Negative 1nc – Afro-Pessimism K

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AT: Time/Death Link

Ignorance of the inevitability of the future means we never create pragmatic change – their rejection of systems of temporality dooms us to nihilism

WFS 2 — World Future Society, nonprofit, nonpartisan, nongovernmental organization founded in 1966, 2002 (“A brief overview of the study of the future and the services of the World Future Society,” Available Online at, Accessed 04-10-2007)

To meet the challenges of the future, we need to find out about what we can plausibly expect in the years ahead so we can understand what our options are. We can then set reasonable goals and develop effective strategies for achieving them.∂ Many people believe it is impossible to know anything about the future, so the future can simply be ignored. This is a very serious mistake. It's true, of course, that we can know only a little about the future, but that little is extremely important, because a knowledge of the future—even when it's very uncertain—is critical in making wise decisions, in both our professional and personal lives.∂ Learning what we can know about the future enables us to think constructively about it and do things that will contribute to our achieving a desirable future, because preparation is needed to meet the challenges of the future and take advantage of the new opportunities opening up.∂ We humans really do have the ability to think constructively about the future, anticipate many future events, envision desirable goals, and develop effective strategies for realizing our purposes. By learning about current trends and likely future developments, we can develop a mental data bank and set of blueprints for improving our future life. These assets can help us to succeed in whatever we seek to achieve.∂ Proactive, future-oriented thinking can lead to greater success in both work and private affairs. The future will happen, no matter what we do, but if we want it to be a good future, we need to work at it. As Adlai Stevenson put it, "Change is inevitable; change for the better is a full-time job."

Hope is what gives value to life – they might be right that the present creates violence against marked bodies but never imagining a world in which these bodies can survive is a tactic of white supremacy

Unger 7 — Roberto Mangabeira Unger, Roscoe Pound Professor of Law at Harvard University, 2007 (The Self Awakened: Pragmatism Unbound, Published by Harvard University Press, ISBN 0674023544, p. 151)

The hope held out by the thesis that we can change our relation to our contexts will remain hollow unless we can change this relation in biographical as well as in historical time, independent of the fate of all collective projects of transformation. It will be hollow as well unless that change will give us other people and the world itself more fully. That the hope is not hollow in any such sense represents part of the thesis implicit in the idea of futurity: to live for the future is to live in the present as a being not fully determined by the present settings of organized life and thought and therefore more capable of openness to the other person, to the surprising experience, and to the entire phenomenal world of time and change. It is in this way that we can embrace the joy of life in the moment as both a revelation and a prophecy rather than discounting it as a trick that nature plays on spirit the better to reconcile us to our haplessness and our ignorance.∂ The chief teaching of this book is that we become more godlike to live, not that we live to become more godlike. The reward of our striving is not arousal to a greater life later; it is arousal to a greater life now, a raising up confirmed by our opening up to the other and to the new. A simple way to grasp the point of my whole argument, from the vantage point of this its middle and its center, is to say that it explores a world of ideas about nature, society, personality, and mind within which this teaching makes sense and has authority.

AT: Islamophobia Link

Anti-black violence is just a factor of anti-brown violence – their bracketing off of Muslim Americans is a tactic of white supremacy

Bowie 8, Niko Bowie is a staff writer for Yale Daily knews as well as CBS, “Column: Has Anti-black Racism Been Replaced By Islamophobia?,”, NN

Historians will likely attribute George W. Bushs successful 2004 reelection campaign at least in part to anti-Muslim fear after September 11. But might they also credit Barack Obamas success so far to the same phenomenon?∂ September 11 has dramatically altered race relations in the United States, but not necessarily positively. Perceptions of hostility between blacks and whites in the United States have certainly dissipated, and polling data shows that the number of people who claim they would never vote for a black president has dropped significantly in the last eight years. But this trend might be less due to racial reconciliation than to a displacement of racism from blacks to a conflated image of Muslims, Arabs and terrorists. ∂ In a 2000 stand-up comedy routine, Dave Chappelle quipped: Sometimes racism works out in black peoples favor, referencing Muslims in particular. Chappelle began to tell the audience of being on an airplane during a hijacking. When he surreptitiously turned to another black passenger and gave him a thumbs-up, a white person sitting nearby whispered appreciatively, Oh my God, I think those black guys are going to save us! ∂ But their take was a misinterpretation: really, Chappelle was confident the hijackers would spare him and the other passenger because black people are bad bargaining chips. ∂ After September 11, many other comedians, writers and pundits noticed a similar pattern in our country: Black people began to be viewed more favorably by whites as hostility toward Arab-Americans and Muslims increased. A week before the attacks, American delegates walked out of the World Conference Against Racism in Durban, South Africa. Now, Americans see black people as far less threatening than Arabs. Though Dave Chappelle is Muslim, after the attacks he joked he was getting through the system or at least airport security lines much faster than before. ∂ Has anti-black racism been replaced by Islamophobia? One glaring answer can be found in changes to the presidential campaigns. At the beginning of last century, candidates feared not that they would be seen as Muslims, but as Negroes. In 1920, a biographer of presidential candidate Warren G. Harding published a pamphlet that suggested Harding was the great-grandson of a black woman and therefore could become the countrys first Negro president. Hardings supporters were furious. As the Yale history professor Beverly Gage has written, the taint of Negro blood was political death. Hardings supporters drove the biographer out of his job and destroyed as many of the pamphlets as they could find. ∂ Fast-forward to 2008, when candidates running against Barack Obama have circulated photographs of him wearing a headscarf and encouraged rumors he attended a madrassa. At a recent rally, John McCain told a supporter who feared that Obama might be Arab that it wasnt true because Obama was a decent family man, a citizen that I just happen to have disagreements with. ∂ And while McCain has declared Reverend Jeremiah Wrights sermons out-of-bounds for political attacks, his campaign has nevertheless attacked Barack Hussein Obama for palling around with terrorists, using his association with teacher and former domestic terrorist Bill Ayers to scare many Americans into thinking of dangerous sheiks living in caves. ∂ Obama has responded to this Islamophobia less by condemning the bigotry than by affirming his Christian values and distancing himself from Islam. In one unfortunate turn this summer, Obama campaign volunteers even repositioned Muslim women at rallies so they wouldnt be caught in television footage of the candidate. (The campaign later apologized and said the action was unsanctioned.) ∂ It wasnt until Colin Powells endorsement of Obama last week tat a prominent political figure took issue with the anti-Muslim sentiments that have been rampant through the campaign. These are the kinds of images going out on Al Jazeera that are killing us around the world, Powell said. And we have got to say to the world it doesnt make any difference who you are and what you are. If youre an American, youre an American. ∂ Regardless of whether anti-Muslim fears among the electorate have influenced votes, the next president will need to face the reality that racism may not be dying in America, but instead just taking on a different color. As far as I know neither candidate in this race is Muslim, but that should not stop either one of them from condemning this new form of racism head-on.
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