New Deal Programs Name



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New Deal Programs Name_____________________







First New Deal










Type: Act, program, government agency, etc.

Goal and Strategy what did this aim to do? Did it create any new agencies? If so, what?

Reaction: Court, critics, public

Evaluation benefits, drawbacks, legacy

Business/Industrial Recovery













Emergency Banking Relief Act

Act

Banks were inspected by the gov’t and only capable ones were allowed to reopen

Only a temporary measure, regained some confidence in banks, people redeposited $

Led to passage of1933 Banking Act, which was a more long-term solution, created FDIC

Banking Act of 1933 (Glass Steagall Act)

Act

Created FDIC, banking reforms, designed to control speculation




FDIC still exists, but the Glass-Steagall Act was repealed in 1999 helped lead to current financial crisis




Type: Act, program, government agency, etc.

Goal and Strategy what did this aim to do? Did it create any new agencies? If so, what?

Reaction: Court, critics, public

Evaluation benefits, drawbacks, legacy

Agriculture













Agricultural Adjustment Act 1933

(AAA)


Act, created Agricultural Adjustment Administration

Restricted agricultural production by paying farmers (subsidizing) to not grow crops, idea was to raise prices and give farmers stability again

SC declared this unconstitutional in 1936 with United States v. Butler, decided that regulation of agriculture was a state power



















Labor













National Industrial Recovery Act 1933

(NIRA)


Act, gave president right to regulate industry, law was implemented by the National Recovery Administration, created PWA

Created National Recovery Administration, companies joined voluntarily, companies wrote codes of fair competition and set min. wages. Max. hours and the right to collective bargaining

Supreme Court invalidated it in 1935; many critics thought it was poorly run, critics argued it allowed monopolies to run wild, encouraged labor organizing

Largely considered a failure
















Relief













Civilian Conservation Corps 1933

(CCC)


Relief Program

Public work relief program for unemployed men, gave vocational training, put people to work outside in conservation and developing natural resources

Popular, helped 3 million men, ended in 1942

In many cities statues were built to honor CCC workers who impacted that community




Type: Act, program, government agency, etc.

Goal and Strategy what did this aim to do? Did it create any new agencies? If so, what?

Reaction: Court, critics, public

Evaluation benefits, drawbacks, legacy

Federal Emergency Relief Act 1933

(FERA)


Act and program, Created Federal Emergency Relief Administration

1st direct relief agency of New Deal, gave state assistance to unemployed and their families, gave $3.1 billion

Popular, provided work for 20 million people

Ended in 1935, its work taken over by the WPA and social security

Public Works Administration 1933

(PWA)


Agency, created by NIRA

Large-scale public works like dams and bridges, streets, etc. gave jobs; built Loncoln Tunnel in NYC




Closed in 1939, did a good job, spent $6 billion, built industry back up to near pre-depression levels

Civil Works Administration 1933

(CWA)


Agency, created under FERA

To provide temporary jobs, mostly in construction,

Expensive, hired 4 million people and paid high waged

Ended in 1934, did make a lot of improvements to roads, sewers and schools
















Reform













Tennessee Valley Authority

(TVA)


Agency

Provide electricity, flood control and econ. Development in the Tennessee Valley

Popular, helped a rural area, gave jobs , SC declared the TVA constitutional in 1936

Still exists, it is the nation’s largest power company




Type: Act, program, government agency, etc.

Goal and Strategy what did this aim to do? Did it create any new agencies? If so, what?

Reaction: Court, critics, public

Evaluation benefits, drawbacks, legacy

Securities Exchange Act 1934

Act

Created the SEC, or Securities and Exchange Committee, has power to regulate stock exchanges, brokerage firms, etc.







Indian Reorganization Act 1934

Act, law

Reversed the forced-assimilation policies in effect since the Dawes Act of 1887, tried to stop the loss of Indian land




























Second New Deal






















Labor













National Labor Relations Act/Board (Wagner Act) 1934

Act, creates agency.

Conducts elections for labor union representation and fights unfair labor practices, leaders appt. by President

Very controversial

Wagner Act is the most important piece of labor legislation in US history, grants workers the right to organize, employers cant stop them, federal gov’t regulates

Fair Labor Standards Act 1938

(Wages and Hours Bill)

Act


Est. a national minimum wage, guaranteed time and half for certain jobs, prohibited most child labor




Still exists, is the strongest tool for enforcing and protecting the rights and wages of employees




Type: Act, program, government agency, etc.

Goal and Strategy what did this aim to do? Did it create any new agencies? If so, what?

Reaction: Court, critics, public

Evaluation benefits, drawbacks, legacy

Agriculture













Rural Electrification Administration

(REA)


Gov’t agency

Gave low-cost loans to farm cooperatives to bring electricity to their area




By 1941, REA successfully raised the percentage of farms with electricity from 10% to 40%

Agricultural Adjustment Act 1938

(AAA)


Act, replaced first AAA

made price support mandatory for corn, cotton, and wheat to help maintain a sufficient supply in low production periods along with marketing quotas to keep supply in line with market demand







Relief














Works Progress Administration 1935

(WPA)


Agency, largest of the New Deal

Employed millions to do public works projects, buildings, roads, also art, drama, and literacy projects, spent $11 billion,

Popular for some, criticized by others for paying people to do unnecessary jobs gave African Americans jobs, "We Poke Along", workers went slowly




National Youth Administration 1935

(NYA)


1935-43, part of WPA. Agency

Hired high school and college youth, paid b/t $6 and $40 a month for work study projects, incl. women, youth usually lived at home and worked on construction proj.







Farm Security Administration 1935

(FSA)


Gov’t agency

Created to help sharecroppers , set up temporary housing for “Okies” and “Arkies”, Dust Bowl refugees in California










Type: Act, program, government agency, etc.

Goal and Strategy what did this aim to do? Did it create any new agencies? If so, what?

Reaction: Court, critics, public

Evaluation benefits, drawbacks, legacy

Reform













Social Security Act 1935

Act/program

Provides old-age insurance, disability, unemployment, 1st “safety net”

Initially excluded women and minorities, agriculture and domestic workers

Still exists

Recovery













Federal Housing Administration 1934

(FHA)


Created as part of the National Housing Act of 1934

Provided small loans for home construction; to improve housing standards and conditions; to provide an adequate home financing system through insurance of mortgage loans; and to stabilize the mortgage market.








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