Notebook #2 The Renaissance ap european History Mr. Konecke Name: Period

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N O T E B O O K #2

The Renaissance

AP European History

Mr. Konecke


Project #2 – The Mona Lisa

Introduction: The name of the painting stems from the name of the woman in the portrait, Lisa Gherardini, the wife of a wealthy businessman in Florence, Italy named Francesco del Giocondo. Mona means ‘my lady’ or ‘madam’ in modern Italian, so the title is simply Madam Lisa. Art historians agree that Leonardo da Vinci likely began painting the Mona Lisa in 1503, and completed it within 4 years. In 1516 the King of France, King Francois, bought the painting and it is thought that after Leonardo’s death the painting was cut down. Some speculators think that the original had columns on both sides of the lady, whereas other art critics believe that the painting was never cut down in size. After the French revolution the painting was moved to the Louvre, and Napoleon had it placed in his bedroom for a short time before it was returned to the Louvre.
The Mona Lisa is probably the most famous painting in the world. And while it is held in the Louvre, its estimated value as of today is approximately $670 million dollars (and it is only 30 in. x 21 in. in size). Yet when you look at it, do you see anything special? Basically, it’s just a portrait of a woman, right? Why is it so valuable and so famous? To help you understand the answers to those questions, you will do two things:

Directions: 1. You will create your own version of the Mona Lisa (poster-size) using any type of artistic medium that you like (paint, crayon, colored pencil, marker, computer, chalk, statue, etc.). This is not art class – you will not be graded on artistic ability. You simply must create a detailed, colored, complete “copy” of the Mona Lisa in your own style and from your own point of view.

2. You will analyze the painting by answering the following questions. Make sure to describe and explain in detail. Read into the painting using your own imagination – there are no wrong answers – it’s YOUR interpretation – just make sure you back it up:

A. What do you see in the artwork?

B. What is in the background?

C. Do you have an idea about the time of this artwork?

D. Is anything happening in the painting?

E. What colors, lines, shapes, textures do you see? Do they relate to your first impression?

F. How do you think this artwork was made?

G. What is the most important part of the painting? What is the focal point? Why do you think so?

H. How would you describe the mood or feeling of this painting? Why do you think so?

I. What is the artwork about? What is the artist trying to communicate?

J. Why is she smiling?
Options: 1. You may paint the portrait using any style, medium, or interpretation that you like – as long as it’s complete, colored, and detailed.

2. You may write or type your analysis questions.

3. You may complete the questions on the back of your painting or a separate sheet.
Grade: 1. Created a detailed, colored, completed “copy” of the Mona Lisa from your own interpretation – 100 points

2. Completed analysis questions in detail, explaining all of your interpretations – 100 points
1. The Renaissance in Italy

What was the Renaissance?

  • Renaissance

      • Medieval Europe was feudal society based on farming economy with church dominating cultural life

      • Renaissance Europe had centralized govt., economy based on commerce & capitalism, growing secular control over culture & religion

  • Two events began this period:

    • 1. Death of Petrarch (father of humanism –

    • 2. Death of Giovanni Boccaccio (author of Decameron – tried to explain causes of & reactions to Black Death)

  • After, humanist culture spread all over Italy & northern Europe

    • Individuals who looked to ancient governments for inspiration

  • This expansion ended in 1527 –

The Italian City-State

    • Italy’s geography made it gateway from east to west

    • Trade with East made Italian cities large urban societies

    • These cities would transform into city-states – dominated life of surrounding areas

Growth of City-States

  • Battles between popes & emperors helped Italian city-states grow

    • Either side could have dominated the cities

    • Instead, they weakened each other –

      • Italian cities not governed by king – free to expand as they wanted

  • Five competitive cities emerged:

    • Competition was fierce in most cities –

      • Venice was exception – merchant oligarchy ruled it

Social Class and Conflict

  • Social division & anarchy were worst in Florence

  • Four social groups in city:

    • Grandi (old rich) –

    • Popoli Grosso (rich merchant class, capitalists, bankers) – challenged old rich for power

    • Middle-Burgher (guild masters, shop owners, professionals) – sided with new rich

    • Popolo Minuto (Lower economic class) –

  • Social divisions created problems at all levels of society

    • Resulted from 3 factors (all made life miserable for poor):

      • Competition between old rich & new rich

      • Collapse of banking houses

  • For 4 years afterward, lower classes ran Florence

Despotism and Diplomacy

  • Council – the Signoria

    • Through back-door deals, Cosimo kept council loyal to him

  • Grandson – Lorenzo the Magnificent – ran Florence as a dictator

    • Why –

      • This made Lorenzo cautious & ruthless

  • Despotism was common in other cities to prevent conflict at home & from foreigners

