|Notes CH 30 Part 1 (text) CH 31 Part 1 (DE)
THE WAR TO END WAR – 1917-1918
Opening Quote:********you need to know this quote*****
The world must be made safe for democracy. Its peace must be planted upon the tested foundations of political liberty. We have no selfish ends to serve. We desire no conquest, no dominion. We seek no indemnities for ourselves, no material compensation for the sacrifices we shall freely make.
Woodrow Wilson – War Message to Congress – April 2, 1917
NOTE: ****This quote sets a standard that the United States of America still lives by today…some disagree…however, the basis of our foreign policy…in WW2 …during the Cold War’s many little hot spots…this “IDEAL” supposedly guided our nation…”MORAL DIPLOMACY” IS BORN WITH THIS QUOTE AND IDEAL….***********you have to know how this can be applied in almost every single circumstance where America fights overseas from 1917 until today….do we live up to this idea…or not…specifically how or how not… it is imperative for you to be able to distinguish the events as they will occur in the future.
1 What were the steps that led America to enter WWI?
2 After his campaign promise of keeping America out of the war in 1916, how did Wilson garner American support for the war?
3 How did America convert from a peacetime economy to a wartime economy?
4 What were the reasons for the failure of both the League of Nations and the Treaty of Versailles?
5 what were the reasons for the conflict between Wilson and the U.S. Senate, especially Lodge?
Germany’s declaration of unlimited submarine warfare, supplemented by the Zimmerman note proposing an alliance with Mexico, finally caused the United States to declare war. Wilson aroused the country to patriotic heights by making the war an idealistic crusade for democracy and permanent peace based on his Fourteen Points.
Wartime propaganda stirred voluntary commitment to the war effort, but at the cost of suppressing dissent. Voluntary efforts also worked wonders in organizing industry, producing food, and financing the war. Labor, including women, made substantial wartime gains. The beginnings of black migration to northern cities led to racial tensions and riots.
America’s soldiers took nearly a year to arrive in Europe, and they fought in only two major battles at the end of the war. America’s main contribution to the Allied victory was to provide supplies, personnel, and improved morale. Wilson’s immense prestige created high expectations for an idealistic peace, but his own political blunders and the stubborn opposition of European statesmen forced him to compromise his lofty aims.
As Henry Cabot Lodge stalled the Treaty of Versailles, Wilson tried to rouse the country on behalf of his cherished League of Nations (the 14th point), but his own physical collapse and refusal to compromise killed the treaty and the League. Republican isolationists effectively turned Harding’s victory in 1920 into a death sentence for the League.
George Creel – journalist who became the head of the American propaganda effort in WWI. Creel organized a massive effort to spread a wholesome view of the American way of life throughout the world via films, magazines, and books.
“[I decided that] the desired results could be obtained without paying the price that formal law would have demanded.… Better to have the desired compulsions proceed from within than to apply them from without.”
U.S. General John J. (Blackjack) Pershing - Pershing was the commander of the Pershing expedition into Mexico and of the American Expeditionary Force in World War I. In the Mexican campaign, he applied new devices such as radios, airplanes, and machine guns to military uses. His ability to stay within the strict political guidelines given him in Mexico won him Wilson’s favor and command of forces in World War I.
“The most important question that confronted us in the preparation of our forces of citizen soldiery for efficient service was training.… Few people can realize what a stupendous undertaking it was to teach these vast numbers their various duties when most of them were ignorant of practically everything pertaining to the business of the soldier in war.”
Henry Cabot Lodge - Lodge was the aristocratic New England scholar and senator who successfully battled against Wilson’s League of Nations. Although highly intelligent, Lodge was narrow in outlook and comfortable only with those of his own background and class. He was rigid and opinionated and, like Wilson, tended to turn political disagreements into personal animosities.
“We have twice succeeded in creating a situation where Wilson either had to take the Treaty with strong reservations…or else was obliged to defeat it. He has twice taken the latter alternative. His personal selfishness goes beyond what I have seen in any human being. It is so extreme that it is entirely unenlightened and stupid.…”
Woodrow Wilson was forced by events upon which he no control to lead a peace-loving nation into war…(?) On Jan. 22, 1917 Wilson delivers one of his most moving speeches…restating America’s commitment to Neutral Rights and declaring that only a negotiated “Peace without Victory,” would prove durable…
Germany responded with a blow of the fist. On Jan. 31, 1917 – they announced to an astonished world their decision to wage unrestricted submarine warfare sinking ALL ships, including America’s, in the war zone around the British Isles…ENDING THEIR COMMITMENT TO THE “SUSSEX PLEDGE.”
