|New England/Chesapeake DBQ
Directions: The following question requires you to construct a coherent essay that integrates your interpretation of Documents A-H AND your knowledge of the period referred to in the question. High scores will be earned only by essays that both cite key pieces of evidence from the documents and draw on outside knowledge of the period. Some of the documents have been edited, and wording and punctuation have been modernized.
Question: Although New England and the Chesapeake region were both settled largely by people of English origin, by 1700 the regions had evolved into two distinct societies. Why did this difference occur?
Use the documents AND your knowledge of the colonial period up to 1700 to develop your answer.
Source: John Winthrop, “A Model of Christian Charity” (written on board the Arbella on the Atlantic Ocean, 1630)
God Almighty in his most holy and wise providence hath so disposed of the condition of mankind, [that] in all times some must be rich, some poor, some high and eminent in power and dignity, other mean and in subjection…[Yet] we must be knit together in this work as one man. We must entertain each other in brotherly affection, we must be willing to abridge ourselves of our superfluities, for the supply of others’ necessities. We must uphold a familiar commerce together in all meekness, gentleness, patience, and liberality. We must delight in each other, make others’ conditions our own, rejoice together, mourn together, labor and suffer together, always having before our eyes our commission and community in the work, our community as members of the same body. So shall we keep the unity of the spirit in the bond of peace…We must consider that we shall be as a city upon a hill. The eyes of all people are upon us, so that if we shall deal falsely with our God in this work we have undertaken, and so cause him to withdraw his present help from us, we shall be made a story and a by-word through the world. We shall open the mouths of enemies to speak evil of the ways of God…shall shame the faces of many of God’s worthy servants, and cause their prayers to be turned into curses upon us.
Source: Ship’s list of emigrants bound for New England, Weymouth, the 20th of March, 1635
Joseph Hull, of Somerset, a minister, aged 40 years
Agnes Hull, his wife aged 25 years
Joan Hull, his daughter, aged 15 years
Joseph Hull, his son, aged 13 years
Tristram, his son, aged 11 years
Elizabeth Hull, his daughter, aged 7 years
Temperance, his daughter, aged 9 years
Grissel Hull, his daughter, aged 5 years
Dorothy Hull, his daughter, aged 3 years
Judith French, his servant, aged 20 years
Robert Dabyn, his servant, aged 28 years
Musachiell Bernard, of Batcombe, clothier in the county of Somerset, 24 years
Mary Bernard, his wife, aged 28 years
John Bernard, his son, aged 3 years
Nathaniel, his son, aged 1 year…
21. Timothy Tabor, in Somerset of Batcombe, tailor, aged 35 years
22. Jane Tabor, his wife, aged 35 years
23. Jane Tabor, his daughter, aged 10 years
24. Anne Tabor, his daughter, aged 8 years
25. Sarah Tabor, his daughter, aged 5 years
26. William Fever, his servant, aged 20 years
27. John Whitmarke, aged 39 years
28. Alice Whitmarke, his wife, aged 35 years
29. James Whitmarke, his son, aged 5 years
30. Jane, his daughter, aged 7 years
31. Onseph Whitmarke, his son, aged 5 years
32. Rich. Whitmarke, his son, aged 2 years…
74. Robert Lovell, Husbandman, aged 40 years
75. Elizabeth Lovell, his wife, aged 35 years
76. Zacheus Lovell, his son, aged 15 years
77. Anne Lovell, his daughter, aged 16 years
78. John Lovell, his son, aged 8 years
79. Ellyn, his daughter, aged 1 year
80. James, his son, aged 1 year
81. Joseph Chickin, his servant, 16 years
82. Alice Kinham, aged 22 years
83. Angell Hollard, aged 21 years
84. Katheryn, his wife, 22 years
85. George Land, his servant, 22 years
86. Sarah, his kinswoman, 18 years…
103. John Hoble, husbandman, 13
104. Robert Huste, husbandman, 40…
Source: Ship’s list of emigrants bound for Virginia, Ultimo, July, 1635
These underwritten names are to be transported to Virginia, embarked in the Merchant’s Hope, Hugh Weston, Master, per examination by the minister of Gravesend touching their conformity to the Church discipline of England, and have taken the oaths of allegiance and supremacy:
Edward Towers 26 Allin King 19
Henry Woodman 22 Rowland Sadler 19
Richard Seems 26 Jo. Phillips 28
Vyncent Whatter 17 Daniell Endick 16
James Whithedd 14 Jo. Chalk 25
Jonas Watts 21 Edward Smith 20
Peter Loe 22 Jo. Rowlidge 19
Geo. Brocker 17 Jo. Vynall 20
Henry Eeles 26 Wm. Westlie 40
Jo. Dennis 22 Jo. Smith 18
Tho. Swayen 23 Jo. Saunders 22
Charles Rensden 27 Tho. Bartcherd 16
Jo. Exston 17 Tho. Didderidge 19
Wm. Luck 14 Richard Williams 18
Jo. Thomas 19 Jo. Balance 19
Jo. Archer 21 Wm. Baldin 21
Richard Williams 25 Wm. Pen 26
Francis Hutton 20 Jo. Gerie 24
Savill Gascoyne 29 Henry Baylie 18
Rich. Bulfell 29 Rich. Anderson 50
Rich. Jones 26 Robert Kelum 51
Tho. Wynes 30 Richard Fanshaw 22
Humphrey Williams 22 Tho. Bradford 40
Edward Roberts 20 Wm. Spencer 16
Martin Atkinson 32 Marmaduke Ella 22
Wm. Edwards 30
Nathan Braddock 31
Jeffrey Gurish 23 Women
Henry Carrell 16 Ann Swayne 22
Tho. Tyle 24 Eliz. Cote 22
Gamaliel White 24 Ann Rice 23
Richard Marks 19 Kat. Wilson 23
Tho. Clever 16 Maudlin Lloyd 24
Jo. Kitchin 16 Mabell Busher 14
Edmond Edwards 20 Annis Hopkins 24
Lewes Miles 19 Ann Mason 24
Jo. Kennedy 20 Bridget Crompe 18
Sam Jackson 24 Mary Hawkes 19
Ellin Hawkes 18
Source: Article of Agreement, Springfield, Massachusetts, 1636
We whose names are underwritten, being by God’s providence engaged together to make a plantation…do mutually agree to certain articles and orders to be observed and kept by us and by our successors…
We intend by God’s grace, as soon as we can, witah all convenient speed, to procure some Godly and faithful minister with whom we purpose to join in church covenant to walk in all the ways of Christ.
