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nominationFrom :        National Government
goup_organizationName : Japan International Cooperation Agency Madagascar Office
focalPointName :        Megumi Shuto
solutionTitle : Agricultural Mechanization
streetAddress : Villa Pradon, Antanimena
city :  Antananarivo
state_province_region : Region of Analamanga
country :       Madagascar
postalCode :    P.O.7552
businessTelephoneNumber :       261202230013
mobileTelephoneNumber : 261331133425
faxNumber :     261202230019
email : Shuto.Megumi@jica.go.jp
initiativeDescription : The initiative aims at the improvement of productivity of rice though promoting agricultural mechanization in 5 target regions located in the granary of Madagascar.
In this country, rice is the most important subsistence crop and occupies an important place not only in the agricultural sector, but also in the whole economic activity in Madagascar.
 Malagasy farmers are underequipped, and the practices in the all stages of rice cropping still dominantly are operated by traditional manual labor or domestic animals, which is one of the causes to limit the rice productivity.
Therefore, the mechanization in the agricultural production was designated as one of  the 6 prioritized sub sectors in the National Rice Development Strategy(NRDS)  formulated by The Government of Madagascar in 2009, and  subsequently, the Government now making efforts to draw up to the National Strategy of Mechanization in Rice Cultivation.  The strategy will be consisted of some action plans such as 1) improvement of access to agricultural machinery (including manual equipment), 2) development of capacity of private sectors, and 3) creation of enable socio-economic environment of agricultural mechanization.
 JICA Project ?Project for Rice Productivity Improvement in Central Highland in Madagascar (PAPRIZ)? which has been being implemented since 2009 covers several important sub-sectors, such as rice cultivation skills, production and distribution of improved seeds, dissemination of organic and chemical fertilizers and rehabilitation of irrigation system, etc. All the techniques helping increase of rice productivity have been widely disseminated as a ?PAPRIZ Technical Package? to not only target regions but also all over Madagascar by means of various kinds of media tools. The intervention for mechanization in rice cultivation including improvement of post-harvest technology is also one of the important activities in the Project. Especially, it aims at developing and diffusing several types of simple agricultural machinery which is affordable among even small holders, and strengthening the capacity of private local manufacturers.  In order to execute the activities efficiently, the Project makes use of the scheme of South-South Cooperation (SSC) with the Government of Indonesian.
  The SSC activities are composed by the dispatch of Third Country Experts (Indonesian experts) to the Project and the implementation of Third Country Training in Indonesia. This cooperation will continue at least until 2015.
The SSC scheme can supplement our limited human resources in Japan. Due to the change of industrial system and market needs in Japan, the number of experts specializing in the production of manual agro-equipment has already dramatically decreased, while, Indonesian experts have very relevant skills and experiences which can be easily applied in the context of Madagascar. In addition, Indonesia has a long experience of technical cooperation with Madagascar and already achieved successful outputs. Moreover, for our JICA side also, the system of SSC with Indonesian government was already well established in the base of JICA Indonesia office which has been actively involved in SCC activities in wide range of fields. This is the reason why we use SSC scheme collaborating with Indonesia government. The SSC activities are mainly conducted in a relevant Malagasy governmental institution, ?Center for Training and Application of Agricultural Machinery (CFAMA)?.

mainPartners :  Madagascar ?


-?Ministry of Agriculture ?MinAgri?, which supervises all the activities of the Project from the central level.  In regional level, Regional Direction of Rural Development (DRDR) supports to organize the activities with local farmers and local manufacturers.
-?Center for Training and Application of Agricultural Machinery (CFAMA), which is the only institute for agricultural machinery in Madagascar and where the Indonesian experts station. The Indonesian experts are also engaged in the capacity building of the staff in CFAMA.

