Nationality: Norwegian Source: Contemporary Authors Online. The Gale Group, 2000. New Entry

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George F(rederick) E(lliot) Rude


Nationality: Norwegian
Source: Contemporary Authors Online. The Gale Group, 2000.

New Entry: 03/24/1999

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Personal Information
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Focusing on individual rioters involved in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century European revolutions, historian, educator, and author George F.E. Rude examined the often neglected role of common people in social upheaval. A teacher of modern languages at preparatory schools in England from the 1930s through the 1950s, Rude used information found in French police archives to compose his 1959 work, The Crowd in the French Revolution. His "history from below" approach was not readily accepted in British academic circles and in 1960 he accepted a position as senior lecturer at the University of Adelaide in South Australia. Rude later established the bilingual Inter-University Centre for European studies at Concordia University in Montreal, Quebec, where he was a professor of history beginning in 1970. In 1985, Rude's colleagues, including Christopher Hill and E. J. Hobsbawm, composed a Festschrift in his honor, titled History from Below: Studies in Popular Protest and Popular Ideology. Rude was the author of Paris and London in the Eighteenth Century: Studies in Popular Protest, Criminal and Victim: Crime and Society in Early Nineteenth-Century England, and The French Revolution after Two Hundred Years.


Family: Born February 8, 1910, in Oslo, Norway; died January 8, 1993, in Rye, England; son of Jens Essendrop (an engineer) and Amy (Elliot) Rude; married Doren de la Hoyde, March 16, 1940. Education: Cambridge University, B.A. (with honors), 1931; University of London, B.A. (with honors), 1948, Ph.D., 1950.

Memberships: Royal Historical Society (fellow), Australian Humanities Research Council (member of executive committee), Historical Association (London).


Alexander Prize, Royal Historical Society, 1955, for essay "The Gordon Riots: The Rioters and Their Victims"; LL.D., University of Adelaide (now Flinders University of South Australia), 1967.


Schoolmaster, Stowe School, Buckingham, England, 1931-35, St. Paul's School, London, England, 1936-49, Sir Walter St. John's School, 1950-54, and Holloway School, 1954-59; University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, senior lecturer, 1960-63, professor of history, 1964-67. Flinders University of South Australia, Bedford Park, professor of history, 1968-70; Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, professor of history, 1970-93.


  • The Crowd in the French Revolution, Clarendon Press, 1959, new edition, Oxford University Press, 1972.

  • Wilkes and Liberty: A Social Study of 1763 to 1774, Clarendon Press, 1962.

  • Revolutionary Europe, 1783-1815, Meridian Books, 1964.

  • The Crowd in History: A Study of Popular Disturbances in France and England, 1730-1850, Wiley, 1964.

  • (Editor) The Eighteenth Century, Free Press, 1965.

  • (Author of introduction) Georges Duveau, 1848: The Making of a Revolution, Pantheon, 1966.

  • (Editor) Robespierre, Prentice-Hall, 1967.

  • (With E. J. Hobsbawm) Captain Swing: A Social History of the Great English Agricultural Uprising of 1830, Pantheon, 1969, Norton, 1975.

  • Paris and London in the Eighteenth Century: Studies in Popular Protest, Collins, 1970, Viking, 1971.

  • Hanoverian London, 1714-1808, University of California Press, 1971.

  • Debate on Europe, 1815-1850, Harper, 1972.

  • Europe in the Eighteenth Century: Aristocracy and the Bourgeois Challenge, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1972, Praeger, 1973.

  • Robespierre: Portrait of a Revolutionary Democrat, Collins, 1975, Viking, 1976.

  • Protest and Punishment: The Story of the Social and Political Protesters Transported to Australia, 1788-1868, Oxford University Press, 1978.

  • Ideology and Popular Protest, Lawrence & Wishart, 1980, Pantheon, 1981.

  • Criminal and Victim: Crime and Society in Early Nineteenth-Century England, Oxford University Press, 1985.

  • The French Revolution after Two Hundred Years, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1987.

  • The Face of the Crowd: Studies in Revolution, Ideology, and Popular Protest: Selected Essays of George Rude, edited and introduced by Harvey J. Kaye, Humanities Press International (Atlantic Highlands, NJ), 1988.

Contributor to professional journals in England, France, Italy, Germany, and Australia.



  • New York Times, January 30, 1993, p. 11.

  • Times (London), January 27, 1993, p. 19.*


Contemporary Authors Online. The Gale Group, 2000. Reproduced in Biography Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: The Gale Group. 2001. (

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