    • So ruling families hired strongmen –

      • His job – keep business running by any means necessary

    • Despots had it hard:

      • Could be fired at any time

    • But they also benefitted if successful – some despot families even ruled entire cities (with little competition or restraints)

    • Diplomats kept cities informed of foreign wars

    • Some even gained power over enemies without having to go to war

  • Most city-states set up embassies in 1400s

    • Ambassadors represented city-states at ceremonies, negotiations, & rival courts

  • The political climate in Italian city-states allowed a rebirth of thought & culture


  • Humanism

    • Why – to learn about them and, more importantly, to bring back old norms & values

  • Humanists supported the studia humanitatis – program of study focused on grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, politics, moral philosophy

    • They wrote literature in old & new languages

  • Also worked as rhetoric teachers & advisors to royal & papal courts

  • Humanism was so impressive because it broke from the medieval tradition of creating art & literature for religious reasons

    • Humanists were more secular than religious

Petrarch, Dante, and Boccaccio

    • Left legal profession to write letters & poetry in Avignon

      • In Letters to the Ancient Dead, Petrarch praised ancient Rome

      • Epic poem Africa pays tribute to Roman general

      • Biographies of famous Roman men

      • Most famous work were love sonnets to “Laura” – a married woman he admired from afar

  • Petrarch was more secular than his counterpart –

    • Dante’s Vita Nuova & Divine Comedy & Petrarch’s sonnets are foundations of Italian vernacular literature

    • Decameron – 100 stories told by 3 men & 7 women in a country retreat away from the plague

      • Many stories are about sexual & economic misconduct

    • He also assembled encyclopedia of Greek & Roman mythology

Directions: Below are brief descriptions of the 9 stages of hell according to Dante. After reading about each stage, come up with a list for what types of people in modern society (famous or in general) would inhabit that stage. Worth 18 points.

Level 1. You are in limbo, a place of sorrow without torment. There is no punishment here, and the atmosphere is peaceful, yet sad.

What types of people (famous or in general) would you find here?

Level 2. You have come to a place mute of all light, where the wind bellows as the sea does in a tempest. This is the realm where the lustful spend eternity. Here, sinners are blown around endlessly by the unforgiving winds of unquenchable desire as punishment for their transgressions. You have betrayed reason at the behest of your appetite for pleasure, and so here you are doomed to remain.

What types of people (famous or in general) would you find here?

Level 3. In the third circle, you find yourself amidst eternal rain, maledict, cold, and heavy. The gluttons are punished here, lying in the filthy mixture of shadows and of putrid water. Because you consumed in excess, you meet your fate beneath the cold, dirty rain, amidst the other souls that there lay unhappily in the stinking mud.

What types of people (famous or in general) would you find here?

Level 4. Just before the river Styx is the Fourth Level of Hell. Here, the prodigal and the avaricious suffer their punishment, as they roll weights back and forth against one another. You will share eternal damnation with others who either wasted and lived greedily and insatiably, or who stockpiled their fortunes, hoarding everything and sharing nothing.

What types of people (famous or in general) would you find here?

Level 5. The river Styx runs through this level of Hell, and in it are punished the wrathful and the gloomy. The former are forever lashing out at each other in anger, furious and naked, tearing each other piecemeal with their teeth. The latter are gurgling in the black mud, slothful and sullen, withdrawn from the world. Because you lived a cruel, vindictive and hateful life, you meet your fate in the Styx.

What types of people (famous or in general) would you find here?

Level 6 - The City of Dis. You approach Satan's wretched city where you behold a wide plain surrounded by iron walls. Before you are fields full of distress and torment terrible. Burning tombs are littered about the landscape. Inside these flaming sepulchers suffer the heretics, failing to believe in God and the afterlife, who make themselves audible by doleful sighs.

What types of people (famous or in general) would you find here?

Level 7. Guarded by the Minotaur, who snarls in fury, and encircled within the river Phlegethon, filled with boiling blood, is the Seventh Level of Hell. The violent, the assasins, the tyrants, and the war-mongers lament their pitiless mischiefs in the river, while centaurs armed with bows and arrows shoot those who try to escape their punishment. This level is also home to the wood of the suicides- stunted and gnarled trees with twisting branches and poisoned fruit. At the time of final judgement, their bodies will hang from their branches. Beyond the wood is scorching sand where those who committed violence against God and nature are showered with flakes of fire that rain down against their naked bodies. Blasphemers and sodomites writhe in pain, their tongues more loosed to lamentation, and out of their eyes gushes forth their woe.