After three (3) ghastly years in the trenches, Germany’s leaders decided the distinction between combatants and noncombatants was a luxury they could no longer afford…THEY HOPED THAT THEY COULD BRING THE ALLIES TO THEIR KNEES BEFORE THE UNITED STATES COULD MAKE A DIFFERENCE WHEN THEY ENTERED THE WAR… WW attempts to wait it out but 4 months later he goes to Congress to DECLARE WAR – DUE TO UNRESTRICTED SUBMARINE WARFARE !!!
War by Act of Germany – the path to USA entering WWI
Wilson before declaring war…asks Congress for the permission to arm merchant ships…Mid-Western Senators filibuster to block the bill…a specific example of the strength of American Isolationism…
Zimmerman Telegram – In March, 1917..The British intercepted a telegram from Germany to Mexico…secretly proposing an alliance between Germany and Mexico… that if the USA entered WWI that Mexico would attack the USA to keep their troops at home and not in Europe…at the end of the War….Mexico would receive back their lost land during the Mex-Am War in 1848….(this is somewhat controversial…) The American public is upset to say the least….
German U-Boats sink 4 unarmed US merchant vessels – This occurs in the first two weeks of March, same time as the Z-telegram was leaked to the press.
Russian Revolution begins – the USSR signs the treaty of Brest-Litovsk ending their participation on behalf of the Allies in WWI – We send troops here…(XC for some info on this) Americans die in Russia…
This is huge now that Germany does not have to fight a two-front war…they can concentrate to the West… and now the USA can fight for DEMOCRACY ALONE…not communism…
April 2, 1917 – Wilson speaks to Congress – and asks for a Declaration of War.****
Wilsonian Idealism Enthroned
“It is a fearful thing to lead this great peaceful people into war.” WW – War Message to Congress
Wilson was prepared to shatter one of the most sacred traditions in American History by entangling America in a distant European War… [GW Farewell Address]
How would the American People respond? They had prided themselves on their isolationism from European Conflicts of the past… Since 1914 profits had been gained through neutrality. Six Senators and fifty member of the House (including Jeannette Rankin) had voted against war… (it passed)
Wilson now had to convince the American People to support a war..how?
Wilson proclaims 2 goals: 1 to make WWI –“a war to end all war” (no more war) 2 “to make the world safe for democracy”…
Wilson’s lofty idealism ….was dangerous…he compared the motives of all of the nations at war (belligerents) as selfish – for gain….WHEREAS…America was fighting the war for a future peaceful world…no gain, no selfish motives…etc.. Wilson’s idealistic crusade worked in motivating America…maybe too well ??
“Americans, it seemed, could be either isolationists or crusaders, but nothing in between.”***
Was Wilson asking for “Peace without Victory” or “Hang the Kaiser” ???idealism??? but really?
Wilson’s Fourteen Potent Points******big****--Moral Diplomacy…idealistic???
WWilson soon came to recognized as the moral leader of the Allied cause.
Jan. 8, 1918…he delivers his famous 14 point speech to Congress…
His goals…to keep Russia in the War (no chance) and to give hope to the many disposed peoples of Europe..especially those living in the “empires” of the Central Powers…
The first five were broad in scope:
1 a proposal to abolish secret treaties
2 Freedom of the Seas (pointed at Britain as well as Germany)
3 A removal of economic barriers (tariffs) among nations
4 reduction in ARMS…
5 Adjustment to Colonial Claims across the Globe…in the interests of both the Native peoples now colonized and the colonizers..
5 ***-----(this is crazy…does he really believe this can happen??? This is why Ho Chi Minh – the future Communist Vietnamese Leader comes to Paris to attempt to get France out of “French Indochina,” it does not happen….we will see the results later…)
The other points [6-13] held out the hope of independence (“self-determination”) *** see above*** to oppressed minority groups… such as the Poles, settlement of the Russian Question, Belgium restored, create independent nations in the “Balkans” former Austrian-Hungarian Empire, Independence in the former “Ottoman Empire- Turkey singly independent (this will lead eventually to an independent Israel…Zionist movement after WWII) as well as many other nations in the Middle East….
