No particular order 1492-1600

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b. propose independence of the colonies from Britain.

c. declare war on the Iroquois nation.

d. prohibit New England and New York from trading with the French West Indies.
20. King Philip's War of 1675-1676 was fought to?

A) remove Spanish Catholics from Florida.

B) end Spanish control over the African slave trade.

C) establish New England trade with the West Indies.

D) stop the French from settling the Ohio River Valley.

E) establish English control over the Indians in New England.

21. Great Britain sought to control colonial trade because?

A) it did not want competition with its own manufacturers.

B) colonial products were inferior to British products.

C) the colonies were seeking political independence.

D) colonial products were too expensive.

E) the colonies were unable to establish trade with France and Spain.

22. Which of the following is properly considered the main purpose of the Navigation Acts?

A) the promotion of trade among the colonies.

B) the protection of American manufacturing from foreign competition.

C) to guarantee that England alone would profit from trade with the colonies.

D) to raise revenue for maintaining the British Empire.

E) the regulation of the slave trade in the colonies.

23. The considerable powers that colonial governors possessed included all of the following EXCEPT?

A) the right to veto acts.

B) the power to call or dismiss assembly sessions at will.

C) control over taxes and the budget.

D) the authority to schedule elections at any time.
24. Which of the following nations was forced out of its colonial holdings in North America in the 17th century?

A) the Netherlands.

B) Spain.

C) England.

D) France.

E) Portugal.

25. Prior to 1763, the British policy of "salutary neglect"?

A) allowed royal colonies to elect their own governors.

B) did not enforce the Navigation Acts.

C) took the Royal Navy off the high seas.

D) encouraged colonists to establish their own parliament.

E) withdrew British soldiers from North America.

26. Which of the following best describes the power generally exercised by British colonial governors in the American colonies?

A) they exercised more power than they were legally permitted because of royal support.

B) they exercised more power than they were legally permitted through the use of patronage.

C) they exercised less power than they were permitted because they were chosen by the colonial legislatures.

D) they exercised less power than they were permitted because they were popularly elected.

E) they exercised less power than they were permitted because of legislative control of taxing and spending.

27. The right to vote for members of the colonial assemblies was?

A) greatly restricted because of high property qualifications.

B) open to women in most of the colonies.

C) extended to a greater proportion of the population than anywhere else in the world of the 18c.

D) restricted to Protestants.

E) none of these choices are correct.

28. Bacon's Rebellion was supported mainly by?

A) young men frustrated by their inability to acquire land.

B) the planter class of Virginia.

C) those protesting the increased importation of African slaves.

D) people from Jamestown only.
29. Which of the following was true of a married woman in the colonial era?

A) She would be sent to debtor’s prison for debt incurred by her husband

B) She could vote as her husband’s proxy in elections

C) She generally lost control of her property when she married

D) She had no legal claim on the estate of her deceased husband

E) Her legal rights over her children were the same as her husband’s

30. A central theme of the Puritan Ethic is its emphasis on:

(A) world economic dependency on the institution of slavery.

(B) the mobility of America's class structure.

(C) the damaging effects of slavery on the South's economy.

(D) patriotism and the glorification of the American nation.

(E) hard work, thrift, and sobriety as signs of election.


31. In colonial America the enlightened view that reason can solve humanity's problems helps explain the:

(A) early growth of New England education.

(B) eighteenth century belief in Deism.

(C) lack of public libraries.

(D) Puritan and Quaker attitudes toward slavery.

(E) curriculum of higher education.


32. The competition for North American territory was a major cause of:

(A) the Mexican-American War.

(B) the French and Indian War.

(C) the Revolutionary War.

(D) the Civil War.

(E) the War of 1812.


33. To promote public libraries and the study of philosophy in colonial America was a major objective of the:

(A) Moravian Community in colonial Pennsylvania.

(B) Knickerbocker magazine of the 1840's.

(C) Rappites and Shakers.

(D) American Phrenological Journal in the 1840's.

(E) Philadelphia Junto Club.


34. A major objective of the New England Transcendentalists was to:

(A) expand humanity's vision of itself by stressing individual initiative.

(B) subject the community to the moral and political leadership of a few.

(C) promote the ideals of economic and political equality.

(D) raise the public's consciousness concerning the immorality of slavery.

(E) promote public awareness of the bad effects of alcohol by urging sobriety.


35. Who among the following was the first to circumnavigate the world, although he died on route?

(A) Juan Ponce de Leon.

