|85. Joint-stock companies turned out to be poor ways to finance colonies because
a. Taxes on the profits of these companies were excessive
b. The number of people who could serve as potential investors were limited by English law
c. New colonies do not immediately return a profit to investors
d. The English government insisted on controlling day-to-day operations of these companies
86. Powahatan extended aid to the Jamestown settlers because
a. They achieved a quick and decisive victory over his warriors
b. He believed they were divine beings
c. Their weapons could help him consolidate his power over the other tribes
d. The Algonquian religion taught the brotherhood of all people
87. What was the most responsible for the end of the peaceful terms between English and Native Americans in Virginia?
a. The introduction of slavery
b. Tobacco cultivation proliferation
c. Kidnapping of neighboring native tribes
d. The instigation by the British troops
88. The survival of the Jamestown settlement is largely due to
a. Good planning on the part of the Virginia Company
b. Aid received from the Powhatan Confederacy
c. The agricultural skills of the early settlers
d. The early development of village democracy
89. Which of the following was a reason for the early problems that confronted the Jamestown colony?
a. The colony was kept in a constant state of chaos due to the tyrannical rule of John Smith
b. Nomadic tribes had virtually wiped out the supply of game in the area
c. A severe drought made it difficult for the settlers to cultivate crops
d. The early colonists had to contend with the hostility of nearby Indians
90. James I abolished the House of Burgesses because he
a. Thought it was the main contributor for Virginia’s instability
b. Distrusted the legislative assemblies
c. Did not agree with the domination by Virginia’s wealthy landowners
d. Blamed the independence for the financial failures of the Virginia Company
91. For which of the following reasons did the spread of tobacco cultivation in Virginia lead to conflict with the Indians?
a. The Indians were jealous of the prosperity that tobacco cultivation brought to the English settlers
b. In an effort to get workers for their plantations, Virginia planters began to kidnap and enslave Indians
c. The abundant land required for tobacco cultivation caused the settlers increasingly to encroach on Indian lands
d. Indian religion associated tobacco with evil spirits and with death
92. Which of the following is true concerning indentured servants?
a. A significant percentage did not live through the period of their indenture
b. Most had to pay for their own food out of the meager wages they earned
c. They were legally defined as property and had no rights under the law
d. They were not generally overworked and found the Chesapeake climate conducive to their health.
93. Which of the following was true of most Chesapeake families in the seventeenth-century?
a. They made most of their own clothes and farm implements
b. They did not spend much money on material possessions beyond the necessities
c. They lived luxurious lives of leisure
d. They had to import most of their food from England because they
concentrated on growing cash crops
94. Why was the seventeenth-century Chesapeake politically unstable?
a. The governments of Virginia and Maryland were dominated by immigrants who had no strong ties to each other or to their respective colonies.
b. Few settlers cared about becoming politically involved
c. Parliament continually interfere in the governing of the Chesapeake colonies
d. Most settlers questioned the legitimacy of the colonial governments of Virginia and Maryland
95. Separatists differed form Puritan Congregationalists in that Separatists believed
a. That one is saved solely by the grace of God
b. In complete equality between the sexes
c. That the Church of England was too corrupt to be saved
d. In allowing freedom of religion to all settlers in Plymouth
96. Which of the following was a characteristic of the land distribution system of early Massachusetts Bay?
a. Each individual settler received a fifteen-acre headright
b. Distinguished individuals received the largest and best plots
c. Each family in a town received an equal amount of land, but the amount varied from town to town
d. Each family received land for a house, but farmland was worked communally.
97. Why did Puritan migrations into the Connecticut valley eventually lead to war with the Pequot Indians?
a. The migrations violated treaty agreements between the Puritans and Pequots
b. The puritans came into the region with the intent of enslaving the Pequots
c. The presence of English settlers in the area disrupted the trade patterns on which Pequot war was based
d. The migrations disrupted Pequot society, which was based on total isolation from the outside world.