Indonesia


-Ministry of Agriculture, which provides us with relevant human resources as the Third Country Expert from their structure. Also, it conducts some monitoring work to evaluate the services done by their experts (The mission of the Ministry visits JICA project and JICA office in Madagascar). Also, the successful Third Country Training for Malagasy counterparts was kindly coordinated by the ministry.
- Indonesian Center for Agricultural Engineering Development (ICEARD)
- Indonesia Center for Agricultural Postharvest Research and Development (ICAPRD)

(Name of the Third Country Experts from Indonesia)


         Mr. Joko Pitoyo (Oct 2009-Apr 2010, Dec 2011 ? Jun 2012)
 Mr. Ir. Pattahuddin, M.P (Jan 2010 ? Jul 2010)
 Mr.Andri Gunanto (Oct 2010 ? Apr 2011)
 Mr.Marsudi (Apr 2011 ? Oct 2011)
 Mr. Ir. Suismono, Msi (Aug 2012-Feb 2013, Mar 2013 ? Sep 2013)

-Embassy of Indonesia in Madagascar, which is supervising and supporting the Indonesian experts. It actively participated in our activities in Project, such as Joint Coordination Committee and report session by Indonesian Experts. In the local exhibition events, it promotes the output of the TCE, the developed machinery, by the collaboration with the Project.

Japan
- The Project (PAPRIZ) operates the SSC activities, and the JICA experts collaborate with the Indonesian experts in various activities, such as demonstration of agricultural machinery in the field, the training courses for local artisans, and workshop on farm mechanization targeting the officials of MinAgri and private sectors, etc.    In the PAPRIZ, with a goal of the increase in rice productivity, Japanese experts implements diverse activities to develop comprehensively important sub-sectors related rice culture through capacity building of various levels of human resources, which cover development and diffusion of better cultivation technology, improvement of seed production/dissemination of improved seeds, application of fertilizers, activation of water associations, management of farm household economy, etc. Development and Dissemination of Agro-machinery is one of the target sub-sectors of PAPRIZ.
-JICA Madagascar Office, which is in charge of supervision of the PAPRIZ project and logistic assistance for the Indonesian Experts.
-JICA Indonesia Office, which contributes smooth coordination between Madagascar side and the Government of Indonesia. In particular, it supports us for the official procedure for the dispatch of the Third Country Experts.

achievementsAndImpact : ??The success of this initiative attributes to mutually complementary relationship between Japanese experts and Indonesian experts. Meanwhile Indonesian experts play an important role to introduce relevant technology for the rice cultivation in Madagascar, Japanese experts undertake the task of establishing the better condition for the promotion.


     For example, as for the introduction of developed machinery, Indonesian expert devotes himself to make them as efficient and useful as possible from the technical viewpoint, and Japanese experts implement various activities to disseminate the technology, taking advantage of their profound knowledge of rice cultivation in Madagascar. The activities vary from creating pamphlets for publicity and organizing demonstration sessions in high potential areas, to founding the cooperatives of local manufacturers in order to promote cooperative purchase of raw materials for reduction of production cost.  Also, some Japanese experts who have their assigned sites introduce the machinery the local farmers by explaining the effectiveness, and turn feedback the real voice of end-users to Indonesian experts for further development and improvement.   The favorable collaboration brought the great impact in the Project.

1) Third Country Experts from Indonesia


 - Development and Dissemination of Prototype of Manual Agro-Equipment
    Indonesian experts contributed to develop various types of prototypes of agricultural equipment through the collaboration with CFAMA staff and local farmers, taking aspects of security, efficiency and affordability into account, as follows;
Year    Experts
2009-2010       Mr.Joko /Mr.Patahudin
1)      Manual Winnower (made of wood)
2)       Pedal ?Style Thresher
3)       Motor Thresher
2010-2011       Mr.Andri /Mr.Marsudi
1)      Weeder for paddy rice
2)      Weeder for up-land rice
3)      Pedal-Style Winnower
4)      Pedal ?Style Thresher (new style )
5)      hoe
2011-2013       Mr.Joko /Mr.Suismono
1)      Weeder for up-land rice
2)      Seeder for up-land rice
3)      Bike ?Style Thresher
4)      Rice Separator
5)      Rice Husk Charcoal Maker