(B) Francisco Vasquez de Coronado

(C) Giovanni da Verrazano

(D) Hernando de Soto

(E) Ferdinand Magellan


36. All of the following are characteristics of the Puritans EXCEPT:

(A) a belief in hard work, sobriety, and material success.

(B) a respect for education.

(C) a belief that intellectual leadership is supplied by the clergy.

(D) a disbelief in Democracy.

(E) a toleration of other religious beliefs.


37. A central objective of John Rolfe was:

(A) to encourage centralization and cooperation.

(B) to increase the wealth of the mother country.

(C) to keep the colonies friendly.

(D) to develop the fur trade.

(E) to encourage the Virginia tobacco crop.


38. During colonial times, the Congregationalists settled in:

(A) Pennsylvania.

(B) New York.

(C) New Jersey.

(D) New England.

(E) Maryland.


39. A central objective of the early New England Puritan leadership was to:

(A) establish religious liberty for all.

(B) eliminate the use of alcohol and tobacco.

(C) eliminate any distinction between church and state.

(D) reproduce the ecclesiastical structure of the Church of England.

(E) establish the moral authority of the community over individual self-interest. 
40. By the 1500s the nuclear family unit was becoming increasingly important among
a. Western Europeans.
b. South American Indians.
c. North American Indians.
d. West Africans.
41. All of the following were religious leaders during colonial times EXCEPT:

(A) William Ellery Channing.

(B) Benjamin Rush.

(C) John Woolman.

(D) Cotton Mather.

(E) George Whitefield.


42. The beginnings of representative government in the European settlements in North America can be found in

a. The Spanish colony at St. Augustine, Florida
b. the Dutch New Netherland, where the inhabitants were granted the right to elect their own legislature in the colony's charter
c. Virginia, when, in 1619, the company provided for election of an assembly the inhabitants
d. the small Swedish fur-trading colony in the lower Delaware Valley
43. Who among the following discovered Florida while searching for the legendary "Fountain of Youth?"

(A) Francisco Vasquez de Coronado

(B) Juan Ponce de Leon

(C) Ferdinand Magellan

(D) Giovanni da Verrazano

(E) Hernando de Soto


44. The First Great Awakening was:

(A) a religious revival that occurred throughout the American colonies. (B) a slave rebellion in colonial South Carolina.

(C) an eighteenth century religious movement among Native Americans (Indians) dedicated to reaffirming traditional values.

(D) the flowering of Enlightenment political thought in colonial America.

(E) an early colonial protest against English imperial policy.


45. Which of the following MOST ACCURATELY describes the attitude of seventeenth century Puritans toward religious liberty?

(A) Having suffered persecution in England, they extended toleration to everyone.

(B) The tolerated no one whose expressed religious views varied from their own views.

(C) They tolerated all Protestant sects, but not Catholics.

(D) They tolerated Catholics, but not Quakers.

(E) They had no coherent views on religious liberty.


46. Which of the following is a correct statement about the use of slave labor in colonial Virginia?

(A) It was forced on reluctant white Virginians by profit-minded English merchants and the mercantilist officials of the Crown.

(B) It was the first case in which Europeans enslaved Blacks.

(C) It fulfilled the original plans of the Virginia Company.

(D) It first occurred after the invention of Eli Whitney's cotton gin, which greatly stimulated the demand for low-cost labor.

(E) It spread rapidly in the late seventeenth century, as blacks displaced white indentured servants in the tobacco fields.


47. The French and Indian War was a pivotal point in America's relationship to Great Britain because it led Great Britain to:

(A) encourage colonial manufactures.

(B) impose revenue taxes on the colonies.

(C) ignore the colonies.

(D) restrict immigration from England.

(E) grant increased colonial self-government.


48. Deists of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries believed that:

(A) natural laws, set by the Creator, govern the operation of the universe.

(B) prayer has the power to make significant changes in a person's life.

(C) the idea of God is merely the childish imagining of simple minds.

(D) the universe was created by a natural, spontaneous combining of elements.

(E) intuition rather than reason leads human beings to an awareness of the divine.


49. The mercantilist system in the eighteenth century led to:

(A) the restriction of governmental intervention in the economy.

(B) the protection of Native Americans (Indians) from European economic exploitations.

(C) the expansion of colonial manufacturing.

(D) the subordination of the colonial economy to that of the mother country.

(E) noncompetitive commercial relations among nations.


50. The tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy were distinctive in that they:

(A) were less militant than other Native American (Indian) tribes.

(B) all allied themselves with the American colonists against Great Britain during the Revolutionary War.

(C) successfully resisted incorporation into the English fur-trading system.

(D) were converted to Anglicanism.