98. How did the lifestyles of white New England settlers differ from the lifestyles of their counterparts in the Chesapeake?
a. Because New Englanders moved a great deal, their homes were not as sturdy as those in the Chesapeake
b. Most New Englanders moved to America in family groups, while most Chesapeake migrants had come as individuals seeking economic opportunity
c. The harshness of the New England environment meant a higher infant mortality rate and smaller families in New England than in the Chesapeake
d. Unlike New Englanders who cleared new fields every few years, residents of the Chesapeake used the same fields year after year
99. Anne Hutchinson challenged Puritan orthodoxy by expressing which of the following beliefs?
a. She taught that the elect could communicate directly with god
b. She preached that divorces was an unforgivable sin
c. She called for the ordination of women as ministers
d. She taught that the covenant of grace was contrary to the teachings of Jesus
100. What were 18th century characteristics of the colonies?
a. dominance of English culture
b. traditions of self-government
c. religious toleration
d. hereditary aristocracy prevents social mobility
e. All of the above
f. Some of the above
101. Which factors formed the backbone of American characters?
d. political heritage
e. SOME OF THE ABOVE
f. ALL OF THE ABOVE
102. All of the colonies founded during the reign of Charles II were
a. Founded by colonists who left or were banished form the New England Puritan communities
b. Established as military fortification built to defend against the problematic Indian raids
c. Given as rewards to men who had supported Charles II during the English Civil War
d. Seized from the Dutch by military force
103. Why was the economic growth of New York slow during the colony’s early years?
a. Continued Dutch resistance to British rule created instability and an atmosphere of economic uncertainty
b. The colony attracted few settlers because of its record of religious intolerance
c. The colony’s tax policies deprived investors of much-needed capital
d. The Duke of York’s decision to grant the Jerseys to friends deprived the colony of a great deal of fertile land
104. The government established by the “Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina” may be characterized as
105. The government established by the “Fundamental Orders of Connecticut” may be characterized as
106. How did the development of the Albemarle region of the Carolina colony differ form the development of the region to the south?
a. slavery was more important to the economic development of the Albemarle region than to the economic development of the southern region
b. African influences were greater in the Albemarle region because it had a higher proportion of African-born blacks than did the southern region
c. A Virginia-like society was established in the Albemarle region; Barbarian influence was more important in the southern region
d. The main export crop in the Albemarle region was grain, whereas cotton was the main export crop in the southern region.
107. In the Chesapeake most local governments were run by a
a. city manager
c. town meeting
d. county commission
108. Why did contact with the Europeans intensify the Iroquois’ need to wage war?
a. the Iroquois needed to increase the power of their Confederacy in order to combat the powerful Europeans
b. the Iroquois had to prevent neighboring tribes form allying with the Europeans
c. European expansion constantly pushed the Iroquois form old tribal lands into new unconsecrated territories
d. As European diseases increased the death rate within the Iroquois Confederacy, their need to replenish their population with captives increased
109. What was the cause of King Philip’s War?
a. Land-hungry white settlers waged attacks against New England Indian tribes
b. The Wampanoags were concerned that their lands were being surrounded by white settlements
c. The Nipmucs attempted to gain total control over the fur trade with the Europeans
d. The British violated a trade treaty with Wampanoags
110. Which of the following was a consequence of King Philip’s war?
a. Not only were abandoned interior New England towns quickly rebuilt, but they expanded considerably
b. Many of the Native American followers of King Philip were captured and sold into slavery
c. New Englanders experienced unprecedented economic prosperity in the years immediately after the war
d. The Wampanoags prevented New England settlers from the encroaching on their ancestral lands
111. Which of the following is true of Bacon’s rebellion?
a. The rebellion was an attempt by Nathaniel Bacon and his followers to force the Virginia government to compensate the Susquehannocks for lost tribal lands
b. The rebellion was a clash of personalities between Nathaniel Bacon and Governor William Berkeley
c. The rebellion involved the land-hungry whites who alternately attacked Indians and battled with established authorities in Virginia
d. The rebellion allowed the Piedmont planters to permanently gain control over the colonial government of Virginia
112. In the aftermath of Bacon’s Rebellion
a. Most Virginia landowners freed their indentured servants
b. The Doegs and Susequehannocks were forcibly removed from the Virginia Piedmont
c. Nathaniel bacon was elected governor of Virginia
d. Virginia landowners began to purchase large numbers of imported African slaves
113. Why, beginning in the mid-1600s, did Chesapeake planters begin to purchase more African slaves?
a. They could no longer obtain an adequate supply of white indentured servants.
b. The price of slaves dropped as more and more were imported from Africa
c. It became clear that Native Americans could not be used successfully as slaves
d. It became necessary for white indentured servants to serve in the militia to defend against Indian attacks
114. According to a 1667 law passed by the Virginia House of Burgesses, if a slave was baptized as a Christian, the slave
a. Became a free person
b. Remained a slave
c. Became an indentured servant, bound to his master for only three more years
d. Could claim the status of a free person if and only if he or she was of a mixed race
115. Between 1492 and 1770, most slaves transported to the New World were carried to
a. Brazil and the Caribbean islands
b. The British mainland colonies
c. The French mainland settlements
d. Central America
116. By passing the Navigation Acts, Parliament wanted to
a. Ensure that England would be the primary beneficiary of the profits from colonial trade
b. Aid the colonial shipbuilding industry
c. Help the colonies gradually become self-sufficient
d. Make the colonies subservient to England
117. Which of the following was a provision of the Navigation Act of 1696?
a. Ships from European nations other than England were again allowed to trade in the colonies
b. Sugar and tobacco were added to the list of goods that could be sold only in England or in the English colonies
c. Foreign goods classified as “necessities” could once again be sold directly to the English colonies
d. American merchants charged with smuggling under the Navigation Acts would be tried in vice-admiralty courts
118. Why did more aspects of West African culture survive in South Carolina than any of the other British colonies in North America?