14h Point -THE CAPSTONE POINT *****[League of Nations idea –future United Nations which is formed after WWII]
“ A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants (laws) for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike.”
THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS WOULD PROVIDE A SYSTEM OF “COLLECTIVE SECURITY”***(KEY TERM)*
Wilson’s ambitious-Idealistic-Moral ---14 Points raised hopes the world over…but was not applauded everywhere…
************Many of the Allies….who fought with America eyed the “Booty” that was to be available by the decline of the Central Powers…and were reluctant…even HOSTILE…(not publicly) to WW’s idealistic proclamation… We will see if WW can make this idealistic dream happen….or not…….
Creel Manipulates Minds –Propaganda’s role in mobilizing the Americans to fight a war….crucial ***
Mobilizing Americans and the World’s minds…a crucial task… The Committee on Public Information is created…and led by George Creel, a former journalist…His job was to “sell” America on the war and “sell” the world on Wilsonian War aims (14 points- “Peace without Victory”)
150,000 people worked for the CPI at home and overseas…and proved that –“ words were indeed weapons,” – 75,000 Four Minute Men –delivered countless speeches across America… “PROPAGANDA” – HAD VARIOUS FORMS—Posters on Billboards, leaflets and pamphlets were showered across the world, booklets were printed by the millions….Movies – “To Hell with the Kaiser,” The Beast of Berlin,” –revealed the German “HUN” at his bloodiest……Songs – especially George M. Cohen’s “Over There,”
Over there, over there
Send the word, send the word over there,
That the Yanks are coming, the Yanks are coming
********************The War mobilization effort during WWI relied more on passion and VOLUNTARY COMPLIANCE than on formal laws (in great contrast to wwII which relied on MANDATORY COMPLIANCE BY LAW) …Some say that Wilson proved to be mortal and the resulting disillusionment was disastrous at home and in the World after WWI….(some say led to WWII)
Enforcing Loyalty and Stifling Dissent - Schenk v. USA & Debs, etc….(war restricts our civil rights)
There were over 8 million German-Americans out of a population of 100 million in America in 1917.
They, as a whole were dependably loyal to the USA.
However, the propaganda machine whipped America into an Ant-German hysteria…beatings and lynching’s occurred against German-Americans…A HATRED OF GERMANS AND ALL THINGS GERMAN SWEPT THE NATION…Music was banned, books removed from library’s…languages no longer taught in High Schools…FOOD EVEN TOOK NEW NAMES: Sauerkraut – “liberty cabbage,” Hamburger – “liberty steak,”…even beer became suspect…
*******Two (2) Acts of Congress: Espionage Act, 1917 & Sedition Act, 1917 – reflected current FEAR…
OVER 1900 prosecutions of anti-war SOCIALISTS and members of the “Wobblies”-IWW –Industrial Workers of the World were undertaken under these laws…Eugene V. Debs, Socialist Party leader and IWW leader “Big Bill” Haywood were imprisoned… Alice Paul and members of the NWP who picketed the White House were imprisoned, beaten, and force fed….VIRTUALLY ANY CRITICISM OF THE GOVERNMENT WAS CENSORED AND PUNISHED… WERE THESE LAWS CONSTITUTIONAL??? IS IT UNPATRIOTIC TO QUESTION OUR GOVERNMENT IN WARTIME??? DO NOT WE HAVE THE “FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND ASSEMBLY?”
******Schenk v. United States (1919) – The Supreme Court said that the two (2) acts mentioned above were legal…and that the “freedom of speech could be REVOKED when that speech posed a ***CLEAR AND PRESENT DANGER*** to the nation.”
“the character of every act depends upon the circumstances in which it is done…the most stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting fire in a crowded theatre and causing a panic.”--- Oliver Wendell Holmes Supreme Court justice and author of the Opinion in the “Schenck” case…
****Note: This “Clear and Present Danger” TEST which is established by the Supreme Court in 1917 and lasts for 50 years until 1969—whether the national/Federal Government could suspend our rights under the constitution.??.…The QUESTION is significant in our history and stretches back to the Alien and Sedition acts of the 1790’s under Adams presidency—and Jefferson and Madison’s response with their Virginia and Kentucky resolutions which suggested that States could nullify acts of the Federal Government that were “unconstitutional” …which the Case of Marbury v. Madison in 1803 clearly makes this idea of Jefferson and Madison moot… established “judicial review” (deciding constitutionality of laws) in the Supreme Court of the US. Thus, Nullification as a tool of the states was legally, but not popularly, ruled against…. And stretches forward now with this “test” that lasts for 50 years…. Until 1969 and affirms, legally, the idea that during wartime our civil rights shrink… Many who were imprisoned under these two (2) laws stayed in prison until the 1930’s and some are even “FORCIBLY” deported to the USSR on the ship USS Buford – “THE SOVIET ARK”—OVER 250 AMERICAN CITIZENS.
