Native women’s association of canada

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End Notes

1 NWAC is committed to the development of genuine research collaboration between researchers and Aboriginal communities, thereby promoting partnerships within a framework of mutual trust and cooperation. However, we have made a deliberate decision to rely on more of a western, academic approach for this FASD project. It is exploratory, does not involve opportunities for storytelling and other participatory methods with participants, and is designed to set the stage for a more in-depth assessment of FASD, gangs, sexual exploitation, and murdered Aboriginal girls and women. Should adequate funding be granted for this second phase, NWAC will employ an Aboriginal model of research, relying on respect of indigenous knowledge and worldviews, indigenous epistemology, inclusivity in the research agenda, and shared power and decision-making.

2 For example, Tait (2003a) argues that the behavioural and cognitive effects of suffering physical and sexual abuse in Residential Schools are comparable to the behavioural and cognitive effects of FASD – and in the absence of concrete evidence of a mother’s alcohol abuse during pregnancy, it is entirely plausible that the trauma suffered in Residential Schools (and not prenatal alcohol abuse) is the root cause of developmental delays and other disabilities.

3 For example, see the body of work by Ira Chasnoff, widely regarded as one of the leading experts in the world on these issues.

4 By ‘experts’ we mean community members, grass roots organizations and professionals.

5 FAS diagnosis requires a confirmed history of maternal alcohol consumption; evidence of facial dysmorphology; growth retardation; and central nervous system dysfunction. It is the most severe developmental impairment on the spectrum.

6 Currently, FAE and ARBD are understood to fall within the broader term ARND. Individuals with ARND are unlikely to have the facial malformations but have central nervous system impairment.

7 Pardini, 2006; Pardini and Loeber, 2008; Nash et al., 2006; Kodituwakku et al., 2006; May et al., 2006; Good et al., 2001; Delaney-Black et al., 2000; Watt and Muenke, 2005; Fast and Conry, 2004.

8 BC Ministry for Children and Families, 1998.

9 Grant et al., 2006.

10 The issue of ‘inappropriate’ sexual behavior is addressed in the section on FASD and Sexual Exploitation.

11 Streissguth, Bookstein, Barr, Sampson, O’Malley, and Kogan Young, 2004; Streissguth, Barr, Kogan, and Bookstein,1996; Kvigne et al., 2004; Chudley et al., 2005; Stade et al., 2004; Streissguth et al., 1997; Brown and Fudge Schormans, 2004.

12 O’Malley, 2007.

13Chavez, Cordero and Becerra (1988); Sokol and Clarren, 1989; Sampson, Bookstein, Barr and Streissguth, 1994; Sampson, Streissguth, Bookstein, Little, Clarren, Dehaene et al., 1997.

14 Roberts and Nanson, 2000; Health Canada, 2003.

15 For example, Tait (2003) argues that these studies have a disproportionate focus on Aboriginal women and their communities, and fail to differentiate the effects of prenatal alcohol use from the wide-ranging outcomes of colonization, forced assimilation and residential schooling.

16 Robinson, Conry and Conry, 1987; Williams, Odaibo and McGee, 1999.

17Square, 1997; Asante and Nelms-Maztke, 1985; Habbick, Nanson, Snyder, Casey, and Schulman, 1996.

18 For example, see Masotti et al., 2006.

19 Sokol, Delaney-Black and Nordstrom, 2003.

20 Canada, 1995; OFIFC, 2000.

21 Murphy, Chittenden, and The McCreary Centre Society, 2005.

22 Durst and Bluechardt, 2001.

23 CSC 2001, 2003; Totten 2008; CISS 2005; Astwood Strategy Corporation 2004)

24 For the purposes of this paper, youth includes young people aged 12 – 30 years of age.

25 Totten 2000, 2008, 2009d.

26 Totten 2009c, 2008; Mellor et al. 2005.

27 Totten, 2008; CISC 2004; Mellor et. al. 2005.

28 Totten, 2000; Kelly and Totten, 2002.

29 Statistics Canada 2006a, 2006b, 2006c, 2007a, 2007b.

30 Ontario Native Women’s Association, 1989.

32 Statistics Canada, 2006b.

33 CAEFS, 2006.

34 The high number of cases in BC is due to the many cases of murdered women in the high profile Vancouver investigation.

35 Statistics Canada, 1993.

36 ONWA and OAIFC, 2007.

37 McEvoy & Daniluk 1995; Young and Katz, 1998; The Nechi Institute, The Four Worlds Development Project, 1988.

38 NWAC, 2007; McIvor and Nahanee, 1998.

39 Totten and Dunn, 2009a, b; Totten, 2009c, d; Farley and Lynne 2005; Lynne 2005; Farley, Lynne and Cotton 2005.

40 Sethi, 2007; Totten, 2009d.

41 Totten and Dunn, 2009a, 2009b; Assistant Deputy Minister’s Committee, 2001.

42 United Nations definition, 2005.

43 Sethi, 2007.

44 Stimpson and Best, 1991; Sobsey, 1988.

45 Razack, 1994.

46 Astley et al, 2000.

47 Streissguth et al., 2004, 1997.

48 Bonner et al., 1999.

49 BCFAS Resource Society/BC Ministry of Children and Family Development, 1998.

50 Totten and Dunn, 2009b; Clark and Benton Gibbard, 2003; Clarke, 2001; Alberta Clinical Practice Guidelines, 1999.

51 Totten and Dunn, 2009a, b; Sethi, 2007.

52 The SIS initiative is attempting to track FASD both in the missing and murdered women and in the male offenders convicted in these cases. This is extremely difficult for a number of reasons, including a lack of diagnosis and the stigma associated with this disability.

53 For example, see Pardini, 2006; Pardini and Loeber, 2008; Nash et al., 2006.

54 Totten, 2009c.

55 Totten and Dunn, 2009a, 2009b.

56 For example, Weatherburn et al. 2003; Dickson-Gilmore and Laprairie 2005; Totten 2008; Kelly and Totten 2002.

57 Totten, 2009c.

58 Totten, 2009e.

59 Totten’s exploratory research is one of the only published studies on this issue (2009d).

60 Totten and Dunn, 2009a, b; Totten, 2009c, d.

61 Totten and Dunn, 2009b.

62 Totten, 2009c, d.

63 Totten and Dunn, 2009b.

64 NWAC 2008; Amnesty International 2004.

65 See Astley et al., 2000; Tait, 2003; Velez et al., 2006; Kvigne et al., 2003; Streissguth et al., 2004; Clarren and Smith, 1978.

66 Astley et al., 2000.

67 Velez et al., 2005.

68 Sorenson & Wiebe, 2004; Paulozzi, Saltzman, Thompson, & Holmgreen, 2001

69 Bailey et al., 1997.

70 Kvigne et al., 2003.

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