An underground tunnel built to carry irrigation water by gravity flow from nearby mountains (where orographic precipitation occurs) to the arid flatlands below.
Cultural geography (285)
The wide-ranging and comprehensive field of geography that studies spatial aspects of human cultures.
Culture hearth (285)
A source area or innovation center from which cultural traditions are transmitted.
Cultural diffusion (285)
The outward spreading of a culture trait from its hearth to other places.
Cultural ecology (285-286)
The multiple relationships between human cultures and their natural environments.
The Tigris-Euphrates Plain of present-day Iraq—literally “land amidst the rivers”—which is the hearth of civilization.
Fertile Crescent (286)
An arc stretching from the eastern Mediterranean coast to near the Persian Gulf
, site of early plant domestications and farming innovations (see Fig. 6-3).
Hydraulic civilization theory (286)
Civilizations able to control irrigated farming over large hinterlands; often held power over others in less fortuitous locations.
Climate change theory (287)
An alternative to the hydraulic civilization theory
; holds that changing climate (rather than a monopoly over irrigation methods) could have provided certain cities in the ancient Fertile Crescent
with advantages over others.