The Nation’s Factories Go To War---Remember our WWI mobilization of our nation is LARGLEY VOLUNTARILY DONE…VERY DIFFERENT THAN IN WWII***
Victory was not a sure thing…our Military was not prepared… especially for a leap into a “global war.”
WWilson had created the civilian counsel of National Defense in 1915 to study problems of economic mobilization….and launched a shipbuilding program, endorsed a mild increase in the standing Army to 100,000 (15th in the World –about the same as “Persia”(Iran today) …it would take a “Herculean” effort to organize America’s disorganized resources and get them into the fight quickly enough to make a difference in Europe/WWI.***
*****Ignorance, fears of “big government”, states-rights, business people—all fought against THE MASSIVE GOVERNMENTAL CONTROL OVER THE ECONOMY---that some thought necessary to implement the organizational and logistical effort necessary to get to Europe in time…
Wilson, late in the War, does impose some order…in March of 1918 he appointed Bernard Baruch to head the War Industries Board…but never had any real power (like it will in WWII, later)
Workers in Wartime
“Labor will Win the War.”
Well it was helped to this conclusion by a law…the “Work or Fight” rule of 1918- any unemployed male could immediately be drafted…a powerful discouragement to not strike….
The National War Labor Board – led by former Pres. Taft, attempted to stop labor disputed that might lessen the nations war efforts…it did support arbitration, higher wages, and an 8 hour work day..
Samuel Gompers-AF of L- loyally supported the war effort….The more “radical” IWW did not…and led strikes and protested the war as a war for the “rich.” (Big Bill Haywood, imprisoned-later deported to the USSR) Mainstream (less radical) Labor’s loyalty was rewarded…the A F of L’s membership now close to 3 million…Real Wages- adjusted for inflation- rose over 20% during the War…
But…prices more than doubled (2x) during the war…and some 6000 strikes erupted during the war years… most put down with government force…as before TR…. one example is the 1919 steel strike (largest in US History) or the 1919 Boston Police Strike… most were crushed with government troops, as these two were…labor was a while away from their freedom….
****Due to the large # of African-American’s moving to the cities for war jobs during the initial phase of the GREAT MIGRATION…and the competition for jobs…and changes that were taking place in these cities…huge race riots rocked many large cities during the war… St.Louis –Chicago – and many more…most often left blacks dead in the streets….hundreds lost their lives…as they will again after the war when the WWI veterans return from a less racially biased Europe and proud to have fought to defend their countries…and do not back down in the violently hostile and racist conditions in America in the 1920’s. (Tulsa-Rosewood, are two examples)
Suffering Until Suffrage
Women demonstrated their patriotism…Thousands of female workers went into factories and fields…taking up jobs vacated by men who left for the war…
The War split the Women’s Movement deeply***many progressive-era feminists were pacifists…that opposed the participation of America in WWI (Jeanette Rankin for example) and women in the war effort… The NWP –National Women’s Party, led by Alice Paul and Lucy Burns, gave these “pacifist feminists” a home…and demonstrated against Wilson at the White House, led demonstrations, and hunger strikes…were beaten and put in jail, declared insane, and opposed strenuously by the Federal Government.
The “larger” part of the Suffrage Movement was represented by NAWSA – National American Woman Suffrage Association, and led by Carrie Chapman Catt. This group supported Wilson and our participation in WWI. Catt and the leaders of NAWSA argued that the women must women must support our effort in order to “earn” a role in shaping the peace and laws that were to come after the war. NAWSA believed that “the fight for democracy abroad was women’s best hope for winning true democracy at home.
