Not prehistoric?



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Final Exam Study Guide


  1. What do the following things have in common: a diet with a high variety of foods, the ability to move to avoid harsh weather and invasions from hostile tribes, and a strong body?

  2. The prefix paleo- means new.

  3. The Sumerian written language was called _____, while Egyptians wrote in _____, and ancient Indians wrote in ______.

  4. Give a good definition of a city-state?

  5. The area of land in north-eastern Africa and south-western Asia (including what is known as the Middle East) where agriculture is first thought to have started is called ______.

  6. As people started to migrate to places all over the world, most groups that settled in one place did so near _____ and ______.

  7. What evidence below lets us know that Sumerians were not prehistoric?

  8. What is the difference between an artifact and a fossil?

  9. What changed people's lives most during the Neolithic Age?

  10. The area known as Mesopotamia was located between what two rivers?

  11. What was the greatest benefit when people began farming?

  12. All four Mesopotamian empires eventually crumbled because of the same problem. What was it?

  13. Why did many people, including the ancient Hebrews, become herders instead of farmers?

  14. This leader was the first that helped establish the pharaoh as a central authority by keeping strict control over Egypt’s food supply including overseeing the harvest and storing extra grain. He controlled a large network of government officials who carried out his laws. And he emphasized his supreme power by declaring himself a god.

  15. Which of the following careers was one of the few ways that men in ancient Egypt could rise above their parents’ social class?

  16. Of the four empires of Mesopotamia, which is the only one to have at one time conquered parts of both Egypt and Kush?

  17. The New Kingdom was a time of peace, stability, and the height of Egyptian power, trade, and building. In contrast, the 200 year intermediate period between the Old Kingdom and the Middle Kingdom was a time of _____.

  18. What is true of people of all social classes in Egypt?

  19. As a result of losing Egypt to a powerful Mesopotamian empire, the Kushites learned what special skill?

  20. Once the Kushites split away from Egypt and reestablished a new capital in far away Meroe, they gave up an Egyptianized lifestyle and returned to their more African traditions and practices by doing what things?

  21. Kushite/Nubian Kandake Amanirenas fought side by side with her soldiers even losing an eye in battle. Is this true or false?

  22. The Roman Empire conquered the peoples of Canaan, Egypt, Greece, and Mesopotamia, but could not defeat the Nubians and therefore had to sign a peace treaty with them.

    1. True

    2. False

  23. Historians use the primary source artifacts like the sacred text of the Egyptian’s called the ___________ to learn about Egyptian civilization, the _________ (sacred text of the Jewish people) to learn about the religion and customs of the ancient Hebrews, _____________ to learn about religion, life, and culture in Babylonia, and the __________ to learn about the ancient customs and beliefs in India. (Your answer must be in the correct order.)

    1. Book of the Dead; Torah; Hammurabi’s Code of Law; Vedas

    2. hieroglyphics; sanskrit; Lost Scrolls of Atlantis; meriotic writing of Nubia

    3. Vedas; ziggurat; Map of military conquest; Yin and yang

  24. The ancestors of Abraham were _______ worshiping many gods at temples called ziggurats, but he and his descendants would follow a _______ religion. (Your answer must be in the correct order.)

    1. monotheistic; polytheistic

    2. polytheistic; monotheistic

    3. monotheistic; monotheistic

    4. polytheistic; polytheistic

  25. Which of the following is not true when comparing the Ten Commandments of the Hebrews and the Code of Hammurabi that was followed by their ancestors?

    1. Both Moses and Hammurabi claim that god told him to create laws that applied to everyone in their culture.

    2. Both had a set of laws that were carved onto stone.

    3. Both worked to unite their people.

    4. Both had laws that covered many situations and set forth punishments for not following the laws.

  26. Which of the following is the best definition of the Exodus?

    1. It is a person who speaks or interprets for God to other people.

    2. It is a terrible disaster affecting many people and thought to be sent by God as a punishment.

    3. It is the departure of the Hebrews and their companions from Egypt.

    4. It is the first five books of the Torah, also known as the Old Testament to Christians.

  27. Which of the following empires dealt the final blow destroying the temple of Jerusalem, forbidding Jews from entering the city, and thus forcing the final scattering of Jews to places all throughout their empire?