(E) formed the most important Native American political organization to confront the colonists.


51. According to a current widely accepted hypothesis, which of the following was common to all of the native peoples of North and South America before 1492?

(A) Accurate astronomical calendars.

(B) Domestication of wild horses.

(C) Rotation of agricultural crops.

(D) Descent from Asian peoples.

(E) Mining of gold and silver.


52. In the creation of which of the following colonies was commercial profit the first and foremost motive?

(A) Connecticut

(B) Maryland

(C) Virginia

(D) Pennsylvania

(E) Rhode Island


53. Great Britain's conquest of French North America was facilitated by which of the following?

(A) The large number of English-speaking settlers in Canada.

(B) The discovery of the Northwest Passage.

(C) The thin settlement of France's North American colonies.

(D) The munitions industry in England's Atlantic Seaboard colonies.

(E) The Battle of Austerlitz.


54. Benjamin Franklin's advice to eighteenth century American colonists that hard work and thrift would lead them to wealth was an appropriate formula for the time because:

(A) taxes on income were needed by the government to raise revenues.

(B) land scarcity and a rapidly growing population seriously curtailed economic opportunities.

(C) most people of the period were unusually gullible and thus easily motivated by slogans and proverbs.

(D) formal education and specialized skills were less necessary to economic success than they would later become.

(E) legal restraints on the inheritance of wealth were increasing.
55. Which of the following statements about West African society at the time of first contact with Europeans is correct?
a. Slavery was unknown in Africa
b. The majority of West Africans were either Muslims or Christians.
c. Agriculture had not yet developed. The majority of West Africans were hunters and gatherers.
d. Kinship groups were the most important unit holding people together.

56. The financing of the Virginia settlement came from?

a. the English government
b. a joint-stock company
c. the Church of England
d. all of the above

57. In which European settlement was fur trading with Native American tribes the primary economic activity?

a. New Mexico
b. Florida
c. New France
d. Virginia

58. The great majority of sixteenth-century Europeans were?

a. nobles
b. middle class
c. urban craftsmen and artisans
d. peasants

59. The primary aim of explorations of Balboa, Magellan, Verrazano, and Cartier was to find?

a. a water passage through the Americans and reach Asia
b. the fabled fountain of youth
c. the Seven Cities of Gold
d. favorable places for their respective nations to plant new colonies

60. All of the following statements about England's Queen Elizabeth I are correct except…

a. she eagerly embraced Puritanism and denounced the vestiges of Catholicism in the Church of England
b. she helped finance the raids of the English 'sea dogs' on Spanish ports and shipping and shared in the plunder
c. she secretly aided Protestant revolts in Europe against Spanish Domination
d. after the pope declared her a heretic, she viewed English Catholics as potential traitors

61. All of the following statements about English Puritans are correct except…

a. they were Calvinists
b. they rejected the doctrine of predestination
c. the majority of them did not want to separate from the Church of England but to reform it from within
d. they rejected magnificent cathedrals and ornate rituals in favor of plain sermons in ordinary churches

62. Which of the following is incorrectly matched with his deeds?

a. Cortes conquered the Aztecs and built Mexico City
b. Francisco Coronado founded the Grand Canyon, plundered the New Mexico pueblos
c. Giovanni da Verrazano founded Quebec, sent De Bois to live with the Indians
d. Jacques Cartier explored the St. Lawrence, made an early French attempt to colonize in North America

63. The Mediterranean Sea…

a. traditionally separated Europe from North Africa
b. was part of the route to Asia that Europeans sought
c. served as the cross-roads for trade goods from Europe, Africa, and Asia
d. stimulated trans-Atlantic trade in the Middle Ages

64. Which of the following was not a wealthy West African kingdom?

a. Ghana
b. Mali
c. Guinea
d. Tenochtitlan
65. In Sub-Saharan African societies…
a. the nuclear family was the center of life
b. marriage depended upon courtship and romantic love
c. monotheistic religions such as Islam and Christianity predominated
d. lie in the roots of important parts of modern American culture.

66. The Renaissance was…

a. a great religious revival that split Europe into Protestant and Catholic
b. an era of intense artistic and intellectual creativity that looked to the classical age of Greece and Rome
c. part of he stimulus for the rise of Calvinism in Europe
d. Columbus’s flagship

67. In Europe, the idea of reciprocity…

a. placed responsibility on the upper classes to act with restraint
b. was virtually identical to the idea of reciprocity in both African and Native American societies
c. encouraged the accumulation of wealth through the profit motive
d. encouraged rapid changes in social relationships

68. Which of the following were the first to cultivate food crops in America?

a. European colonists in South America

b. Indians along the Atlantic seaboard of North America

c. Jesuit missionaries in southern California

d. Indians in central Mexico.