It is vitally important to recognize that it took BOTH APPROACHES to accomplish the 19th Amendment that is ratified by 3/4ths of the States in 1920—80 years after the 1848 Seneca Falls Conference where Elizabeth Cady Stanton’s “Declaration of Sentiments” so clearly articulated the equality of Men and Women…FINALLY ALL AMERICANS LEGALLY HAVE THE RIGHT TO VOTE…
Women’s wartime gains though are short-lived…**** especially economically—most women who were not working before the war went back to their “cult of domesticity” ---the fight for economic and social equality would be a long way from its conclusion….some say is still today…the Future will show there is a lot of fights left..and women will be up to the challenge…as we will see
Forging a War Economy***
*****Mobilization during WWI (getting the country fully behind the war effort) relied more on PATRIOTISM (VOLUNTARY MEANS) rather than LAWS. This was due primarily to two (2) factors: 1 America was distanced from the War by the Atlantic Ocean…and 2 the still modest or small scale of the powers of the Federal Government…****
America had to feed itself and the ALLIES… ****Herbert C. Hoover (future Pres. elected in 1928 and during the initial part of the Great Depression) is chosen as the head of the FOOD ADMINISTRATION…He was already considered a hero for his successful voluntary food drive to help the poor Belgians… as with the other federal government war programs his programs relied on voluntary participation and promoted his campaigns with massive propaganda…posters, billboards, newspapers, and movies. Wheatless Wednesdays, Meatless Tuesdays…Victory Gardens in backyards, restricted use of foodstuffs to make alcohol helped to pass the 18th Amendment (prohibition) in 1919…Thanks to the patriotic wartime voluntary spirit…Hoover’s approach worked….Farm Production rose by 25%...and Food Exports to the Allies Tripled 3x….. Hoover’s efforts were copied by other governmental agencies…Heatless Mondays, Lightless Nights, Gasless Sundays…Liberty Loan Drives- the Victory Loan Campaign…together these “Loan Drives” made revenue for the Government to help pay for the War—21 Billion$$$ or 2/3rds of the Cost of the War ---AMAZING…the REST WAS FUNDED BY INCREASED PERSONAL INCOME TAXES…
*****Important Note:*********** Hoover’s success at these “voluntary” methods made a huge impact on him…and when the Great Depression hit America (first in Agriculture in the early 20’s and elsewhere after the 1929 stock market crash) Hoover rejected using the power of the Federal Government to solve the crisis ….for most of his 1 term as Pres… and does not fully use the power until the bottom hit in 1930-32…A HUGE IMPLICATION FOR MILLIONS OF AMERICANS******FDR & THE “NEW DEAL” TAKES A VERY DIFFERENT APPROACH AND MAXIMIZED THE POWER AND BUILT UPON THE POWER OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT TO TACKLE THE GREATEST DISASTER IN OUR HISTORY***
****GOVERNMENT MANDATORY ACTIONS WERE FEW…BUT INCLUDED:
CONSCRIPTION – “THE DRAFT” – WWilson disliked a draft, as did many Americans with Civil War memories… but…he eventually supported a DRAFT… as a temporary necessity…in Congress this Bill met with a huge amount of criticism… 6 weeks after declaring War Congress passed the “Selective Service Act” which required the registration of all males between the ages of 18 and 45…NO “DRAFT DODGER” COULD PURCHASE AN EXEMPTION OR HIRE A SUBSITUTE…AS IN THE DAYS OF THE CIVIL WAR…although certain key industrial workers were exempted… The draft worked… only about 4,000 “conscientious objectors were excused,” Within a few months the US Army grew from 100,000 to over 4 million Men….and For the First Time in American History*********** Women were admitted to the Armed Services—11,000 to the Navy—269 to the Marines…African-Americans ********served in segregated units and usually under white officers and due to racial attitudes at the time…The Government hesitated to train Black Men for Combat…and most were limited to construction or unloading ships…however, one of the most decorated units in WWI were the “Hellcats of Harlem,” who saw considerable “action in battle” during WWI…and fought bravely and successfully…***one important aspect of these men’s participation in WWI was for those who went overseas…they discovered a Culture of acceptance in Europe…often with no discrimination of any kind exhibited by their European hosts – mainly in France—this “equality” shocked the black men and gave them strength to come home a fight “Jim Crow” and racial discrimination passionately….often, sadly, this led to violent conflict when they came home…as we will see in the next unit….but these Men made a huge impact on their children and grandchildren who are the adults of the next two generations who lead the successful TWIN “V” MOVEMENT IN WWII –(VICTORY OVER FACISM ABROAD AND RACISM AT HOME) AND THEN LED THE Modern Civil Rights Movement in the 50’S THROUGH THE 70’S…