Norton, Chapter 25 The Great Depression and the New Deal



Download 173.87 Kb.
Date conversion16.05.2016
Size173.87 Kb.

Norton, Chapter 25 - The Great Depression and the New Deal

On your answer document indicate the letter of the response which best answers the question or completes the prompt.


1.

The primary objective of the Farmers' Holiday Association was to

A)

obtain compensation for untilled acreage.

B)

obtain legislation requiring the government to buy up farm surpluses.

C)

convince the government to guarantee farm mortgages.

D)

keep farm products off the market until prices improved.




2.

The Congress of Industrial Organizations differed from the American Federation of Labor in which of the following ways?

A)

The CIO excluded farm workers, whereas the AFL did not.

B)

The CIO pursued practical objectives such as better wages, whereas the AFL pursued a socialist agenda.

C)

The CIO was composed of skilled workers only, whereas the AFL opened its membership to all workers.

D)

The CIO allowed women and nonwhites as members, whereas the AFL did not.




3.

The banking crisis that began in the United States in 1929 was caused in part by

A)

the collapse of the World Bank.

B)

the Federal Reserve Board's decision to raise the discount rate several times during the previous year.

C)

enactment of legislation during the Coolidge administration to impose higher taxes on interest income.

D)

risky loans made during the 1920s.




4.

As a result of the building of large multipurpose dams during the New Deal era, the federal government

A)

demonstrated its concern for protecting the ecosystems associated with western river systems.

B)

attempted to foster the growth of family farms at the expense of large factory farms.

C)

gained a great deal of influence over the future of the West by gaining control of much of the water and hydroelectric power in the region.

D)

used public money to benefit large corporate giants engaged in generating hydroelectric power.




5.

After passage of the National Industrial Recovery Act, the Roosevelt administration

A)

announced that minority-owned businesses were exempt from the provisions of the act.

B)

selected small-business representatives and consumer representatives to write the industry-wide codes required under the act.

C)

announced that businesses that did not comply with the provisions of the act would be prosecuted.

D)

called upon consumers to boycott businesses that did not display the National Recovery Administration's symbol, the Blue Eagle.




6.

Which of the following was the enforcement arm of the National Labor Relations Act?

A)

The National Labor Relations Board

C)

The Bureau of Labor and Management Affairs

B)

The Work Projects Administration

D)

The Committee of Industrial Organizations




7.

Which of the following statements best explains the contradiction contained in Hoover's approach to the depression?

A)

He encouraged people to save, but his tax policies promoted spending.

B)

He sought to increase taxes, yet he argued in favor of deficit spending.

C)

He sought to reduce taxes, yet he argued that a balanced budget was essential.

D)

He used federal funds to feed drought-stricken livestock, yet he rejected the use of federal money to feed impoverished farm families.




8.

Which of the following is true of the American Liberty League?

A)

It tried to rally support for the New Deal by implying that critics of the Roosevelt administration were unpatriotic.

B)

It criticized the New Deal for ignoring the needs of minorities.

C)

It tried to turn southern whites against the New Deal by secretly giving money to a racist group in the South.

D)

It lobbied for passage of legislation to establish a minimum wage for all American workers.




9.

Which of the following is true of the National Labor Relations (Wagner) Act?

A)

It granted workers the right to unionize and bargain collectively with management.

B)

It gave the president the power to end strikes that threatened the national interest.

C)

It authorized the president to mediate between business and labor in strikes lasting longer than ninety days.

D)

It guaranteed that workers would be paid a nationally established minimum wage.




10.

Which of the following is true of the Emergency Banking Relief Act?

A)

It put the responsibility for reopening banks into the hands of state examining boards.

B)

It provided for the reopening of banks that were solvent and the reorganization of those that were not.

C)

It provided for federally insured deposits in reopened banks.

D)

It provided for the complete separation of commercial banking from investment banking.




11.

Why did the industrial recovery program under the National Industrial Recovery Act come to an end in 1935?

A)

Congress refused to appropriate more money to allow it to continue.

B)

Roosevelt decided it was a failure and refused to continue it.

C)

Roosevelt abandoned it because of increasing opposition from businessmen.

D)

The Supreme Court ruled it to be unconstitutional.




12.

During the Second Hundred Days, Roosevelt's approach to big business was to

A)

begin a propaganda campaign to build support for nationalizing key industries.