69. Women were most likely to hold political positions in:

a. Hunting tribes

b. Tribes with no sexual division of labor

c. Agricultural tribes

d. Nomadic tribes
70. Black slavery was introduced to Europe by the

a. French

b. Spanish

c. English

d. Portuguese
71. Under the encomiendas system,

a. Spanish Jesuits undertook the task of converting Indians to the Christian faith.

b. Tribute from Indian villages was granted to the individual conquistadors.

c. Prisoners from Spain were sent to work in New World silver mines for periods ranging from seven years to life

d. The Catholic Church established schools and hospitals in Indian villages 72. Which of the following is true of John Cabot?

a. He brought back Europe the first formal knowledge of North America’s northern coastline

b. He is credited with having found an all-water route through North America to Asia

c. As a result of his voyages, Cabot was the first European to realize that Columbus had not reached Asia

d. He established a settlement in Vinland which was the first European settlement in North America
73. The voyages of Cabot, Verrazano, Cartier, and Hudson were important in that

a. Their discoveries led to regular trade with Asia via the Northwest Passage

b. They demonstrated that voyages of discovery could be highly profitable

c. Their discoveries caused European nations to become interested in exploring North and South America

d. They each established a permanent settlement in North America for their respective communities
74. The Lakota, Comanches and Crows of the Great Plains were profoundly affected by the

a. Cultivation of tobacco

b. Introduction of settled agriculture into North America via private property ideals

c. Introduction of wheat and rye into North America

d. Introduction of the horse into North America
75. The permanent outposts established by Europeans in North America in the early seventeenth century were initially inhabited by the people whose aim it was to

a. Establish military bases for their respective countries

b. Make money by sending as many beaver pelts as possible home to Europe

c. Christianize the Indians of North America

d. Establish permanent colonies for their respective countries
76. The first person to publish the idea that Columbus had discovered a new continent was

a. Amerigo Vespucci

b. Martin Waldseemuller

c. John Cabot

d. Pedro Alvares Cabral
77. In the 15th century, Lower Guinea and Upper Guinea differed in which of the following respects?

a. The governments of Lower Guinea were democratic; those of Upper Guinea were autocratic

b. Women were responsible for the cultivation of rice in Lower Guinea but were primarily the local traders in Upper Guinea.

c. Women were denied political power in Lower Guinea but held powerful political and religious positions in Upper Guinea

d. The peoples of Lower Guinea continued to practice traditional African religions; those of Upper Guinea were heavily influenced by the Islamic religion
78. When Europeans began to colonize North America, the Indians on the continent

a. Did not see themselves as one people and did not think of uniting against the invaders

b. Realized that unity against the invaders was essential to survival

c. Quickly accepted the religious ideas expressed by European missionaries

d. Recognized the importance of accepting and adopting major characteristics of European culture

79. French missionaries, unlike their Spanish counterparts, decided they could best convert Native Americans to Christianity by

a. Moving them to European-style villages

b. Learning Indian languages and going among the natives

c. Using European medicines to cure Indians of smallpox

d. Destroying all vestiges of traditional Indian religions

80. The economic and social problems in the seventeenth-country England that caused many English citizens to migrate to the New World were the result of:

a. The collapse of the woolens industry

b. Warfare between England and France

c. The government’s decision to eliminate all tariffs on foreign foods

d. The doubling of the English population between 1530 and 1680
81. Who were the Puritans and what pushed them to leave for the New World?

a. Desire for money to buy manufactured goods on their own

b. Pursuit to eliminate dependence on outsiders

c. Maintain their “Englishness”

d. Some of the above

e. All of the above

82. The Puritans advocated which of the following changes in the Church of England?

a. They wanted the church to be free from political interference.

b. They wanted all English citizens to be included in the membership of the church

c. They wanted bishops and archbishops to be elected rather than appointed.

d. They wanted priests to be allowed to marry.
83. The primary motive behind the founding of England’s first permanent colony was a desire

a. For religious freedom

b. For profit

c. To gain knowledge about the flora and fauna of the New World

d. To challenge Spain’s power in the New World
84. A number of English Puritans moved to America in the 1620s and 1630s because they

a. Wanted to establish a society of religious toleration

b. Wanted the freedom to practice their beliefs without monarchy interference

c. Were exiled to the New World after coming back from the Netherlands

d. Wanted to establish an independent nation for themselves

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