|Notes on Jacques Cartier…..
Other European countries such as France, England and Portugal
also began heavily exploring the New World. Since the Spanish had
control of the Caribbean Sea, the other countries had to go different
places. The French went the furthest north, to what is today Canada.
Jacques Cartier was a French explorer that first arrived in the
Western Hemisphere in 1534. Like Christopher Columbus, he was looking
for a sea route to Asia, something he called a Northwest Passage On his
first voyage however, he found the St. Lawrence River and sailed down it.
He found some new land and some valuables but his greatest discoveries
were of animals-- such as beavers and great auks. He befriended some
Native Americans and traded with them, and they showed him how to
live in such a cold place. On later journeys up the St. Lawrence he forgot
about the Northwest Passage and just came for trade goods to bring
back to Europe.
He tried to begin a permanent colony, but rough winters and
Iroquois attacks forced him and his men to leave. He is very important for
several discoveries: the St. Lawrence River and beginning the fur trade
in northern North America.
Notes on Samuel de Champlain….
Jacques Cartier was the first European to sail down
the St. Lawrence River. He had immediately noticed that it was
rich with furs and other raw materials that could be sold in
Europe for high profit. However, he was never able to establish
a permanent colony in the place called New France
(Canada). More and more French moved there to trap game
- - but much of the area was still unexplored and not
Starting in 1603, Samuel de Champlain began exploring
New France and making maps, naming things, and writing
about what he saw. He seemed very organized and intelligent,
so he was given the job of building Quebec City in 1608, the
first strong permanent colony for France in the Western
He also became friends with the Algonquin Native
Americans. In return for helping them fight the Iroquois,
the Algonquin helped his people survive and helped them get
materials to sell back in Europe.
Until his death in 1635, Champlain helped New France
become a stable and rich colony that sent back many
raw materials and natural resources for sale in Europe.
What was the Northwest Passage?
Even though Cartier’s voyage was technically a failure, what did he find that was good, if not better than what he was supposed to find. Explain.
Why couldn’t Cartier build a permanent colony in the New World?
What city did Champlain found?
Explain the relationship between Champlain and the Native Americans in the New World.
What effect do you think the French fur trade will have on the environment in the New World.