a. South Carolina officials consciously encouraged the survival of the West African culture
b. South Carolina slaves were more isolated from American culture because of the inadequacy of that colony’s educational system
c. The large number of Africans in South Carolina ensured the survival of many aspects of West African culture
d. South Carolina had little trade with other colonies
119. Why did the Yamasees attack English settlements in South Carolina in 1715?
a. Colonial traders not only abused the Yamasees but had also threatened their lands
b. They were angry over the recent alliance between the Creeks and the English
c. They had recently allied with the Spanish to push English settlers out of the Carolinas
d. They heard rumors that the English settlers were planning to exterminate all Native Americans in the area.
120. James II and his successors, William and Mary, would have most likely agreed on which of the following statements?
a. England should exercise tighter control over its colonies in North America
b. The British constitution gives the English monarch absolute power
c. Representatives assemblies in the British colonies should be abolished
d. English regulation concerning colonial trade should be relaxed
121. Most of the eighteenth century population growth in the British colonies of North America was due to
a. Continuing migrations from England
b. Natural increase resulting in part from the healthy colonial environment
c. The influx of political refugees from wars in France and Germany
d. Medical advances that dramatically lowered infant mortality rates
122. The ideas associated with the Enlightenment
a. Challenged the notion of a divinely sanctioned political order
b. Reinforced the idea that monarchs owe their power to God
c. Challenged the concept of constitutional monarchy
d. Challenged the concept of natural rights
123. John Locked argued that human beings
a. Are basically bad
b. Are born with an innate sense of morality
c. Do not have the ability to govern themselves
d. Acquire all knowledge through observations of the external world
124. Imposition of the Tea Act would have meant which of the following for colonial customers?
a. Cheaper tea
b. Tea of inferior quality
c. A scarcity of tea
d. Higher taxes
125. One feature of the English mother country that was not transplanted to the colonies was the:
A. aristocratic class structure
B. principle of tax-supported churches
C. notion of loyal British subjects
D notion of possessing the rights of English subjects
126. In New cent England towns, the "common" was:
A. a grain storehouse
B. the corpus of civil law
C. a meetinghouse for the selectmen
D. a centrally located shared pasture
127. The most famous witchcraft hysteria in colonial America occurred in:
D. Winston Salem
128. The trial of John Peter Zenger established the principle that:
A. no government could be sued
B. criticism of government was not libel if factually true
C. British public officials were immune from prosecution
D. any criticism of the British colonial administration was libel
129. British administration of the North American colonies was weakened by three of the following circumstances. Which is the exception?
A. few officials had any firsthand knowledge about the colonies
B. officials sent to the colonies were often incompetent, and some were dishonest
C. there was no centralized governmental authority in London with exclusive responsibility for the colonies
D. Elected colonial legislative assemblies in the colonies were not responsive to the needs of the people
130. The ultimate outcome of the Albany Plan is evidence that the American colonies:
A. were beginning to develop a sense of nationalism
B. did not have very strong bonds of unity with one another
C. no longer felt the Indians to be a serious threat to their survival
D. were ready to subordinate their differences and unite for common defense
131. The effect of the Treaty of Paris of 1763 was that:
A. the territorial status was restored
B. France lost all territorial possessions on the North American mainland
C. The British were never again troubled by Indians
D. France retained some holdings on the North American continent
132. Parliament's response to the colonial agitation against the Stamp Act was to:
A. lower the tax
B. give in completely to the colonial position
C. repeal the Stamp Act but pass the Declaratory Act
D. raise the amount of the tax
133. The idea that the members of Parliament spoke for the interests of all English subjects rather that for the interests of only the district that elected them is known as:
A. proportional representation
B. territorial representation
C. vicarious representation
D. virtual representation
134. The most important purpose of the Tea Act of 1773 was to:
A. prevent the smuggling of tea into the colonies
B. reinstate the tax on tea that had been abolished in 1770
C. help the East India company out of its financial difficulties
D. raise more revenue in the colonies in order to defray the costs of defense
135. General Thomas Gage ordered British troops to march to Lexington and Concord to arrest Sam Adams and John Hancock and to:
A. seize a cache of gunpowder
B. break up the continental Association
C. prevent the Continental Congress from meeting
D. isolate Massachusetts from the rest of the colonies
136. The opening passages of the Declaration of Independence borrowed heavily from the writings of:
A. Tom Paine
B. John Locke
C. Edmund Burke
D. Jean Jacque Rousseau
137. Which of the following statements about Virginia is correct?
a. Unlike Massachusetts, it had no established church.
