Norton, Chapter 14 Test Slavery and America's Future: the road to wAR, 1845-1861



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Norton, Chapter 14 Test - Slavery and America's Future: tHE rOAD TO wAR, 1845-1861

Name: __________________________ Date: _____________
On your answer document, indicate the best response to each of the following questions/statements.


1.

Under the terms of the Oregon Treaty of 1846,

A)

the Columbia River was established as Oregon's northernmost boundary.

B)

Great Britain accepted President Polk's demand for a boundary at 54º 40¢.

C)

the United States and Great Britain agreed to a twenty-year joint occupation of the Oregon Country.

D)

Great Britain accepted the American-suggested compromise of the 49th parallel.




2.

Which of the following is true of expansionists who supported the War with Mexico?

A)

Humanitarian concerns dominated the thoughts of the war's supporters.

B)

Support of expansionism and of the war often had an undercurrent of racism.

C)

Egalitarian principles dominated the thoughts of expansionists and supporters of the war.

D)

Support for the war was based primarily on the belief that expansion would open new markets for American products.




3.

Which of the following was the decisive campaign in the War with Mexico?

A)

General Zachary Taylor's assault against Monterey

B)

The taking of Santa Fe by Colonel Stephen Kearny

C)

The taking of Palo Alto by General Zachary Taylor

D)

General Winfield Scott's campaign against Mexico City




4.

Fear of the Slave Power was fear that the

A)

use of slave labor would allow southern producers to undersell northern producers.

B)

distribution of abolitionist literature among slaves was likely to inspire a violent slave revolt.

C)

slaveholding elite that controlled the South was determined to control the entire nation.

D)

slave population was growing so rapidly that slaves would soon far outnumber whites in many southern states.




5.

Those who criticized the war with Mexico often expressed which of the following ideas?

A)

They expressed racist fears that victory would bring nonwhite Mexicans into the United States.

B)

They expressed the belief that the war was unconstitutional.

C)

They expressed the fear that the war would widen and engulf all of Latin America.

D)

They expressed the belief that the United States military was unprepared for the conflict.




6.

Which of the following was a consequence of the Wilmot Proviso?

A)

It transformed the debate over the War with Mexico into a debate over the expansion of slavery.

B)

It led to the annexation of Texas by joint resolution of Congress.

C)

Its stipulations further fed northern fears of the Slave Power.

D)

It caused southerners to become outspoken opponents of the War with Mexico.




7.

Which of the following constitutional arguments was designed to protect the institution of slavery?

A)

The Constitution should be interpreted loosely so that the central government may assume as much power as possible.

B)

Slaveholders may take their slaves into the territories, because the Fifth Amendment to the Constitution guarantees that no person may be denied his property without due process of law.

C)

Slave states are afforded special privileges under the Constitution.

D)

The Union is the result of a compact among the people of the nation.




8.

The radical, new southern position on the territories espoused by John C. Calhoun in 1846 contradicted the

A)

Missouri Compromise.

C)

Polk Doctrine.

B)

Monroe Doctrine.

D)

three-fifths compromise.




9.

The most critical question that emerged in the aftermath of the War with Mexico was

A)

what course the South would take if northerners continued to press the slavery question.

B)

what to do about slavery in the territory acquired from Mexico.

C)

how to limit the president's vaguely defined war powers.

D)

how much to pay Mexico for the territory acquired by force.




10.

The overriding issue in the presidential election of 1848 was

A)

tariff rates.

C)

slavery in the territories.

B)

the conduct of the War with Mexico.

D)

the independent treasury bill.




11.

The proposal for popular sovereignty called for deciding the issue of slavery in the territories through a

A)

constitutional amendment.

B)

direct nationwide election.

C)

decision by the residents in each territory.

D)

vote in both houses of Congress.




12.

Which of the following is true of the presidential campaign of 1848?

A)

Although Martin Van Buren lost all of the southern states, he won the election by carrying the Northeast and Northwest.

B)

Zachary Taylor campaigned in favor of the exclusion of slavery in the territories.

