wrong?

(Jot down 2-3 pieces of evidence or information from the packet)

1.

2.

3.

Name __________________________ School


Teacher
4. Write your essay. Remember that a good essay includes:

  • a thesis statement that clearly states your point of view about the essay prompt

  • an introduction that sketches out the main reasons behind your thesis, and controls the flow of the essay

  • at least three reasons that you support your thesis

  • evidence that supports each reason in the form of either primary or secondary source material

  • acknowledgement of other positions and counterarguments (use the compare and contrast words from part IV to help you write this part of the essay)

  • a conclusion that not only sums up your arguments, but also adds questions, thoughts, or a modern-day connection to the essay




Name:

School:

Teacher: Period:

Grade: Date:








* Source – Constitutional Rights Foundation, 2003

/OUSD 8th Grade History Assessment Pilot / source documents and student writing / Fall Semester, 2007 /

Developed by OUSD history/social studies and OUSD TAHG staff and participating teachers



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