|Nationalisms in the 19th Century: Italy, Germany, Austria
I. Italian unification:
A. In 1848, France crushed the revolution of Italians against their _______________ rulers.
B. Giuseppe Mazzini (1805-1872) led the _______________ Risorgimento movement for creating an independent and _______________ Italian _______________ republic. Mazzini was ultimately _______________, because he lacked the support of the _______________.
C. Count di Cavour (1810-1861), unlike Mazzini, was no _______________. Instead, Cavour’s goal was to increase the _______________ of his kingdom, Piedmont-Sardinia.
1858: Cavour’s plan: Cavour made a _______________ agreement with France’s Louis Napoleon (now Napolean III):
If _______________ attacked Piedmont, then Napoleon III would aid _______________. France would get some land, but Piedmont would get more.
Cavour then lured Austria to _______________ Italy.
However, Napoleon III feared that aiding anti-Papal forces would anger French _______________.
Napoleon III thus went back on this agreement, and made peace with _______________.
Despite the failure of Cavour’s plan, it still succeeded in unifying _______________ throughout Italy.
Guiseppe Garibaldi was a _______________ revolutionary, in competition with Cavour.
1820, 1834, 1848: Fought in Piedmont’s failed revolutions against _______________ rule; exiled.
1860: Garibaldi and his 1000 volunteer “_______________” took Sicily and Naples, and gave his lands to Piedmont’s King Victor Emmanuel II, declared King of _______________ in 1861.
1870: During the Franco-Prussian War, Garibaldi led another group of outnumbered and poorly-armed volunteers that forced _______________ to withdraw its troops from _______________, and Rome became the capital of the now completely _______________ Italy.
II. German unification:
1834: The German states, led by _______________ but without _______________, established the Zollverein, a _______________ union with no tariffs between the states.
1862: King William I of Prussia made the _______________ aristocrat Otto von Bismarck Prime Minister and Foreign Minister of Prussia, to help him oppose the liberal Prussian _______________. Bismarck collected _______________ without the approval of parliament, dissolved the _______________ chamber of parliament, censored the _______________, and kept _______________ out of the government.
1866: Austro-Prussian War: with the help of Bismarck and his efficient _______________, Prussia gained the northern German states of Schleswig and Holstein from _______________, thus expelling Austria from the loose _______________ Confederation (1815–66). This made Bismarck a _______________ and ended the struggle for a liberal, _______________ Prussian government.
1870: Germany now desired the _______________ German states, including Bavaria.
Unlike Prussia, these states were _______________. Bismarck’s plan: A war with France would make the _______________ German states join with Prussia. Bismarck provoked the Franco-Prussian War by editing a _______________ between the Prussian King William I and the French Emperor Napoleon III, making it seen as if Napoleon III had _______________ William I. _______________ declared war on Prussia.
1871: Bismarck’s plan _______________: independent south German states sided with _______________, and together they captured _______________, ending Napoleon III’s Second French _______________ (1852-1870) and beginning the weak Third French _______________ (1870-1940).
(France’s army had been weakened during the Crimean War [1854-6], in which Russia’s Tsar Nicholas I declared war on the _______________ Ottoman Empire in order to control the strategic _______________ Sea [but allegedly over Russian control of the Eastern _______________ Church in Palestine], but was defeated by France, _______________, and Piedmont.)
Bismarck is made Germany’s first _______________. Germany becomes an Empire, the Second _______________ (1871-1919), with the Prussian King William I the German Kaiser (=_______________). From now on, Bismarck’s highest priority was _______________ based on the balance of _______________. (Bismarck believed that Germany’s _______________ position in Europe would make further wars _______________ to its security.)
The _______________ of 1867 formed the Austro-Hungarian Empire, under Francis Joseph (r. 1848-1916), emperor of Austria and King of _______________, but Hungary had complete control of its _______________ affairs, including _______________.
Culture in the Mid 19th Century
I. _______________ in art:
Artists broke with the _______________ focus on imagination, feeling, and idealization.
Instead, they strove to depict the _______________ world, just as it is.
Instead of depicting _______________ scenes, realist artists depicted _______________ life and the life of the _______________ classes.
Examples of the realist artists:
The French painter Gustave Courbet (1819-1877).
The French painter and sculptor Edgar Degas (1834-1917).
The British writer Charles Dickens (1812-1870).
The French writer Gustave Flaubert (1821-1880), Madame Bovary (1857).
The Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906).