What types of people (famous or in general) would you find here?

Level 8- the Malebolge. Many and varied sinners suffer eternally in the multi-leveled Malebolge, an ampitheatre-shapped pit of despair Wholly of stone and of an iron colour: Those guilty of fraudulence and malice; the seducers and pimps, who are whipped by horned demons; the hypocrites, who struggle to walk in lead-lined cloaks; the barraters, who are ducked in boiling pitch by demons known as the Malebranche. The magicians, diviners, fortune tellers, and panderers are all here, as are the thieves. Some wallow in human excrement.

What types of people (famous or in general) would you find here?

Level 9 – Cocytus. This is the deepest level of hell, where the fallen angel Satan himself resides. His wings flap eternally, producing chilling cold winds that freeze the thick ice found in Cocytus. The three faces of Satan, black, red, and yellow, can be seen with mouths gushing bloody foam and eyes forever weeping, as they chew on the three traitors, Judas, Brutus, and Cassius. This place is furthest removed from the source of all light and warmth. Sinners here are frozen deep in the ice, faces out, eyes and mouths frozen shut. Traitors against God, country, family, and benefactors lament their sins in this frigid pit of despair.

What types of people (famous or in general) would you find here?

Educational Reforms and Goals

  • Humanists always looking for new information

    • Collected huge collections of manuscripts

  • But did not learn for sake of learning

      • To humanists, it was better to know the good than to know the truth

  • So humanists reformed the education curriculum (based on the Roman Quintilian’s Education of the Orator)

    • Humanist teachers focused on reading classical works, physical exercise, languages

      • Baldassare Castiglione’s Book of the Courtier one of best humanist works

        • Written as guide for how to live as a noble, it embodies ideals of humanism

The Florentine “Academy” and the Revival of Platonism

  • What brought about this revival in Florence?

    • Greek learning promoted there late 1300s

    • Mid-1400s, Greek scholars & manuscripts came west (after eastern & western churches reunited)

    • Academy was not traditional school – it was gathering of humanists devoted to reviving works of Plato and the Neoplatonists (Plotinus, Proclus, Porphyry, Dionysius)

    • To help, Marsilio Ficino edited & published the complete works of Plato

  • Why was Platonism appealing?

      • To Plato, there were two worlds –

      • Human reason lay in the eternal sphere –

  • Plato had impact on Pico’s Oration on the Dignity of Man

    • Claims people are only creatures who can be whatever they choose to be (good or bad)

Critical Work of the Humanists: Lorenzo Valla

    • Lorenzo Valla, scholar of Latin & philology, was one of them

      • He was popular among Protestant reformers (even though Valla was Catholic) because:

        • He exposed the fraudulent Donation of Constantine

      • Donation was grant of huge territories Constantine supposedly gave to pope

  • Young humanist critics would later form the first group of Martin Luther’s supporters

Directions: After looking at the definitions of predestination and free will, explain why you think people would accept and reject both. Finally, explain which one you agree with and explain why (if you don’t agree with either, explain why). Worth 20 points.

Predestination – doctrine that God had already decided before their birth who would receive salvation (“heaven”) and who would receive damnation (“hell”)

Free Will – doctrine that the conduct of human beings expresses personal choice and is not simply determined by divine forces

Why would someone believe in this?

Why would someone believe in this?

Why would someone not believe in this?

Why would someone not believe in this?

Which makes the most sense to you? Why?

Civic Humanism

  • Humanists criticized traditional education as often useless

    • Humanists believed education should promote virtue & public service –

  • Examples of this found in Florence – 3 humanists were chancellors of city:

    • Coluccio Salutati, Leonardo Bruni, & Poggio Bracciolini

      • They all used their rhetorical skill to rally the Florentines against Naples & Milan

    • More interested in pursuing narrow scholarly interests (in Latin) than in helping others

  • In response, two humanists – Niccolo Machiavelli & Francesco Guicciardini – wrote contemporary history in Italian

    • Now, 2 sides to humanism meet –

Renaissance Art

  • During Renaissance, church values were no longer more important than those of laity

    • Painting & sculpture of High Renaissance (1450-1527) reflected this change

      • Medieval art =

      • Renaissance art =

  • Renaissance artists created symmetry & proportionality = harmony of universe

    • Also very realistic –

  • New technical skills in 15th century helped these artists

    • Oil paints became available

    • Shading used to enhanced more natural look –

    • Using parallel lines & different-sized figures to create illusion of depth & distance –

      • Now art was three-dimensional and more natural

  • Giotto

    • Famous for his frescoes (paintings on walls)