We intend that our town shall be composed for forty families…rich and poor.
That every inhabitant shall have a convenient proportion for a house lot, as we shall see [fit] for everyone’s quality and estate…
That everyone shall have a share of the meadow or planting ground…
Source: Wage and Price Regulations in Connecticut, 1676
Whereas a great cry of oppression is heard among us, and that principally pointed at workmen and traders, which is hard to regulate without a standard for pay, it is therefore ordered that…[prices and wages] by duly set at each of our General Courts annually…[A]ll breaches of this order to be punished proportionable to the vlue of the oppression…This court…in the interim recommends [that] all tradesmen and laborers consider the religious end of their callings, which is that receiving such moderate profit as many enable them to serve God and their neighbors with their arts and trades comfortably, they do not enrich themselves suddenly and inordinately (by oppressing prices and wages to the impoverishing [of] their neighbors…love in the practice of that crying sin of oppression, but avoid it.
Source: Captain John Smith, History of Virginia, 1624
When the [large ship] departed…those of us that had money, spare clothes, credit to give bills of payment, gold rings, fur, or any such commodities, were ever welcome to [purchase supplies. The rest of us patiently obeyed our] vile commanders and [bought] our provisions at fifteen times the value…yet did not repine but fasted, lest we should incure the censure of [being] factious and seditious persons…Our ordinary [food] was but meal and water so that this…little relieved our wants, whereby with the extremity of the bitter cold front…more than half of us died.
The worst [among us were the gold seekers who] with their golden promises made all men their slaves in hope of recompenses. There was no talk…but dig gold, wash gold, refine gold, load gold…Smith perceiving [we lived] from hand to mouth, caused the pinnace [small ship] to be provided with things fitting to get provision for the year following.
[Two councilors] Wingfield and Kendall…strengthened themselves with the silors and other confederates [and planned to go] aboard the pinnace to alter her course and to go for England.
Smith had the plot discovered to him. Much trouble he had to prevent it, will with store of saker and musket shot he forced them to stay or sink in the river; which action cost the life of Captain Kendall.
These brawls are so disgustful, as some will say, they wee better forgotten.
Source: Governor Berkeley and his council on their inability to defend Virginia against a Dutch attack, December, 1673
We thought it our duty…to set forth in this our Declaration, the true state and condition of this country in general and or particular…disability to…[engage in] war at the time of this invasion [by the Dutch]…[We] therefore do most humbly beseech your majesty and your most honorable council to consider that Virginia is intersected by so many vast rivers as makes more miles to defend that we have men of trust to defend them. For by our nearest computation we leave at our backs as many servants (besides Negroes) as there are freemen to defend the shores and all or frontiers [against] the Indians…[This] gives men fearful apprehensions of the danger they leave their estates and families in, while they are drawn from their houses to defend the borders. Also at least one third [of the freemen available for defense] are single freemen (whose labor will hardly maintain them) of men much in debt…[whom] we may reasonable expect upon any small advantage the enemy may gain upon us…[to defect] to them in hopes of bettering their condition by sharing the plunder of the country with them.
Source: Bacon’s “Manifest,” justifying his rebellion against Virginia Governor Berkeley in 1676
We cannot in our hearts find one single spot of rebellion or treason or that we have in any manner aimed at subverting the settled government…All people in all places where we have yet been can attest our civil, quiet, peaceable behavior far different from that of rebellion…Let truth be bold and all the world know the real foundations of pretended guilt…Let us trace…[the] men in authority and favor to whose hands the dispensation of the country’s wealth has been committed. Let us observe the sudden rise of their estates…[compared] with the quality in which they first entered this country. Let us consider their sudden advancement. And let us also consider whether any public work for our safety and defense or for the advancement and propagation of trade, liberal arts or sciences in any [way] adequate to our vast charge. Now let us compare these things together and see what sponges have sucked up the public treasure and whether it has not been privately contrived away by unworthy favorites and juggling parasites whose tottering fortunes have been repaired and supported at the public charge.