Notes from Early 1700s Presentations Quakers in Pennsylvania Pennsylvania was founded by William Penn beginning in 1681. He was determined to allow all people to live without the religious constraints forced on them by the Puritans who had settled farther north and the Catholics who had settled to the South. He father was as an admiral in the Royal Navy and the king granted William Penn the land of Pennsylvania as a reward for the service his father had provided for the crown. Penn himself was known for allowing a wide variety of views and expecting that no one would interfere with the rights of another. Penn was a Quaker. Quakers were known for wanting to live as independently as possible, pacificism, and generosity.
Pennsylvania abounded in rich farmland and thick forests. The Quakers who settled there created a good standard of living in combination with Swedish settlers who had already established a home there. In 1682, Penn published a form of government by which the supreme power was lodged in a general assembly, to consist of a governor, council, and house of delegates: the council and house to be chosen by the freemen; the proprietor and governor. It was also agreed that every person of good moral character, professing his faith in Christ, should be a freeman, and capable of holding any office; and that none who believed in one God should be molested in his religion, or be compelled to attend or maintain religious worship. The Colony of Virginia The Colony of Virginia was an English colony. The most popular settlement in Virginia was Jamestown which was founded on May 14, 1607. It is commonly known as the first permanent English settlement In the United States. 104 settlers came to settle Jamestown. Their were 8 tribes of American Indians lived in the state of Virginia. Queen Elizabeth I of England granted a charter to Sir Walter Raleigh to search for new land. It was founded originally to gain wealth and to convert the natives into Christianity. Virginia became a royal colony in 1624 when King James I revolved the charter of the bankrupt Virgina company. King James I felt threatened by the representative assembly known as the House of Burgesses. His timely death in 1625 ended his plans of disbanding the assembly. The first permanent English settlement in the New World was at Jamestown. It provided a source of fertile land and great wealth to England in the form of cash crop, tobacco. the House of Burgesses was the first govenmental institution in America to operate and legislate indepently of the mother countries of Europe. Massachusetts Colony Early settlers in Plymouth Colony from 1620 were soon joined by another, much larger group of settlers who formed the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Both groups had come to America, in large part, to be allowed the freedom to practice their religions as they chose. Life in Massachusetts was very difficult. Farm land was rocky and scarce. The climate was cold. In addition to farming, colonists soon began to develop fishing and timber industries. By the 1700s, Massachusetts had come to include what is now the state of Maine. The natural resources of the areas leant themselves more to manufacturing than farming. Many of the early conflicts that eventually led to the Revolutionary War began in Massachusetts. The Southern Plantations The southern plantations were worked by in-slaved African Americans they mainly grew tobacco. But they also grew cotton, sugar cane and trees. When the revolutionary war started 20% of the population in the 13 colonies was African descent. It was legal to own slaves in any colony but it was first legalized in the south. Most African Americans lived in Chesapeake region were they made up 50% of the population. Most of the African Americans were slaves but not all of them.
In Chesapeake region most of the plantations grew tobacco. The majority of blacks living in the Chesapeake worked on tobacco plantations and large farms. Since the cultivation of tobacco was extremely labor-intensive, African slave labor was used, despite questions of whether slavery was morally right. Tobacco cultivation rivaled the sugar production of the British West Indies. Tobacco was an eleven-month crop. Cultivation began in late January with the preparation of the fields for planting, mending tools, and laying out the seed beds. Once the soil was ready (usually in March), tobacco seedlings were transplanted to the fields. By mid summer, tobacco was growing in the fields, but the delicate plant required constant care. At harvest time, tobacco was gathered and prepared for its shipment to England. King George King George was born in London, England and suffered from a permanent mental illness. He thought he was the the only one in charge and he was the only one that could have a say in anything. He believed he ruled the colonies. He gained a lot of stress after his youngest and favorite daughter died. In his older days he became completely blind and increasingly deaf.
The second continental congress wished that peace could be restored between Britain and the colonies. One of the resolutions was the Olive Branch petition. They took it to king George and It asked for no war between the colonists and Britain. He then stated I'm not signing were “in open. . . rebellion.”However, parliament voted to send 20,000 soldiers to end the revolt in the colonies. The colonists were mad and felt like they were being treated like an enemy instead of trying to make peace. King GeorgeIII started his reign in October 25th 1760. He married Charlette of Mecklinburg-Strelitz in 1761. Him and his wife had 9 sons and 6 daughters. He had porphyria, a terrible disease the messed with his his brain and his reigning as king. He has a very very VERY terrible mental illness. After a few wars it really messed him up in his last few years of reign. Personal rule was given to his son prince Regent in 1811. King George died deaf,blind, and angry at Windsor castle. King George didn't want the colonists to have freedom. His reaction to the Olive Branch Petition made the colonies dislike Britain a lot. He wanted them to send goods only to england. He restricted like every right in the bill of rights. There was bad taxing and use of military troops. He never let anyone else have a say it always had to be what he wanted. Lots of people disliked the mother country because of him. They felt like they were treated unfairly. These actions contributed to the break between Britain and the colonies. Benjamin Franklin Ben Franklin was born on January 17, 1706, in Boston Massachusetts. When he was 12 he was his brothers apprentice learning how to learn the trade as a printer. At the age of 17, he ran away to Pennsylvania, to escape from getting thrown in jail by his brother. Before he ran away he took over his brothers newspaper The New England Courant, which made his brother mad!.Then afterwards he became a printer with a publishing business, boarding with the house of John Read. John's daughter was named Deborah, which later became Ben's wife. They had two boys and one daughter. One of his son was loyal to the king so they had many fights about that. During Ben life he was a very busy guy. He became; an author (he wrote the Poor Richard's Almanac), printer, political theorist, politician, scientist, inventor, statesman, and even a soldier! He died in 1790 on April 17. During his life he rebelled against taxes and that they were too high and people weren't getting treated right. He also helped write the Declaration of Independence. He put the idea of freedom into other peoples' mind. He also convinced people that public things, such as libraries, would be better for them. He helped stop the Stamp Act by telling the British, that Americans would never pay the taxes. He also helped convince the French to ally with the Americans. This was crucial to helping them win the war. He also joined the Continental Congress to decide what should happen about the war with England. The French and Indian War The French and Indian War was the beginning of real rebellion in the colonies. They realized that if the French and Indians could cause so much damage to Britain, then why couldn’t they? Eventually, the French were driven back west of the Mississippi river never to return by the Treaty of Paris. This said that Britain had everything east of the Mississippi, even Florida. France obtained the Caribbean, Louisiana, and everything west of the Mississippi. The French and Indian War was also where George Washington first saw combat. He was part of two campaigns during the beginning of the war. One the battles in which he fought was credited with starting the French and Indian War. The lessons he learned about how the Native Americans were able to stop the British by using concealment and strategy made a lasting impression on him.