    1. The Persian Empire

    2. Alexander the Great

    3. The Greek Empire

    4. The Roman Empire

    5. The Egyptian Empire

  28. Women of ancient Babylonia typically had more rights that women of Egypt; in the same way women of ancient Athens had more rights and freedoms in society that women of Sparta.

    1. True

    2. False

  29. Jews found that by building synagogues they could __________ their communities and faith. (Choose the word below that best completes the sentence above.)

    1. enclose

    2. strengthen

    3. weaken

    4. destroy




  1. Although the Jews dispersed after their lands were conquered by invaders, in our modern times this place remains one of the most sacred to Jewish people throughout the world.

    1. Mines of Solomon

    2. The Temple in Jerusalem

    3. The Great Pyramid at Giza

    4. The Red Sea

  2. Which of the following do both India and China share in common?

    1. the Himalayas

    2. Buddhism

    3. Meditation

    4. all of the above

  3. The inscribed oracle bones and turtle shells from the _____ dynasty lead archeologists to conclude that these people were the first in China to have written language.

    1. Kongfuzi

    2. Han

    3. Khan

    4. Loa-tzu

    5. Shang

  4. The Emperor of Qin executed hundreds of these people, marked others with facial tattoos, and burned their sacred texts.

    1. Women caught fighting as soldiers

    2. Tibetan priests

    3. Confucian scholars

    4. Civil servants

  5. The spiritual teachings of this person were imported to China from India.

    1. Siddhartha Guatama

    2. Mahatma Gandhi

    3. Dalai Lama

    4. Qin Shihuangdi

  6. The Zhou dynasty increased stability of their rule through a system of relationships and government called ___.

    1. feudalism

    2. legalism

    3. Buddhism

    4. Warring States

    5. Democracy

  7. Three areas that Emperor Qin standardized to make trade easier were

    1. language, scholarship, and trade.

    2. money, weights, and measures.

    3. weapons, language, armies, and writing.

  8. Although the Han did adopt the centralized government established by Emperor Qin Shihuangdi, they softened the harsh ruling style of the emperor and brought Confucian ideas back into government. This affected the length of their rule and helped usher in a golden age.

    1. The preceding statement is true.

    2. The preceding statement is false.

  9. This philosophy, which taught that happiness and peace come from living in harmony with nature, had the most influence on Chinese thought, writing, and art:

    1. Taoism

    2. Legalism

    3. Qinism

    4. Confucianism

  10. This philosophy was adopted by the Qin, and its scholar Hanfeizi taught that in order to build a strong government and a well-organized society, leaders should establish strict laws. They should give rewards for good behavior and harsh punishments for bad behavior:

    1. Taoism

    2. Legalism

    3. Qinism

    4. Confucianism

  11. What is a civil servant?

    1. A civil servant is a person who is employed/hired to clean houses of priests and kings.

    2. A civil servant is a person who was in prison for his debts and must work as a servant for a number of years in order to be pardoned and pay back money from their crime.

    3. A civil servant is a person who works for the government.




  1. The isolating nature of the geography of China affected the early settlement patterns, government, and history.

    1. The above statement is true.

    2. The above statement is false.

  2. The Shang did not believe that dead ancestors had the power to help or harm the living, nor did they think they could get advice from their ancestral guardians.

