Notes on African-American History Since 1900



Download 1.51 Mb.
Page23/24
Date02.06.2016
Size1.51 Mb.
1   ...   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24
: George Padmore’s Path from Communism to Pan Africanism [New York: Praeger Publishers, 1970] p. 3

150 Ibid., p. 8

151 no information

152 Kant Worchester, C.L.R. James: A Political Biography [New York: State University of New York Press, 1966] p. 83

153 no footnote

154 no footnote

155 no footnote

156No footnote

157 No Footnote

158 C. L. R. James, The Independence of the Black Struggle [Washington, D. C.: All African Peoples Revolutionary Party, November 1975], pp 2-3

159Mark Naison, AThe Communist Party in Harlem in the Early Depression Years, Radical History Review, III (1976), pp.68-95.

160Mark Naison, ABlack Agrarian Radicalism in the Great Depression: The Threads of a Lost Tradition, Journal of Ethnic Studies (Fall 1973), pp.49-68.

161 Jeff Henderson, AA. Philip Randolph and the Dilemmas of Socialism and Black Nationalism in the United States, 1917 -1941", Race and Class, XX, 2 (1978), pp.156.

162 Daryl Russe Grigsby, For the People: Black socialists in the United States, Africa and the Caribbean (San Diego: Asante Publications, 1987) p. 145

163 Ibid., p. 150

164 Harry Haywood, Black Bolshevik: Autobiography of an Afro-Ameican Communist (Chicago: Liberator Press, 1978) p. 375

165 Op. cit. (Aryl Grigsby) p. 152

166 Op. Cit (Harry Haywood) p. 421

167 Ibid., p. 422

168 Ibid., p. 531-532

169 Ibid., p. 567-568

170 Mari Jo Buhle, Paul Buhle, Dan Georgakas, Encyclopedia of the American left (Chicago: St. James Press, 1990) p. 298

171Ibid., p. 581-582

172 Ibid., p. 587-589

173 Joe Williams Trotter Jr. The African American Experience Volume 11 From Reconstruction [Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001] p 512.

174 Muhammad Ahmad, “Toward Pan African Liberation”, The Black Scholar, Volume 5, Number 7, april 1974. pp. 24-31

175Elizabeth Atkins, A400 Come Together to Share History, The Detroit News, Sunday, March 23, 1993.

176 Joe William Trotter, Jr., The African-American Experience, Volume II, From Reconstruction [Boston: Haughton Mifflin Company, 2001] pp. 548-549

177 David J. Garrow (ed), The Montgomery Bus Boycott and the women Who Started it, [Knoxville, Tennessee: The University of Tennnesee Press 1987], Roberta Hughes Wright, The Birth of the Montgmoery Bus Boycott [Southfield, Michigan: Charro Press, Inc. 1991], Rosa Parks with Jim Haskins, Rosa Parks: My Story [New York: Scholastic, Inc., 1992]

178 Martha Biondi, “The Rise of the Reparations Movement,” Radical History Review, Fall 2003/87 pp. 7

179 Queen Mother Audley A. Moore, Why Reparations? [Philadelphia, Pa: The Reparations Committee, 1962] pp. 2

180 Timothy B. Tyson, “Robert Franklin Williams: A Warrior for Freedom 1925-1996.” Southern Exposure. Winter 1996, p. 6.

181 Ibid., p. 5.

182 Darci McConnell, “The Father of Black Revolutionaries: White God Lay Sleeping, Robert F. Williams Changed Lives,” The Grand Rapids Press, Sunday, February 19, 1995, p. E2.

183 Ibid., p. E2.

184 Timothy B. Tyson, “Robert Franklin Williams: A Warrior for Freedom 1925-1996,” A Legacy of Resistance [Detroit, Michigan: Robert Williams Tribute committee, 1996], p. 47.

185 Stephanie Banchero, “Hero or Renegade?,” The Charlotte Observer, Sunday, February 26, 1995, p. 10A.

186 Ibid.

187 Interview with Robert F. Williams, Cleveland, Ohio, 1994.

188 Ibid

189 “Black Freedom Movement Loses Giant: Robert F. Williams of Monroe, N.C. Succumbs to Caner,” Justice Speaks. Volume 14, No. 3, p. 6.

190 “An Interview with Robert Williams, “Black News”, Volume 4, No. 7, May 1979, P. 16.

191 Conversation with Robert F. Williams, Baldwin, Michigan, 1995.

192 Ahon D. Morris, The Origins of The Civil Rights Movement [New York: The Free Press, 1984]

193 James McEvory & Abraham Miller (ed). Black Power and Student Rebellions [Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company, Inc., 1969] pp.379.