B)

make business the government's ally by naming top executives to key cabinet posts.

C)

hit business with antitrust suits and higher corporate taxes.

D)

try to gain the support of corporations by offering tax breaks.




13.

Which of the following was a consequence of the 1936 United Auto Workers' strike against General Motors?

A)

The union movement suffered a severe setback because of the association the public made between the United Auto Workers and the Community Party.

B)

With help from the National Guard, General Motors ultimately crushed the strike.

C)

General Motors ultimately agreed to recognize the union.

D)

General Motors mobilized public opinion against the union and the strike was broken.




14.

Which of the following groups generally voted Republican before the 1930s but became a major part of the New Deal coalition during the 1930s?




A) Catholics B) Northern African Americans C) Organized labor D) The urban masses




15.

President Roosevelt responded to the 1937–1939 recession by

A)

increasing the nation's tariffs.

C)

reviving deficit spending.

B)

increasing the gold value of the dollar.

D)

proposing a substantial tax cut.




16.

Huey Long's Share Our Wealth Society advocated

A)

a national health insurance plan.

B)

federal education subsidies to all families with college-age children.

C)

a guaranteed annual income to each family.

D)

government ownership and control of all banks.




17.

The Reconstruction Finance Corporation was designed to provide

A)

federal loans to homeowners who could not pay their mortgages.

B)

federal loans to banks, insurance companies, and railroads.

C)

direct loans to the unemployed.

D)

direct relief to the unemployed.




18.

Which of the following is true of the Public Works Administration, funded through the National Industrial Recovery Act?

A)

It was clear evidence that Roosevelt did not understand basic economic theory.

B)

It was implemented without deficit spending.

C)

It was designed primarily to save financial institutions and railroads.

D)

It was designed to spur economic recovery by pumping federal money into the economy.




19.

Between 1929 and 1933, many American farmers tried to make up for the low prices offered for farm goods by

A)

exporting their surplus crops.

C)

decreasing production.

B)

increasing production.

D)

withdrawing their crops from the market.




20.

Authors associated with the Federal Writers Project

A)

had to adhere to strict language and story-line restrictions established by the Works Projects Administration

B)

collected and published the stories of many freed slaves.

C)

were usually critical of Roosevelt and the New Deal.

D)

primarily dealt with the trials and tribulations of wealthy Americans in the works they wrote.




21.

Which of the following statements is correct concerning the application of New Deal laws and programs to women?

A)

The minimum wage established by the NRA codes applied equally to men and women.

B)

The maximum-hour provisions mandated by the NRA did not apply to women workers.

C)

Under the 1935 Social Security Act, women in agriculture and domestic service were given special benefits not offered to men.

D)

Women were not eligible for employment in the Civilian Conservation Corps.




22.

The National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933 sought to promote economic recovery by

A)

nationalizing key industries and lowering the capital gains tax.

B)

ending cutthroat competition among competing businesses by allowing them to cooperate in limiting production, establishing prices, and setting workers' wages.

C)

implementing Keynesian economic theory and providing direct relief.

D)

reducing taxes and lowering interest rates.




23.

Roosevelt's economic policies at the beginning of his second term revealed his desire to

A)

end economic discrimination against racial minorities.

B)

experiment with Keynesian economic principles.

C)

balance the budget.

D)

expand relief programs for the homeless.




24.

The industrial unions that came to power in the 1930s

A)

organized the workers in each separate factory into a separate, independent union.

B)

consisted of skilled workers in a particular trade.

C)

represented all the workers within a certain industry, both skilled and unskilled.

D)

ultimately lost in their struggle against traditional craft unions.




25.

Which of the following was the most important factor in Roosevelt's decision to seek a third term?

A)

His strong dislike for Wendell Willkie

B)

His desire to balance the budget before leaving office

C)

The worsening depression

D)

The rise of an aggressive Germany under the leadership of Adolph Hitler




26.

Which of the following was true of the Social Security Act of 1935?

A)

The more workers earned, the higher rate of tax they paid.

B)

Workers and employers, not the government, paid for old-age benefits.

C)

The act's unemployment compensation system was fully funded by workers and received no contributions from employers and no tax revenues.

D)

The law covered farm workers and domestic servants as well as blue- and white-collar workers.