C)

The number of votes received in the North by Martin Van Buren indicated a deepening division between northern and southern public opinion.

D)

Lewis Cass appealed to northern voters because he called for the immediate abolition of slavery.




13.

Which of the following occurred in response to California's application for statehood in 1850?

A)

President Taylor called a special session of Congress for the purpose of repealing the Missouri Compromise.

B)

Some southern politicians wanted to postpone California’s admission to the Union and make it a slave territory.

C)

Several New England states threatened to secede from the Union if California was admitted as a slave state.

D)

Congress adopted an amendment to the California statehood bill that extended the Missouri Compromise line to the Pacific.




14.

In Prigg v. Pennsylvania the Supreme Court ruled that

A)

enforcement of the fugitive-slave clause in the Constitution was a federal obligation.

B)

whether or not runaway slaves were to be returned to their owners was to be determined by each separate state.

C)

the Underground Railroad was a conspiracy against the rights of property owners and, thus, unconstitutional.

D)

the status of slavery in the territories could only be decided by each territory's residents.




15.

The primary ambiguity of popular sovereignty related to the question of

A)

whether slaves would be counted in determining the population of a territory.

B)

when settlers in a territory could outlaw slavery.

C)

who would determine voting qualifications in a particular territory.

D)

whether African Americans would have equality under the law in the territories.




16.

How did Senator Stephen Douglas salvage the Compromise of 1850?

A)

He won a public endorsement of the compromise from President Zachary Taylor.

B)

He ultimately allowed southern Democrats to dictate the terms of the compromise.

C)

He introduced each measure of the compromise separately and in that way gained passage of all of the measures.

D)

He threatened to remove Democrats who opposed the compromise from important congressional committees.




17.

Which of the following is true of the Compromise of 1850?

A)

It completely rejected the idea of popular sovereignty.

B)

It included a stronger fugitive slave law.

C)

It abolished both slavery and the slave trade in the District of Columbia.

D)

It angered northerners by acknowledging the boundary claims made by Texas.




18.

What part of the Compromise of 1850 increased sectional controversy and conflict during the 1850s?

A)

The admission of California as a free state

B)

The settlement of the Texas boundary question

C)

The ending of the slave trade in Washington, D.C.

D)

The Fugitive Slave Act




19.

After passage of the Fugitive Slave Law,

A)

Mexican authorities extradited runaway slaves to the United States for prosecution.

B)

many fugitive slaves living in the North, seeing the act as a threat to their freedom, moved to Canada.

C)

most northern judges refused to enforce the act because of its repressive nature.

D)

the Underground Railroad ceased to operate.




20.

In Uncle Tom's Cabin, Harriet Beecher Stowe

A)

denounced slaveowners as immoral and sinful.

B)

portrayed slavery as beneficial to blacks.

C)

condemned the national government for allowing slavery to continue.

D)

brought the issue of slavery home to many who had never before given it much thought.




21.

The southern demand that slavery be allowed to expand into the territories seems to have been motivated by the

A)

expectation that slavery would be even more profitable in the West than in the South.

B)

fear that free territories could be used as bases for spreading abolitionism into the South.

C)

belief that expansion was necessary to allow the profitable sale of surplus southern slaves.

D)

assumption of southern politicians that they should put forward extreme positions as a tactic in political bargaining with the North.




22.

How did proslavery theorists counteract the indictment of slavery as a moral wrong?

A)

They proposed that slaves be paid a nominal fee for the work they performed.

B)

They contended that slavery was more humane than wage labor.

C)

They pointed to the three-fifths clause in the Constitution.

D)

They argued that passage of the Missouri Compromise of 1820 legalized slavery in a portion of the Louisiana Territory.




23.

Which of the following is true of the presidential campaign of 1852?

A)

By rejecting Winfield Scott, voters rejected the idea of popular sovereignty.

B)

Pierce's victory seemed to confirm voter support for the Compromise of 1850.

C)

John Hale's repudiation of parts of the Compromise of 1850 attracted a great deal of support in the South.

D)

Winfield Scott's call for the repeal of the Compromise of 1850 worked against him in the South.