194 Joanne Grant, Ella baker: Freedom Bound [New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1998], Barbara Ransby, Ella Baker & The Black Freedom Movement [Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2003]

195 Cheryl Lynn Greenberg, A circle of Trust: Remembering SNCC [New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1998], Clayborne Carosn In Struggle: SNCC and the Black Awakening of the 1960’s [Cambridge, Massachusetts: Howard University Press, 1981], Cleveland Sellers with Robert Terrell, The River of No Return Jackson: [University Press of Mississippi, 1990]

196Clayborne Carson, In Struggle [Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1981] pp.58.

197Rhoda Lois Blumberg, Civil Rights: The 1960's Freedom Struggle [Boston, Massachusetts: Twayne Publishers, 1984] pp.74.

198Jessie Carney Smith, Epic Lives [Detroit, Michigan: Visible Ink Pres, 1993] pp.377

199 John Hope Franklin and Alfred A. Moss Jr., From Slavery to Freedom [New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.] pp.445

200 Juan Williams, Eyes on the Prize: America’s Civili Rights Years, 1954-1965 [New York: Viking, 1987] pp. 202.

201 Manning Marable, Race, Reform and Rebellion [ Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1984] pp.76.

202 William Sales, Jr., From Civili Rights to Black Liberatino: Malxcolm X and the Organization of Afro-American Unity [Boston, Massachuseets: South End Press, 1994] pp. 60-61.

203 Karl Evanz, The Judas Factor: The Plot to Kill Malcolm: [New York: Thunder’s Mouth Press, 1992] pp. 15-16.

204 Spike Lee (Movie), also Malcolm X: New York Police Files

205 “30 years since the Assassination: How the System Killed Malcolm x, “Revolutionary Worker Number 794 (Volume 16, Number 41. February 19, 1995, pp. 7

206 Op. Cit, (Sales, From Civil Rights to Black Liberation), pp. 75

207 William S. Sales, Jr., From Civil Rights to Black Liberation: Malcolm X and the Organization of Afro-American Unity [Boston, Massachusetts:

208 Geroge Brietman (ed) Malcolm X Speaks [New York: Grove Press, Inc., 1965] pp. 38-41

209 Interview with Donald Freeman, Cleveland, Ohio 1994

210 Malcolm X, February 1965: “The Final Speeches” New York, Pathfinder Press, 1992, page 48.

211 Ibid, page 54

212 Ibid, page 79

213 William I. Robertson, A Theory of Global Capitalism: Production, Class and State in a Transnational World. [Baltimore and London: John Hopkins University press 2004]

214 Ibid, page 80 (“The Final speeches”)

215 Malcolm X: On Afro-American History [New York: Pathfinder Press, 1967] pp. 64

216 Victor Perlo, Econoics of Racism 2: The Roots of Inequality USA [ New York: International Publishers, 1966[ pp. 153

217 Malcolm X: On Afro-American History [New York: Pathfinder Press, 1967] pp. 64

218 Two speeches by Malcolm X [New York: Pathfinder Press 1965] pp 32

219 Ibid, (Two Speeches, pp. 33

220 George Beitman, Malcolm X Speaks [New York: Grove press, Inc., 1965] pp. 39

221 Malcolm X, The Autobiography of Malcolm X [New York: Grove press, Inc. 1965] pp. 377

222 Op Cit (Autobiography) pp. 364

223 Geroge Brietwan, The Last Year of Malcolm X: The Evolution of a Revolutionary [New York: Shocken Books, 1965] pp. 115

224 George Brietwan, (ed) By Any Means Necessary [New York: Pathfinder Press, 1970] pp. 102-104

225 Malcolm X, February 1965: The Final Speeches [New York: Pathfinder, 1992] p. 79

226 Op Cit (February 1965: Malcolm X, The Final Speeches) pp. 80

227 Ibid, pp. 49

228 Conversation with Malcolm, Harlem, NY, June 1964

229 George Brietman, Malcolm X Speaks [New York: Grove Press, Inc., 1965] pp. 77

230 Karl Evanzz, The Judas Factor: The Plot to Kill Malcolm X [New York: Thunder Mouth Press, 1992] pp. 257

231 John Henrik Clarke, Malxolm X: The Man and His Times [Toronto, Canada: Collier Book, 1969] pp. 245

232 Karl Evanzz, The Messenger: The Rise and Fall of Elijah Muhammad [New York: Pantheon books, 1999] pp. 315

233 Op Cit Brietman (ed) Malcolm X: By Any Means Necessary, pp. 91-92

234 Ibid, pp. 92

235 Op. Cit. (Breitman (ed) Malcolm X: By Any Means Necessary) pp. 94

236 Ibid, pp. 50

237 Conversation with James Shabbaz, March, 1965, New York City

238 “Malcolum X, “Zionist Logics”, The Egyptian Gazzette-September 17, 1964, World-Wide African Anti-Zionist Fron (Reprint) [New York: A-APRP] pp. 3