    1. The aforementioned statement is true.

    2. The aforementioned statement is false.

  3. Under what rationale did the Zhou seize rule over the group of states they conquered in China?

    1. Mandate of Heaven

    2. Legalism

    3. Government sanctions

    4. Democracy




  1. Both the military under Emperor Qin in ancient China and the competitions of the Olympics in ancient Greece were based on a system called _______ because position, rank, and fame were based on one’s achievements rather than his family/ancestry. **

    1. meritocracy

    2. democracy

    3. philosopher kings

    4. nobility

  2. The most amazing part of Qin Shihuangdi’s tomb was the more than 6,000 ___ that were buried there.

    1. mummified servants

    2. jade pots

    3. terracotta soldiers

    4. golden disks and medallions




  1. Zhang Qian is known as the _________ and made his journeys during the ____ dynasty? **

    1. “father of the Silk Road_; Han

    2. “interpreter of the oracle bones”; Shang

    3. Tiger of Qin; Qin

    4. Buddha; Zhou

  2. The Romans highly valued silk and traded which of the following items in large quantities to get it? Choose all answers that apply.

    1. gold

    2. glassware

    3. silkworms

    4. China

  3. Which of the following features make India a subcontinent?

    1. It is surrounded on three sides by water.

    2. It is attached to a continent, meaning it was once its own land mass.

    3. It was once part of Pangaea.

    4. All of the above.

  4. What was one feature of Mohenjodaro that was different from settlements in other parts of the ancient world that were built around the same time?

    1. It had walls.

    2. It had private homes.

    3. It had roads.

    4. It had a sewer system.

  5. A likely reason Siddhartha came up with the idea of the “middle way” was that

    1. Neither extreme wealth nor extreme poverty suited him during his spiritual journey toward enlightenment.

    2. Neither prayer nor suffering lead to enlightenment.

    3. Neither the Four Truths nor the Eightfold Path suited him.

    4. Neither Hinduism nor Buddhism led to enlightenment.

  6. For over 2000 years, Indian children have been taught how to live through these famous stories of a beloved prince. These stories tell about life in ancient India and offers models in dharma.

    1. Chronicles of Siddhartha

    2. Sanskrit

    3. Ramayana

    4. Song of Solomon




  1. As a result of the following principle of Hinduism people in India value marriage, try to practice nonviolence, share food with others, care for their soul, and try to follow the law. **

    1. dharma

    2. samsara

    3. Brahman

    4. Belief in Multiple gods




  1. In most religions, a holy journey taken for reflection and cleanse one’s sins (wrong-doings) is called a

    1. road-trip

    2. pilgrimage

    3. reincarnation

    4. monastery

  2. This king under this empire conquered almost all of India but then rejected violence, spread Buddhism, and used the principles of the Buddhist religion to govern his empire.

    1. Chandragupta I under the Gupta Empire accomplished the above feat.

    2. Ashoka under the Mauryan Empire accomplished this feat.

    3. Chandragupta under the Mauryan Empire accomplished this feat.

    4. Siddhartha under the Guatama Empire accomplished this feat.




  1. Ashoka, Hammurabi, and Moses are all similar because

    1. All three were kings of great civilizations.

    2. All three were chosen by the great god of their religion to lead their people out of suffering.

    3. All three posted laws for all to see that would influence people to live in a just manner.

    4. All three fought to preserve their monuments so that people of today could follow their wise laws.

  2. Ancient civilizations were usually established in either river valleys or coastal plains.

    1. The above statement is true.

    2. The above statement is false.

  3. A period of great prosperity, wealth, and advancements is usually called this.

    1. polytheism

    2. monotheism

    3. dynasty

    4. golden age

  4. A large wind common to India that brings heavy rains usually lasting months.

    1. drought

    2. monsoon

    3. tornado

    4. hurricane

  5. Mohenjodaro had a sewer system of clay pipes that sent clean water to the homes of the rich and poor and sent dirty water and waste out through channels along the streets into the Indus River.

    1. The above statement is true.

    2. The above statement is false.

  6. Why were olive trees, grape vines, goats, and sheep well suited to Greece?

    1. They don’t need much sunlight.

    2. They don’t need much attention.

    3. They don’t need much fresh water.

    4. They don’t need much flat land.

  7. Who most likely would have said these words?

I was in the army when people started complaining that members of the government were getting richer and passing laws that made everyone else poorer. So I stepped forward, and with their help, I became leader.”