24.

Franklin Pierce's election as president in 1852 was due to

A)

his charismatic personality.

B)

the weaknesses of the opposition.

C)

the strength of the Whig party organization.

D)

his fame as a commanding general in the War with Mexico.




25.

Which of the following was a consequence of the case of Anthony Burns?

A)

The Fugitive Slave Act was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.

B)

Nonslaveholding southerners began to challenge the political power of the South's plantation aristocracy.

C)

The Underground Railroad was declared illegal and ceased its operations.

D)

Fear that the Slave Power dominated American government increased among northerners.




26.

President Franklin Pierce's attempt to annex Hawai'i to the United States failed for which of the following reasons?

A)

Northern and southern Congressmen alike expressed doubts about the nation's ability to defend Hawai'i.

B)

Southerners would not vote for the entry of another free state into the Union.

C)

Northern congressmen feared that an expansionist Slave Power was behind the annexation treaty.

D)

Northern and southern Congressmen expressed fears that acquisition of Hawai'i would draw the United States into an Asian war.




27.

President Pierce's efforts to annex Cuba caused which of the following?

A)

Northern support for the liberation of Cuba allayed fears in that region that Pierce was controlled by the Slave Power.

B)

Some northerners concluded that Pierce was doing the bidding of the Slave Power.

C)

Support for such efforts by both northerners and southerners led to friendlier relations between the two sections of the country.

D)

Many southerners concluded that Pierce wanted to end slavery and colonize blacks in the Caribbean.




28.

Who introduced the Kansas-Nebraska bill into the Senate?




A) James Buchanan B) Henry Clay C) Stephen Douglas D) Franklin Pierce




29.

What seems to have been Stephen Douglas's intent in introducing the Kansas-Nebraska bill?

A)

He wanted to promote the construction of a midwestern transcontinental railroad.

B)

He wanted to strengthen his chances for re-election to the Senate in 1854.

C)

He wanted to settle permanently the conflict over slavery in the territories.

D)

He wanted to win national attention as the basis for a future presidential campaign.




30.

Which of the following is true of the Kansas-Nebraska Act?

A)

It cleared up the confusion that surrounded popular sovereignty.

B)

It prohibited slavery in the two organized territories created by the law.

C)

It had the effect of repealing the Missouri Compromise.

D)

It extended the Missouri Compromise line to the Pacific.




31.

As a result of the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act,

A)

northern states threatened to hold special state conventions for the purpose of declaring the act unconstitutional and thus null and void.

B)

a coalition of northern Democrats withdrew from the Democratic party and formed the American Party.

C)

the Whig Party broke into northern and southern wings and was no longer able to operate as a national party.

D)

southerners became more convinced than ever that Congress had become the puppet of antislavery advocates.




32.

The different political factions that joined together to form the Republican Party in 1854 were united by their

A)

opposition to the expansion of slavery into the territories.

B)

fear over the possibility of civil war.

C)

determination to abolish slavery.

D)

desire to acquire more territory from Mexico.




33.

As a result of the 1854 congressional elections, the

A)

Whigs gained control of both the House and the Senate.

B)

Republicans gained control of both the House and the Senate.

C)

Whigs captured most of the House seats from the North.

D)

Republicans captured most of the House seats from the North.




34.

The results of the 1854 congressional elections were significant because they

A)

demonstrated strong northern support for the Kansas-Nebraska Act.

B)

ended up being the last time the South was assured of a sympathetic majority in Congress.

C)

marked the first time a sectional party based on a sectional issue had gained substantial power in the political system.

D)

resulted in such an even division of power between the parties that meaningful action by Congress was virtually impossible.




35.

The American Party of the mid-1850s (the Know-Nothings) drew its primary support from those who feared

A)

abolitionism.

C)

possible civil war.

B)

foreigners.

D)

uncontrolled industrialization.




36.

The Republican party of the 1850s

A)

began as and remained a one-issue party.

B)

had a pessimistic outlook concerning the future of the nation.

C)

was prepared to moderate its position on slavery in the territories.