239 Karl Evanzz, The Messenger: The Rise and Fall of Elijah Muhammad [New York: pantheon Books, 1999] pp. 314

240 Malcolm X, “Conversation With Max Stanford,” June 1964

241 Confession of McKinley Welch to Max Stanford, Spring 1967, Philadelphia, PA

242 Malcom X, “Conversatino with Max Stanford, June 1964

243 George Brietman, The Last Year of Malcom X: The Evolution of a Revolutionary [New York: Schocken Books, 1967] pp. 19

244 Karl Evanzz, Judas Factor: The Plot to Kill Malcolm X [New York: Thunder’s Mouth Press, 1992] pp. 294-295

245Rhoda Lois Blumberg, Civil Rights: The 1950's Freedom Struggle [ New York:Twayne Publishers, 1984] pp.156.

246Ibid , pp.156

247 Clayborne Carson, In Struggle: SNCC and the Black Awakening of the 1960’s [Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1981] pp. 255-256.

248 Linda Burnham, A The Tillmon Legacy, Crossroads, February 1966, pp.14.

249 Jack Bass and Jack Nelson, The Orangeburg Massacre [ :Mercer University Press, 1984] pp. vii

250Rhoda Lois Blumberg, Civil Rights: The 1960's Freedom Struggle [Boston, Massachusetts: G.K. Hall &Company, 1984] pp.157

251Hanes Walton, Black Political Parties [New York: The Free Press, 1972] pp 80-130

252 Len Holt, The Summer that Didn’t End [New York: William Morrow & Co., 1965], Doug McAdam Freedom Summer [New York: Oxford University Press, 1988], Mildred Pitts Walter, Mississippi Challenge [New York: Aladdin Paperbacks, 1996].

253 William E. Nelson, Jr, and Phillip J. Meranto, Electing Black Mayors [Columbus: Ohio State University, 1977] pp. 67-332

254 Op. Cit., (Hanes Walton, Jr, Black Political Parties), pp 80-130.

255Lois H. Masotti & Jerome R. Corsi, Shootout in Cleveland: Black Militants and the Police, 1968 [New York: Bantam Books, 1969] pp. 22-32.

256 James A. Geschwender, Class, Race & Worker Insurgency [London: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977] pp. 144.

257 Supplementary Detailed Staff Reports on Intelligence Activities and the Rights of Americans: United States Senate Book 3, Washington, D. C. G.P.O., pp. 33-62

258 Ibid

259 Ibid

260 William Preston, Jr., Aliens and Dissenters, Harper Torch Books, New York, 1963, pg. 103.

261 Joyce Ross, J. E. Sprinuam and the Rise of the NAACP: New York, Athenaeum, 1972, Maj. Joel E. Springam to Churchill, June 18, 1918, Military Intelligence Bureau 10218-154-7 (National Archives).

262 Spat Watters and Stephen Gillers edited, Investigating the FBI, Ballantine Books, New York, 1973, p. 57.

263 Robert A. Hill, (ed) The Pan African Movement 1917-1957. A Documentary Record of the black Struggle: Unpublished Manuscript.

264 Victor Marchetti & John D. Marks, The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence (New York: Alfred A. Knopf Co., 1974), p. 95

265 Allen Dulles, The Craft of Intelligence (New York: Harper & Row, 1963), pp. 258-259, National Security Act of 1947, 50 U.S. C. 403.

266 Nelson Rockefeller, et al, Report to the President by the Commission on CIA Activities within the U.S. (Washington: G.P.O., 1975), p. 73: Marchetti & Marks, op cit. pp. 96-101

267 Rockefellter, op cit. p. 74; Marchetti and Marks, op cit. pp. 96097; Dulles, op cit. p. 158

268 Rockefeller, op cit. p. 72; Marchetti and Marks, op cit. p. 38.

269 Marchetti and Marks, op cit. pp. 98 and 99.

270 Good Overview of Intelligence Community: John Hammer, “The U.S. Intelligence Community”, Skentic Margazine. No. 7, 1975; Marchetti and Marks, op cit. pp. 95 f.; all budget figures below are from these two sources.

271 David Kahn, The Code Breakers (New York: 1967, MacMillian), pp. 378-400.

272 David Wise & Thomas Ross, The Invisible Government (New York: 1964, Random house), p. 226-231; Lyman Kirkpatrick, The U. S. Intelligence Community (New York: 1973, Hill & Wang), p. 35; Charles H. Andregg, Managmeent of Defense Intelligence (Washington: 1968, Industrial College of the Armed Forces.