    1. a king of ancient Athens

    2. a citizen of ancient Athens

    3. an aristocrat of ancient Athens

    4. a tyrant of ancient Athens



  1. What is one way that Sparta’s geography affected its peoples’ attitudes or actions?

    1. Spartans traded with people from all over the world.

    2. Sparta developed a democratic government.

    3. Spartans were suspicious of outsiders.

    4. Spartans changed their way of life frequently.



  1. Sparta got the land it needed by conquering its neighbors. What happened after Sparta conquered a neighboring land?

    1. Spartans demanded that the conquered people leave the land and let Spartans move in.

    2. Spartans demanded that the conquered people become slaves called helots and give Sparta much of their food crops.

    3. The conquered people moved to Sparta and sold their goods in the marketplace.

    4. The conquered people traveled by sea to other countries to set up colonies and trade for barley and wheat.

  2. What was the main purpose of Athenian education for boys?

    1. to prepare them to run family businesses

    2. to prepare them for good marriages

    3. to prepare them for military service

    4. to prepare them to be good citizens



  1. Where did Athenian women have the most influence?

    1. in the Assembly

    2. in the school

    3. in the home

    4. in the market



  1. Who had the most power in Sparta?

    1. the kings

    2. the Council of Elders

    3. the priestesses

    4. the Assembly



  1. What was the main purpose of Spartan education?

    1. to prepare brave soldiers

    2. to prepare skilled craftspeople

    3. to prepare strong athletes

    4. to prepare active citizens

  2. The following passage might have been written by an Athenian soldier around 480 B.C.E.

“I will stand shoulder to shoulder with the brave men of Greece—Spartans as well as fellow Athenians—and fight to the death, if that is what it takes to stop these murderous invaders [Persians].”


What does this passage tell us?

    1. The Athenians and Spartans would have stronger armies than the Persians.

    2. The Athenians and Spartans would join together to fight a common enemy.

    3. Greece had never been invaded before.

    4. Greek men had never fought without women before.

  1. What does it mean to say that Alexander conquered by using kindness?

    1. He let towns that surrendered to his army keep their own leaders.

    2. He convinced people to vote for him to make him their only leader.

    3. He gave people gifts of gold and jewels in order to become their leader.

    4. He offered lessons for people in the religion he wanted them to practice.



  1. In places that he conquered, Alexander built cities with these features: an agora, a temple, a theater, and a university. He had cities designed this way

    1. because he enjoyed watching people buy and sell their goods.

    2. because he wanted the cities to be like Greek cities.

    3. because he believed people needed a public place to pray.

    4. because he thought it would encourage people to attend plays.

  2. What was King Philip of Macedonia’s main achievement?

    1. He gave the Greek city-states their freedom.

    2. He united the Greek city-states under his command.

    3. He led the Greek city-states to victory over Persia.

    4. He helped Sparta defeat Athens.

  3. Because the ancient Greeks developed democracy, which of the following is part of the American government system today? **

    1. a council of elders

    2. juries of citizens

    3. a national religion

    4. a symbolic royalty

  4. Which of the following is true when comparing and contrasting the modern democracy of the United States to ancient Athenian democracy?

    1. In both cultures foreign-born men could become citizens and vote.

    2. In the United States we vote on every law directly just like the Athenians did.

    3. Although women can vote in the democratic system of the US, women of ancient Athens were not allowed to vote.

    4. Both cultures started as a monarchy, then became an oligarchy, a tyranny, and lastly a democracy.

  5. Why were the first Olympics held? **

    1. to honor Olympus

    2. to honor Zeus

    3. to honor Olympia

    4. to honor Apollo

  6. Because of our connection to Greek and Roman mythology, young people are called _____ in honor of the goddess of youth ______. **

    1. juvenile; Juventas

    2. helots; Hestia

    3. delinquents; Ares

    4. juvy; Hermes/Mercury

There are 65 questions for regular credit and 10 bonus questions.


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