D)

adopted a platform that appealed to those who were interested in the economic development of the West.




37.

Which of the following statements best expresses the beliefs of the Republican Party of the 1850s?

A)

Both the dignity of labor and the availability of economic opportunity are essential to the future progress of the United States.

B)

All ethnic groups living in the United States should be afforded political, social, and economic equality.

C)

The central government should remain limited in its power and should not intervene in the economic life of the states.

D)

Slavery is morally wrong and should be abolished immediately.




38.

Which of the following statements best expresses the southern version of republicanism?

A)

To create a more perfect society, individuals must subordinate their individual desires to the good of the group.

B)

The rights and liberties of the people can best be protected by a strong central government.

C)

Social distinctions between rich and poor are necessary for the creation of an orderly society.

D)

White citizens in a slave society enjoy liberty and social equality because of slavery.




39.

Southern Democrats appealed to nonslaveholders in the South by

A)

advocating the passage of protective tariffs.

B)

supporting a federal land-grant program in the territories.

C)

playing on their racial fears.

D)

arguing that any hardworking person could acquire slaves.




40.

Which of the following is true of Charles Sumner and Preston Brooks?

A)

Their treatise against slavery on economic grounds caused an increase in antislavery sentiment among Northerners.

B)

By supporting the Lecompton Constitution in Kansas, they sought a peaceful and moderate solution to the Kansas crisis.

C)

They demonstrated that Northern and Southern moderates could still work together for the national interest.

D)

They were symbolic of just how emotional the political issue of slavery had become by 1856.




41.

The Democrats chose James Buchanan as their presidential nominee in 1856 because he had

A)

been a highly respected Senate majority leader.

B)

taken a strong position against the expansion of slavery.

C)

acquired fame as a commanding general in the War with Mexico.

D)

not been involved in territorial controversies.




42.

In the Dred Scott decision, the Supreme Court ruled that

A)

Dred Scott was not a United States citizen.

B)

slaves could acquire freedom only by purchasing it.

C)

residence in free territory made Dred Scott free.

D)

Congress had the power to bar slavery from a territory.




43.

As a result of the Dred Scott decision,

A)

President Buchanan called publicly for the impeachment of Chief Justice Roger Taney.

B)

the presence of an aggressive Slave Power was confirmed in the minds of many northerners.

C)

several southern states threatened to secede from the Union.

D)

most white northerners favored a constitutional amendment extending equal rights to African Americans.




44.

After the Dred Scott decision,

A)

northern newspapers strongly urged that the decision be accepted in spite of the dangers it posed.

B)

the justices who dissented in the decision resigned from the Supreme Court.

C)

Lincoln warned that the next step would be for the Supreme Court to deny a state the right to exclude slavery.

D)

the Republican party was thoroughly discredited because the Supreme Court had endorsed southern constitutional arguments.




45.

In his speeches in the 1850s, Abraham Lincoln

A)

accepted a limited application of the policy of popular sovereignty.

B)

called for the immediate abolition of slavery.

C)

advocated the passage of a constitutional amendment to end slavery gradually.

D)

suggested that the South sought to spread slavery throughout the nation.




46.

Which of the following was convincing evidence that the Buchanan administration was attempting to impose its will on the people of Kansas?

A)

Buchanan's actions in relation to the Lecompton constitution

B)

Buchanan's lobbying of Supreme Court justices

C)

Buchanan's deployment of federal troops to Kansas

D)

Buchanan's improper use of presidential power in the Lincoln-Douglas senatorial race




47.

Stephen Douglas angered southern Democrats by

A)

introducing legislation designed to undo the Dred Scott decision.

B)

proposing a constitutional amendment to extend citizenship to African Americans.

C)

calling for the extension of the Missouri Compromise line to the Pacific.

D)

taking a public stand against the Lecompton constitution.




48.

John Brown's raid at Harpers Ferry increased anger in the South because

A)

it was revealed that Brown had financial backing from several prominent abolitionists.

B)

it led to a general slave uprising throughout Virginia.