27.

Which of the following may be considered a failure of the New Deal?

A)

It overcentralized power in the hands of the president.

B)

It relied excessively on deficit spending.

C)

It failed to end extensive government corruption.

D)

It was unable to end unemployment.




28.

Which of the following is true of John Collier, Roosevelt's commissioner of Indian affairs?

A)

He attempted to resettle Native Americans to urban areas.

B)

He stressed the need to abolish the reservation system.

C)

He called for a breakup of tribal organizations.

D)

He wanted to reverse what he believed to be the destructive Indian policies of the past.




29.

Which of the following is true of the Tennessee Valley Authority?

A)

It was the first step in the federal government's attempt to nationalize public-power facilities throughout the United States.

B)

It did not bring about the economic revitalization of the Tennessee Valley and serves as a classic example of pork-barrel legislation.

C)

It degraded the water by dumping waste and pollutants into rivers and streams.

D)

Through its educational programs relating to soil management, it prevented further soil erosion in the vast area of the Tennessee Valley.




30.

During the depression, many argued that women workers deprived male breadwinners of jobs. Was this argument valid? Why or why not?

A)

No, because women were heavily concentrated in particular occupations dominated by women.

B)

No, because most women lost their jobs as the depression intensified.

C)

Yes, because in the 1920s women had moved into many previously male-dominated jobs.

D)

Yes, because women were willing to work for lower wages than men.




31.

Which of the following groups would be least likely to belong to the New Deal coalition?

A)

Members of organized labor

C)

Wealthy businesspeople

B)

Members of the urban working class

D)

African Americans in northern cities




32.

In response to the depression, many prominent business leaders

A)

actively campaigned for the implementation of a federal jobs program.

B)

advocated using Mussolini's reforms in Italy as the model for establishing a corporatist society.

C)

believed that economic downturns were a beneficial and natural part of the business cycle and simply should be allowed to run their course.

D)

advised President Hoover to rigidly enforce antitrust laws in order to restore competition.




33.

Which of the following was instrumental in helping to create a more homogenous mass culture during the 1930s?




A) Television B) Political conventions C) The radio D) Compulsory school-attendance laws




34.

Which of the following is true of African American workers in the early 1930s?

A)

African Americans living in the South generally fared better in finding employment than those living in other regions.

B)

African American workers in the North usually found that as industry cut production, they were the first to be fired.

C)

Laws were passed in several southern states making it illegal to hire an African American for a job if there was also a white applicant.

D)

Many African Americans joined the militant Black Shirts organization, which advocated the violent overthrow of the American government.




35.

An ironic twist to Roosevelt's court-packing plan was that

A)

Republicans supported the measure more enthusiastically than did Democrats.

B)

although the measure failed, the Supreme Court nonetheless began to render pro–New Deal decisions.

C)

two of the justices who had been pro-Roosevelt resigned in protest.

D)

when Roosevelt finally did get to appoint several justices, they consistently voted against his wishes.




36.

African Americans supported Franklin Roosevelt for which of the following reasons?

A)

Congress enacted legislation abolishing the poll tax at Roosevelt's insistence.

B)

Roosevelt's New Deal relief programs helped many African Americans in their struggle for economic survival.

C)

Roosevelt's Justice Department supported the NAACP in its legal challenges against Jim Crow laws in the southern states.

D)

Roosevelt endorsed congressional enactment of a federal antilynching law.




37.

Which of the following is true of the Hawley-Smoot Tariff?

A)

It strengthened the economy by stimulating competition that brought prices down.

B)

It weakened the economy because it resulted in other nations having less money to buy American products.

C)

It weakened the economy by making foreign products cheaper than American products.

D)

It strengthened the economy by keeping foreign goods out of the country.




38.

Dr. Francis E. Townsend advocated

A)

enactment of a government-financed medical insurance plan for all citizens over age sixty.

B)

fifty-acre land grants to dispossessed farmers who would agree to give 10 percent of their first-year profits to the government.

C)

government payments of $200 per month to all citizens over age sixty.

D)

free food and shelter for families headed by unemployed males who would agree to enroll in a government-financed job-training program.




39.

The Agricultural Adjustment Act attempted to restore the purchasing power of farmers by encouraging them to

A)

increase their production of foodstuffs.