    • His natural paintings replaced the two-dimensional art of Middle Ages

    • Famous for reviving the classical nude figure

Leonardo da Vinci

  • Leonardo was the prime example of the Renaissance man – universal talents

    • Advisor to Italian princes & French king Francis I (military equipment)

    • Promoted scientific experimentation

    • Self-taught botanist

  • Paintings had ability to depict emotion & thought of a person just by their facial expression


    • Loved & respected by everyone

    • Known for his paintings of the Madonna & the fresco in the Vatican – The School of Athens – perfect example of Renaissance painting techniques

      • Demonstrates perfect use of linear perspective & proportionality


  • Michelangelo was genius in many ways – but he was miserable

    • His sculpture of David perfectly demonstrates Renaissance obsession with harmony, symmetry, & proportion

  • Michelangelo worked for 4 different popes

      • They span 10,000 square feet and include 343 figures

      • Took Michelangelo 4 years to complete

  • His later work is more complex & mark the passing from the High Renaissance to new style called mannerism

  • Mannerism

    • Sharp contrast to the symmetry of High Renaissance

Directions: You will examine two different works of art below by filling in the comparison chart. The paintings are shown below and will be shown in class on the screen. Worth 26 points.

Work of Art 1

Work of Art 2










Nationality of Artist



What do you see? List all the items you see in the art work.



What is the main subject of the art work?



Where is the subject located? How can you tell?



Describe the composition of the art work.



Describe the elements of art present in the work. Line, color, texture, space, etc.



Describe the principles of art present in the work. Balance, emphasis, proportion, pattern, etc.



What materials did the artist use to create the art work?



What is the mood of the art work?



Add your own comparisons



file:pope julius ii.jpg

The Arnolfini Portrait by Jan van Eyck (oil on panel) 1434 Pope Julius II by Raphael (oil on panel) 1511

Slavery in the Renaissance

  • Slavery common throughout Renaissance Italy

    • Slave market started back in 12th century (Spanish sold Muslim slaves to wealthy Italians)

    • Slaves worked in households and on plantations (sugar)

    • Slaves imported from all over from many different races (Greeks, Russians, Iranians, Africans)

    • Almost everyone – from doctors to priests – owned at least one slave

    • Slaves were cheaper than paying free workers over lifetime

  • But most slaves treated fairly well (considered part of household)

    • Owners frequently got female slaves pregnant and adopted children as heirs

    • It was in their best interests to keep slaves happy –

  • Nevertheless, slaves were always outsiders in Italy

    • They had been taken from their homelands –

2. Italy’s Political Decline: The French Invasions (1494-1527)

The Treaty of Lodi

  • As land of city-states, Italy needed cooperation to maintain internal peace and safety from outsiders

      • Treaty made Naples, Milan, & Florence allies against Venice & Papal States

        • If foreign invasion threatened, the 5 states would join forces

    • Peace ended 1494 when Naples, supported by Florence & Borgia Pope Alexander VI, threatened Milan (led by tyrant Ludovico il Moro)

  • Ludovico then asked France for help

    • French kings had ruled Naples 1266-1442

Charles VIII’s March Through Italy

  • Louis XI claimed French owned Italian land

    • But he never invaded Italy to prove it

    • In 5 months after Ludovico’s request for help, Charles was in Italy

      • Raced through Florence & Papal States & into Naples

    • In Florence, ruler Piero de’ Medici tried to make Charles happy by giving him Pisa & other Florentine possessions

      • Result = Piero exiled by his own people

  • Now Charles could enter Florence without a fight

    • After Charles left, Savonarola ruled Florence for 4 years

      • But his antipapal policies meant Savonarola would not last long in Italy

  • Charles’s march through Italy scared Ferdinand of Aragon – worried about French-Italian alliance

    • So he created his own alliance –

      • Venice, Papal States, Emperor Maximilian I, Ferdinand of Aragon allied against France

        • France & Spain would soon be at war

  • Ludovico now realized error of inviting France into Milan

Pope Alexander VI & the Borgia Family

  • French returned to Italy under Charles’s successor – Louis XII

    • Alexander was most corrupt pope of all time

      • Openly promoted political careers of his children – Cesare & Lucrezia

    • During Avignon papacy, north central Italy (Romagna) fell away from church

      • Alexander wanted them back under his control

    • League of Venice also wanted to control Romagna

        • Alexander annulled marriage of Louis XII & Charles VIII’s sister so Louis could marry Charles’s widow