b. It was governed by and appointed royal governor and governor's council and a House of Burgesses elected by landowners.
c. By 1640 the great majority of its plantation laborers were African slaves.
d. The indentured servants' chances of upward social mobility improved in the second half of the 1600s.
138. In his "A City upon a Hill," John Winthrop was appealing to the Puritans to ...
a. select ground well away from swamps and marshes to settle on.
b. open their community to people of all faiths who were fleeing England.
c. build a godly community that would shame England into repenting.
d. Exile dissidents such as Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson to the mountains of western Massachusetts.
139. A "praying town" was...
a. a particularly pious Puritan community in New England.
b. one of the Maryland communities in which Catholicism was not only tolerated but also encouraged.
c. A reservation into which the Puritans forced Native Americans so that they could be taught Christianity and English ways.
d. A community of exiles like that established by Roger Williams in Rhode Island.
140. To whom was this admonition addressed? "You have stepped out of your place; you [would] rather have been a husband than a wife..."
a. Anne Hutchinson
b. Mary Easty
c. Sarah Hobin
d. Mary Johnson
141. The tightly-clustered pattern of New England towns...
a. allowed Puritans to attend frequent services at their meeting houses.
b. were conducive to traditional reciprocity.
c. fostered an atmosphere of mutual watchfulness in which Puritans could keep close track of one another's behavior and ensure godly order.
d. All of the above.
142. All of the following contributed to the decline of Native Americans in new England except...
a. smallpox, diphtheria, measles, and tuberculosis
b. the seizure of Indian land to pay off debts.
c. the willingness of most Indians to convert to Christianity.
d. the destruction of the ecosystem by English crops and livestock.
143. The Half-Way Covenant was adopted because...
a. too few second- and third-generation Puritans were willing to testify publicly about their conversion experiences.
b. Puritans believed that Indians were not capable of becoming fully Christian.
c. Puritans wanted to justify enslavement of converted Indians and Africans.
d. Puritans wanted to show Anglicans that they were willing to meet them halfway on resolving differences over religious doctrine.
144. According to the Whig ideology, the best defense against corruption and tyranny rested in the?:
a. increased power of the executive.
b. maintenance of a strong standing army.
c. suppression of dissent and sedition.
d. eternal vigilance by the people.
145. The Salem Village witchcraft crisis occurred for which of the following reasons?:
a. experiencing feelings of powerlessness and insecurity, many Puritans found in witchcraft an explanation for the disorder and change around them.
b. as the poor felt more and more powerless, they tried to take out their frustrations on the wealthy by charging them with practicing witchcraft.
c. old-guard Puritans created the crisis to regain their power and restore morality to the community.
d. the crisis was primarily the result of a power struggle among leading Puritan families.
146. Benjamin Franklin's concept of the "ideal American" differed from John Winthrop's in which of the following ways?:
a. Franklin included women and blacks; Winthrop did not.
b. Franklin emphasized devotion to one's family; Winthrop emphasized devotion to God.
c. Franklin emphasized political activism; Winthrop shunned political involvement.
d. Franklin valued individualism; Winthrop valued the submission of individual will to the good of the community.
147. Thomas Jefferson once observed that the best school of political liberty the world ever saw was the?:
a. College of William and Mary.
b. New England town meeting.
c. Chesapeake plantation system.
d. Virginia House of Burgesses.
e. Congregationalist meeting house.
148. What did the Great Awakening, inter-colonial trade and American attitudes toward English culture and constitutional theory have in common?:
a. they created disdain for England.
b. they contributed to a growing sense of shared American identity.
c. they created a rebellious spirit in America.
d. they helped create imperial rivalry between England and France.
149. The first colony in English America that had separation of church and state and practiced religious tolerance was...
c. Rhode Island.
150. Harvard College was chartered in 1636 primarily to...
a. train learned Congregational ministers.
b. produce an educated governing class.
c. educate lawyers who could defend the rights of the colonists.
d. teach Puritans how to farm the rocky New England soil.