 Since 2009, CFAMA has already responded almost 300 orders. As the publicity of the equipment is increasing, the orders from farmers and organizations are growing rapidly.  Recently, CFAMA is facing the problems that the production cannot keep up with the large number of orders. Consequently, CFAMA accelerates the technical transferring of equipment production to the local artisans. Indonesian expert assists the technical transfer to local manufacturers through provision of trainings.

-  Improvement of management and human resource capacity of CFAMA
   The presence of Indonesian experts has made a great impact on the development of CFAMA itself in term of human resource development and management of the organization. In the near future, it would be the engines for the advancement of CFAMA.
 Firstly, technical staff allocated in workshop has gained their skills considerably through advices and instruction by the experts and the cooperative work with the experts.  They have learnt the various helpful skills of manufacturing of agricultural machinery. Also, they have acquired the process of development and improvement of agricultural machinery, reflecting the actual need in the fields.
 Secondly, CFAMA staff learnt better management of their institution. Various improvements now can be found in CFAMA, for example, well ? organized set up and safety measure in the workshop, and system to share their information each other using notice boards, and enforcement of rigid quality control standard, etc. There should be much more positive influences given by the experts in CFAMA.

- Introduction of Post-Harvest Technology


   Mr.Suisimono elaborated the study on post-harvest loss and introduced the counter- measure to reduce the loss to the farmers. He also started enlightening Malagasy people to consider the quality of rice in order to create new value chain. Related to this initiative, he is developing rice separator and rice milling process. Furthermore, he invented the rice husk charcoal maker to make efficient use of rice husk which remains in the rice field after the harvest.
- Participation of International Activities
 Their manual agro-equipment is introduced in international events in Burkina Faso organized by World Bank in June 2013. The equipment renovated by the TCEs and produced by CFAMA attracted many participants and CFAMA received many orders.
2) Third Country Training in Indonesia
  9 Malagasy people from CFAMA and PAPRIZ participated in the Training in Indonesia conducted in March 2013. The contents of the Training were very relevant for the Malagasy participants because they are organized by ex-Third Country Experts who have a good knowledge of the situation in Madagascar. Thus, the Training has a great impact on the Project and CFAMA by inspiring the Malagasy participants to take some actions to improve CFAMA and accelerate the agricultural mechanization in Madagascar.
 As soon as they arrived in Madagascar, they formulated the action plans based on their acquisitions in Indonesia. Some activities like formulation of the Cooperatipooperatip of Local Artisans and establishment are already launched. They also created some show rooms for the publicity of the equipment imitating the Indonesian ones.

sustainability :        -The Indonesian experts work always together with his counterparts for the purpose of transferring the technology to local human resources. For example, in the process of development of agro-equipment, local technicians in CFAMA were involved in all the process. Therefore, they have improved not only their technical skills, but also their working attitudes.  Moreover, they also always participate in diverse activities for dissemination conducted by Japanese experts. The accumulation of experience would enable the human resources in CFAMA to succeed the activities which currently supported by the Project.


 In addition, the TCEs always make efforts to introduce proper technologies which are tactfully modified according to the local socio-economic context, such as the condition of rice fields and economic situation of farmers. In fact, they normally conduct the study to grasp the backgrounds before their activities, and implement them based on it. The attitudes help to ensure the sustainability of the output of the Project.

innovation :    The experts from Indonesia brought various innovations to Madagascar, and they are really appropriate for Malagasy context.