C)

President Buchanan praised Brown as a hero and a martyr.

D)

federal troops came to Brown's aid, allowing him to escape.




49.

At its 1860 convention, the Democratic Party

A)

split into northern and southern wings, each nominating a different presidential candidate.

B)

pledged to support the Court's decision in the Dred Scott case.

C)

included a plank in its platform calling for the extension of the Missouri Compromise line to the Pacific Ocean.

D)

narrowly defeated an antislavery minority report calling for a constitutional amendment to abolish slavery.




50.

In 1860, Abraham Lincoln was elected president with

A)

a majority of both popular and electoral votes.

B)

a majority of popular votes and less than a majority of electoral votes.

C)

less than a majority of both popular and electoral votes.

D)

less than a majority of popular votes and a majority of electoral votes.




51.

President-elect Lincoln decided to stand firm against the extension of slavery into the territories. Which of the following was a reason for that decision?

A)

He believed that a compromise would destroy any chance of fulfilling his stated objective of abolishing slavery in the southern states.

B)

He hoped to effect a compromise after his inauguration.

C)

He believed that accepting a compromise would break the bond of faith between himself and those who had voted for him.

D)

He wanted to force the South to secede from the Union.




52.

Senator John J. Crittenden's attempts at compromise failed because

A)

southern leaders in the Senate refused to accept any limits on slavery in the territories.

B)

Lincoln refused to compromise on the extension of slavery into the territories.

C)

Jefferson Davis refused to accept the proposal that popular sovereignty be used to decide the slavery issue in the territories.

D)

the Confederacy decided to attack a federal fort in Charleston Harbor.




53.

The first southern state to secede from the Union was




A) Alabama. B) Mississippi. C) South Carolina. D) Texas.




54.

After the secession of South Carolina, which of the following arguments was advanced by southern extremists?

A)

Those who favor compromise do not have the best interests of the South at heart and are traitors to the southern cause.

B)

All southern states should follow South Carolina's lead and prepare to attack the North and take the western territories by force.

C)

Other southern states should not be influenced by South Carolina's decision and must make their own independent decisions about withdrawing from the Union.

D)

Even those who favor compromise should support secession because a better deal can be made by negotiating from outside rather than inside the Union.




55.

The dilemma facing Lincoln when he entered the presidency was

A)

how to maintain the authority of the federal government without provoking war with the states that had seceded.

B)

whether to recognize the Confederacy as an independent, sovereign nation.

C)

how to work with a Congress controlled by Democrats.

D)

whether to seek gradual or immediate emancipation of the slaves.




56.

The first shots of the Civil War were fired at

A)

Richmond, Virginia.

C)

Newport News, Virginia.

B)

Charleston, South Carolina.

D)

Montgomery, Alabama.

Essay Questions:


For two of the following essay topics, write the opening paragraph with your thesis statement, and write the topic sentence for each body paragraph that will support your thesis. Choose your words with discretion, be specific, and write intentionally.
First paragraph with thesis statement

1. Paragraph one - topic sentence

2. Paragraph two - topic sentence

3. Paragraph three - topic sentence




57.

Examine the development of the concept of a Slave Power in the North from 1836 to 1861. What events made the presence of such a power credible to northerners? Why did northerners fear the Slave Power? What forces and events caused that fear to increase?




58.

Discuss the sectional disputes that led to the Compromise of 1850. How was the compromise reached? What were its provisions? What were its results?




59.

Discuss the provisions of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, and explain the far-reaching consequences of its passage in 1854.




60.

Discuss the ideology of the Republican Party, and explain how the party managed, within a short period of time, to become a major political force in the North.




61.

Discuss the ideology of southern Democrats, and explain the appeal of this ideology to both nonslaveholders and former Whig slaveholders in the South.




62.

Examine the response of northerners in general and Republican Party leaders in particular to the Dred Scott decision. How did Republican leaders use the decision to strengthen their coalition in the North?




63.

Examine the fragmentation of the political party system in 1860; explain the stands of the presidential candidates on the major issues; and discuss the results of the 1860 presidential election.





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