C)

purchase more efficient farm equipment.

B)

donate their surplus crops to the unemployed.

D)

limit their production of specific crops.




40.

During the worst years of the depression, American employers responded to workers' attempts to unionize in which of the following ways?

A)

Most supported legislation at the state and national levels to outlaw unions.

B)

They publicly acknowledged that trade unions benefited both labor and management because they kept the lines of communication open between the two.

C)

They often encouraged workers to organize by industry rather than by trade or craft.

D)

They often refused to recognize unions, and some even tried to intimidate workers by hiring armed thugs.




41.

What was the purpose of the President's Organization on Unemployment Relief (POUR)?

A)

To provide funds for businesses to rehire workers

B)

To oversee the distribution of surplus food to the unemployed

C)

To generate private contributions for relief of the destitute

D)

To study the problem of joblessness and recommend a corrective course of action




42.

Which of the following factors limited the gains made by nonwhite Americans under the New Deal?

A)

Roosevelt's naïve belief that the New Deal was race neutral

B)

President Roosevelt's need for support from southern Democrats to secure passage of his legislative program

C)

Roosevelt's fear that the public would link him with militant black activists if he supported programs primarily designed to help nonwhites

D)

Conservative rulings by the Supreme Court in cases like that of the Scottsboro Boys




43.

Which of the following was true of urban school systems in the early 1930s?

A)

Most urban school systems refused to hire married women as teachers.

B)

Kindergarten programs were discontinued in all urban school systems.

C)

A majority of urban school systems began offering free after-school day-care programs.

D)

Many urban school systems reduced the school year to six months due to lack of funds.




44.

Which of the following was a consequence of the AAA?

A)

It allowed the “Okies” and “Arkies” to obtain their own farmland.

B)

It guaranteed that agricultural experts would help solve the problem of soil erosion in the Plains.

C)

It caused many midwestern farmers to go bankrupt and lose their land.

D)

It resulted in the removal of many southern sharecroppers from the land they had lived on and worked.




45.

Which of the following finally ended the depression?

A)

The massive government spending that accompanied the Second World War

B)

A tremendous increase in exports to Britain and France after the Second World War began

C)

The delayed impact of the Second New Deal

D)

The restoration of business confidence that came with the end of the New Deal




46.

Which of the following is true in relation to female employment during the 1930s?

A)

Unemployment in “women's jobs” remained significantly higher throughout the decade than unemployment in “men's jobs.”

B)

The number of women working outside the home increased throughout the decade.

C)

Women employed in low-wage manufacturing jobs were far more secure than women employed in domestic service.

D)

Women often found that employers were more willing to hire them than men because of the higher productivity rate of women.




47.

In his weekly radio sermons, Father Charles Coughlin

A)

blamed the depression on an international conspiracy of Jewish bankers.

B)

advocated the violent overthrow of the government of the United States.

C)

told his listeners that the New Deal was divinely inspired.

D)

praised the Roosevelt administration for having adopted the tenets of socialism.




48.

Which of the following is true of the National Recovery Administration?

A)

The NRA quickly demonstrated that centralized economic planning was the key to economic recovery.

B)

Many of the industry-wide codes established by the NRA reflected the interests of major corporations, not consumers.

C)

The NRA was controlled by intellectuals who were guided by abstract concepts rather than economic reality.

D)

The staff of the NRA diligently protected the interests of small businesses in the drafting of industry-wide codes.




49.

The Bonus Expeditionary Force was composed of

A)

dispossessed farmers.

C)

radical agitators.

B)

college students.

D)

unemployed veterans of the First World War.




50.

In the early 1930s, Mexican-born workers in the United States

A)

benefited significantly from the AAA.

B)

continued to provide a docile, reliable farm labor force.

C)

steadily replaced whites in California's migratory work force.

D)

were sometimes subjected to deportation by immigration officials.




51.

In response to the people who made up the Bonus Expeditionary Force, President Hoover

A)

supported the bill authorizing immediate payment of bonuses to First World War veterans.

B)

labeled them as insurrectionists and sent the U.S. Army to disperse them.

C)

allowed them to stay indefinitely in empty government buildings.

D)

protected their right to petition Congress.




D. Shute - Honors US History Wednesday, February 11, 2009 Page


The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2016
send message

    Main page