  The improved agricultural machinery allows Malagasy farmers to reduce the burden and working time of their hard physical labor in the paddy field. Some relatively bigger holders could reduce the employment cost of agricultural laborer and maximize the profit of rice cropping. For an example, the weeders are modified to be so light that even women can use it very easily. Also, they have been improved to be more durable and safer according to the farmers? opinion based on their daily experience.  The innovation attracted farmers? interests and boosted the sales.
  Regarding to the post-technology which is also cared by one of the experts, new concept ?the quality of rice? and some technologies for ensuring rice quality, for example, grain-separators are introduced in the context of Madagascar where rice is still only the product of self-consumption. The action could bring the new type of rice market and, eventually, development of rice value chains and rice exporting business. Recently, he has moved into action for the promotion.

j. Agriculture & Food security:Agricultural mechanization increases the efficiency of labor in the process of rice production, which leads to improvement of rice productivity. The improvement of rice will make a great contribution to food security which is one of the important policies in Madagascar.


replicabilityAndScalingUp :       The dissemination of agro-machinery could be realized soon or almost materialized in the ongoing process, because CFAMA conducted trainings to local artisans in order to instruct them how to make those machines. At the same time, to ensure certain level of quality of machine, CFAMA is taking the responsibility to check the quality of the product manufactured by the local artisans.


  In addition, CFAMA technical staff is trained enough to develop simple agricultural equipment according to the needs of local market.  Local manufacturers who got training by CFAMA also can be expected to be involved in the process of research and development to maximize their business.
   In the project, in order to establish solid manufacturing system of the farm machinery, the pilot schemes on formulation of the artisan cooperatives are under implementation. The associations have functions such as joint purchase of low materials, promotion of their products (e.g. establishment of show rooms which was introduced through the third country training in Indonesia) and management of quality control. The model also has a potential to be replicable in other region, and even in other countries.
  The Project conducts a grand range of dissemination campaign of rice cropping technology including the introduction of farm machinery by various kinds of means, such as demonstration in the field, distribution of brochures and utilization of visual materials like movies and VCD etc. In their materials, many detailed information to access the agricultural equipment is written, which greatly contributing to rise in number of end-users.

areasOfContribution :   a. Job creation: The initiative has created jobs as local manufacturers of agricultural machinery through the provision of training targeting local artisans and promotion activities of the machinery. The demand of machinery in local market is now increasing, so we can expect the growth of this industry.


In addition, the post-harvest technology has a huge potential to create new type of market and business in rice sector.  We can expect the result because the cooperation in post-harvest will be more focused in following years.

b. Income-generation: The initiative generated income for local artisan even in the remote area. After the trainings are provided by the CFAMA and the Indonesian experts, they are able to create, to sell, and to repair machine in their respective area.


In the same time, with the support of CFAMA, some cooperatives were experimentally established; CFAMA shared the order with this new organization for improving their profits. The quality is supervised by CFAMA to ensure a very good quality machine.
The introduction of post-harvest technology has a possibility to enable rice to be a cash crop by adding the value, and brings tangible income to rice producers

 g. Networks: In particular, CFAMA is recently increasing the involvement in technical education for the students at college and university level for the purpose of expansion of the technology.


awarenessOfTheInitiative :      The PAPRIZ project introduces the better practice of rice cropping through audio-materials as below. The machine is also utilised in the film.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7zWtJK0QAX4
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2iuzHo9acAU

*Please let us know the way to send you more infomation such as pamphlets for dissemination, etc.



otherInformation :       The triangular activities created very favorable relationship among three countries. The three parties, including the Ministry of Agriculture in Indonesia, Embassy of Indonesia in Madagascar, and JICA Madagascar Office, contact each other and exchange information and opinions frequently for the better cooperation.  For example, Ministry Agriculture of Indonesia visited all the way from Indonesia to see the project site of the Indonesian experts and to visit JICA Madagascar Office to discuss further cooperation. Moreover, Embassy of Indonesia in Madagascar actively participates in Joint Coordination Committee and other activities conducted by the Project. The communication even created new initiatives, such as joint promotion activities of agro-machinery produced in CFAMA in local festival sites, etc.
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