        • Also made archbishop of Rouen (Louis’s friend) a cardinal

        • Also agreed to leave League of Venice (making League too weak to resist French control of Milan)

        • In exchange, Cesare Borgia married sister of king of Navarre =

        • Cesare also received land from Louis XII & promise of French military aid in Romagna

  • Louis invaded Milan 1499

  • Ludovico –

  • 1500, Louis & Ferdinand split Naples

Pope Julius II

  • Alexander VI’s successor as pope was enemy of Borgia family –

    • He ended strength of the Borgia & put their lands in Romagna under papal authority

    • Many people shocked by how secular Julius was

      • The humanist Erasmus could not believe his eyes when he saw bullfight in papal palace

      • So he wrote satire – Julius Excluded from Heaven – describing Julius’s failed efforts to convince Saint Peter to let him into heaven

  • Julius drove Venetians out of Romagna 1509

    • Julius, Ferdinand of Aragon, Venice formed second Holy League

      • With help from Maximilian I & the Swiss, French were kicked out of Italy and defeated 1513

    • This time, the French massacred Swiss soldiers (revenge for defeating them in 1513)

      • This convinced pope to issue Concordat of Bologna

        • The Concordat helped keep France Catholic during Protestant Reformation

  • But France’s invasion into Italy started series of 4 major wars with Spain

Niccolo Machiavelli

  • Foreign invasions destroyed Italy

    • As French, Spanish, & German armies destroyed his country, Niccolo Machiavelli watched & learned

  • Machiavelli studied ancient Rome & was impressed with Roman virtu

    • Patriotic self-sacrifice impressed Machiavelli – he saw none of this in his countrymen

    • Machiavelli also had republican beliefs

      • He hated Italian people for allowing their internal fighting to cause their self-destruction

    • In short, Italy needed smart dictators to save it

    • The most important personality trait of a good ruler was ability to instill fear in his people

  • Machiavelli hoped the Medici family would produce the strong ruler Italy needed

    • But the Medici pope – Clement VII – did nothing to stop Emperor Charles V from sacking Rome 1527

      • Machiavelli died that year

Directions: As a class, we will come up with a list of 10 positions that require a leader and 10 important qualities of a leader. Then you will read a quote from Machiavelli about leadership, summarize it, and then explain whether or not you agree with it. Finally, circle the leaders you believe Machiavelli would have more respect for. Worth 29 points.
1. Identify 10 positions that require leadership 2. Name important qualities of a good leader

"Because how one ought to live is so far removed from how one lives that he who lets go of what is done for that which one ought to do sooner learns ruin than his own preservation: because a man who might want to make a show of goodness in all things necessarily comes to ruin among so many who are not good. Because of this it is necessary for a prince, wanting to maintain himself, to learn how to be able to be not good and to use this and not use it according to necessity.”

3. Summarize what Machiavelli is saying in this passage.
4. Do you agree with Machiavelli or disagree? Explain.
5. Which of the following leaders would Machiavelli respect more? (circle)
Hitler or Gandhi
Martin Luther King or Genghis Khan
Stalin or Lincoln
Caesar or Brutus
Barack Obama or George W. Bush

3. Revival of Monarchy in Northern Europe

National Monarchies

  • After 1450, leadership in Europe shifted from divided feudal monarchies to unified national monarchies

      • (Problem of the one and the many – search for the one thing behind all other things in the world)

    • Old feudal monarchy – power divided between king & his vassals

    • After Hundred Years’ War & Great Schism, nobles & church got weaker

  • Towns now began to join forces with king

    • Loyal townspeople (instead of nobles or clergy) worked for king as lawyers, bookkeepers, military strategists, & diplomats

    • Paved way for rise of sovereign nations

Sovereign State

  • In sovereign state, vassals no longer control taxes, war, or legal system

      • Taxes, wars, & laws became national issues (not just local issues)

    • Ferdinand & Isabella of Spain rarely called the Cortes into session

    • French Estates General met sporadically

    • Henry VII of England raised revenue without asking for Parliament’s help

The Civil Service

  • The people were never completely powerless to the one

    • They hired civil servants to create & impose those laws

      • Castile – corregidores

      • England – justices of the peace

      • France – bailiffs

  • These agents often became closely attached to the areas they administered

Standing Armies

  • Monarchs began creating large national standing armies in 1400s

      • Mercenaries recruited from Switzerland & Germany formed majority of “king’s army”

        • Danger = if king didn’t pay mercenaries, they could revolt & turn on him

Directions: Based on a class discussion, who do you think would be more effective – standing armies of professional soldiers or noble cavalry? We will discuss the benefits and drawbacks of both. Worth 20 points.





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