II. _______________ in philosophy:
A. Rejected _______________, which is the attempt to understand the ultimate nature of _______________.
Instead, positivists believed that a question is meaningful only if _______________ could decide the answer.
Observations are what is _______________ —hence the term “positivism”.
Questions that _______________ be answered using observations are therefore _______________, and we should not ask them.
No question about the ultimate nature of the universe could be decided through _______________. (e.g. whether this is the best of all possible worlds.)
Thus metaphysical questions (asked by _______________ philosophy) are _______________, and a _______________ of time.
Instead, we should _______________ our inquiry to questions that can be decided by observation. These are _______________ questions, and are typically asked by _______________.
B. The first person to call himself a positivist was August Comte (1798-1857), who served from 1818 to 1820 as the secretary to the French socialist Saint-Simon.
Comte applied his positivistic views to the _______________ sciences. (Comte also coined the term “sociology”.)
Comte believed that the social sciences should seek empirical _______________, based on actual _______________.
One such law was the “law of the 3 _______________”. The human _______________ has progressed through 3 stages:
1. _______________ /theology, in which people regard everything that happens as the work of _______________ agents (spirits, gods, etc.).
2. _______________, in which people regard everything that happens as the work of “_______________” and “_______________” (think of Hegel, for example).
3. (Positive) _______________, in which people focus only on using observations in order to verify _______________ connecting _______________ with effects.
III. Darwinism in biology:
Before Charles Darwin (1809-1882), most Europeans believe in the _______________ truth of the Bible:
God created everything that exists in 6 days, around _______________ B.C.
God created all species of ____________ animals and ___________ on the ________th day, and all species of _______________ -dwelling animals on the ________th day.
No new species of animals have _______________ since.
God also created the first __________ __________, Adam and Eve, on the ________th day, giving them “dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the birds of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the _______________, and over every creeping thing that creeps upon the earth” (Genesis 1: 26).
B. Darwin’s developed his theory of _______________ through natural _______________ from observations made on the surveying ship _______________ (1831-1836).
He published his theory in Origin of Species (1859) and Descent of Man (1871):
Since the population grows faster than the _______________ supply, there is a struggle for _______________ among organisms.
Thus not all organisms survive long enough to _______________.
Natural selection is the view that the organisms best suited to their environment have the greatest chance of _______________ long enough to reproduce.
Offspring are not exact _______________ of their parents. Instead, there are random _______________ from generation to generation.
Some random variations are favorable for _______________; others are not.
Organisms with unfavorable characteristics tend to _______________ before they reproduce.
Organisms with the most _______________ characteristics tend to survive long enough to reproduce, thus passing these favorable characteristics on to their _______________.
In this way, characteristics favorable to _______________ tend to become _______________, and characteristics unfavorable to survival tend to _______________.
Darwin’s challenge to some forms of traditional Christianity:
Human beings do not appear to have a _______________ place in the universe. Rather, they have evolved through _______________ variation and natural selection from other _______________.
This continued the _____-_____________ process begun around 1543 with Copernicus’ heliocentric theory of the _______________ system.
There is no need to think that _______________ guided the evolution of human beings. Instead, evolution is an entirely _______________ process. (We now know—something Darwin did not—that the _______________ for transmitting genetic information from parents to _______________ are the chemicals RNA [ribonucleic acid] and DNA [deoxyribonucleic acid].)
This continued the process known as the “_______________ of God”, begun by the 18th-Century _______________.
Darwin’s theory challenged the literal truth of the _______________.
This thus continued the _______________ work of the 18th-Century _______________.
D. _______________ Darwinism, popularized by Herbert Spencer (1820-1901).
In Darwin’s time, various social theorists used the slogan “survival of the _______________” to justify many kinds of existing social _______________. For example:
The _______________ are more fit to survive than the poor.
_______________ suffer from poor genetics. (The same was believed of ___-____________ races.)
_______________ nations (such as the imperialists) are more fit to survive than _______________ nations.
Note that Social Darwinism is not a view espoused by _______________. Rather, it is a _______________ of Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection, by misapplying it to human _______________ in order to argue that “might makes _______________.”
IV. Overview of Mid-19th Century culture:
Focused on neither _______________ dogma, _______________ speculation nor _______________ ideals.
Instead, focused on this _______________ and _______________ world.
Attempted to _______________ this would for what it is, and to use this knowledge to _______________ human life.
Thus mid-19th-Century culture was generally _______________ and _______________ in spirit.