273 Department of the Army, Combat Intelligence (FM-30-5) (Washington: 1971, G.P. O.); Wise & Ross, op cit. pp. 212

274 Kirkpatrick, Op cit. p.35-36; Wise & Ross, Op Cit. pp 212 & 213

275 Department of the Air Force, Handbook for Air Intelligence Officers (Washington: 1954, G.P.O.); Wise Ross, op cit pp. 212 & 213

276 Wise & Ross, op cit p. 217

277 Wise & Ross, op cit. p. 214; Congressional Research Service, Internal Security Manual (Washington: 1974, G.P.O.), Summary of Internal Security Statues, Executive Orders, and Congressional Resolutions.

278 Wise & Ross, op cit. p. 214

279 Pat Watters and Stephen Gillers, Investigating the FBI, pg

280 Supplementary Detailed Staff Reports on Intelligence Activities and the Rights of Americans, U.S. Senate, Was., 1976, p. 450

281 “FBI Harassed Civil Rights Movements”, Guardian – Vol. 30, No. 45, August 30, 1978, p. 3.

282 “FBI Harassed Civil Rights Movements”, Guardian – Vol. 30, No. 45, August 30, 1978, p. 3.

283 Supplementary Detailed Staff Reports on Intelligence Activities and Rights of Americans, U.S. Senate, Washington; Book III, 1976, pp. 81, 86, 87, 88.

284 Ibid, p. 82.

285 “More Revealed on Plot to Murder Dr. King”, Workers World, Vol. 20, No. 32, August 11, 1978, p. 3.

286 Supplementary Detailed Staff Reports On Intelligence Activities and Rights of Americans, U. S. Senate, Book III, Washington, D. C., 1976, p. 476

287 Ibid, p. 447.

288 Lyman Kirkpatrick, The U.S. Intelligence Community, New York: Hill & Wang, 1973, p. 35.

289 Malcolm X Autobiography of Malcolm X: New York, Grove Press, 1965.

290 George Brietman, Herman Porter & Baxter Smith, The Assassination of Malcolm X, Pathfinder Press, Inc., New York, 1976, pp. 52-54.

291 James Foreman, The Making of Black Revolutionaries (The Macmillian Company, New York, 1972, pp. 471 & 472).

292 Suppl. Detailed Staff Reports on Intelligence Activities and the Rights of Americans, Washington, D.C., 1976, p. 335, Ibid., p. 448.

293 Ibid., p. 448.

294 Supp. Detailed Staff Reports on Intelligence Activities and the Rights of Americans, Book III, (Washington, D.C., 1976, p. 491).

295Ibid., p. 791.

296 Ibid., p. 803.

297 Ibid., p. 798.

298 Ibid., pp. 798-801

299 Adam Clayton Powell, Jr., Adam by Adam: The Autobiography of Adam Clayton Powell, Jr., (The Dial Press, New York, 1971, p. 243).

300 FBI Letter to Field Offices, (August 25, 1967)

301 “The FBI Plot Against Black Leaders” by Iris L. Washington, (Essence Magazine, October, 1978, Volume 9, Number 6, p. 70).

302 Suppl. Detailed Staff Reports on Intelligence Activities and the Rights of Americans, op, cit., p. 253.

303 Ibid., p. 254.

304 Counter-Intelligence, Volume One, National Lawyers Guild Task Force on counter Intelligence and the Secret Police, (Chicago, Illinois, 1978, pp. 53 & 54).

305 Suppl. Detailed Staff Reports on Intelligence Activities and the Rights of Americans, (Book III, Washington, D. C. 1976, p. 494

306 Louis Heath, Ed., Off the Pigs, (Scarecrow press, Inc., Metuchen, New Jersey, 1976.

307 “FBI Plotted to Eliminate BPP Leadership” (The Black Panther, Volume XVIII, Number 8, Saturday, March 11, 1978, p. 1)

308 “The FBI Plot Against Black Leaders”, (op cit., p. 98).

309 “The FBI Plot Against Black Leaders”, (op. cit., p. 98).

310 Suppl. Detailed Staff Reports on Intelligence Activities and the Rights of Americans, (op. cit., p. 189).

311 “FBI Plotted to Eliminate BPP Leadership”, (op. cit. pg. 6).

312 “The FBI Plot Against Black Leaders”, (op. cit., p. 100).

313 Louis Heath, ed., Off the Pigs, (op cit., p. 137).

314 Suppl. Detailed Staff Reports on Intelligence Activities and the Rights of Americans, (op cit. p. 199).


Share with your friends:
1   ...   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24




The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2020
send message

    Main page