Nationalism Triumphs in Europe (1800-1914) Vocabulary Terms Britain



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Nationalism Triumphs in Europe (1800-1914)

Vocabulary Terms

Britain

  1. Earl Grey- British Prime Minster

  2. Parliament-Rules ,United Kingdom/Britain with a Constitutional monarchy and 2 political parties.

  3. House of Lords-hereditary position for Nobles right to veto laws passed by Commons

  4. House of Commons- elected position

  5. Protestants vs. Catholics-Religious disputes between two groups, dates back to Henry VIII.

  6. Whigs-political party represents the middle class and business class

  7. Torries-Loyalists represent nobles, landowners, income rooted in agriculture.

  8. Reform Bill of 1832-Gave representation to large towns-granted suffrage to property owners

  9. People’s Charter-Demand for universal male suffrage

  10. Chartism-Movement that called for male suffrage-secret ballot-annual elections-salaries for elected members of parliament.

  11. Queen Victoria-Queen of United Kingdom 1837-1901-symbol of values (etiquette)

  12. Rotten Boroughs-deserted areas with a low polpulation

  13. Benjamin Disraeli- Prime Minister of Britain forged Tory party supported conservatives.

  14. William Gladstone-Prime Minister-led whigs

  15. Reform Bill of 1867-Conservatives pushed for vote for working class men.

  16. Lady Constance Lytton- Suffragette in Britain

  17. Corn Laws-high tariffs on imported grain-repealed in 1846 to promoted free trade

  18. Abolition-movement to free slaves 1834 outlawed in Britain

  19. Penal Colonies- Australia and New Zealand British prisoners were sent here.

  20. Fabian Society-1883 Socialist society believed in change through legal means

  21. Labour Party-represented socialists and unions

  22. Suffrage-right to vote

  23. Emmeline Pankhurst-British suffragette

Ireland

  1. Daniel O’Connell-Irish Nationalist leader

  2. Catholic Emancipation Act-Allowed Irish Catholics to vote and hold public office

  3. Potato-Brought from Americas, became main food source in Ireland

  4. Great Hunger-1845 Disease destroyed potato crops in Ireland close to 1 million died from starvation

  5. Emigration-to move

  6. Charles Stewart Parnell-Irish leader pressed for home-rule

  7. Home Rule-local, self-government received in 1921 for Ireland

France

  1. Napoleon III-emperor of France

  2. Georges Clemenceau-French doctor, later politician

  3. Franco-Prussian War-1871 France was defeated by Prussia

  4. Ferdinand de Lesseps-organized the construction of the Suez canal

  5. Maximilian-Austrian Prince placed on Mexican throne-assassinated

  6. Socialism-people own as a whole

  7. Paris Commune- Rebel political group wanted to save the French republic from loyalist control. Started Civil war in France in 1871

  8. Third Republic-Defeated Paris Commune, became gov’t of France for next 70 years

  9. Chamber of Deputies-lower house of France’s legislature-elected officials

  10. Senate-upper house of France’s legislature

  11. Premier-Prime Minister of France

  12. Coalitions-alliances with various political parties

  13. General Georges Boulanger-Part of French scandal-Minister of war tried to overthrow Third Republic

  14. Legion of Honor-Highest honor/award in France

  15. Alfred Dreyfus-Dreyfus Affair-Alfred was a Jewish Captain accused of treason/spying for Germany and found guilty-many felt that this was a witchhunt because of Dreyfus’s religious affiliation. The trial was unfair because Dreyfus’s legal representation was not allowed to see evidence against him.

  16. Treason-to go against your country

  17. Devil’s Island-Alfred Dreyfus was sentenced to live on this island off the coast of South America for the rest of his life. (He lived there for 5 years)

  18. Ferdinand Esterhazy- A major accused of treason and declared innocent-he left France but returned in 1899 and confessed the crime that Alfred Dreyfus allegedly committed

  19. Emile Zola-novelist that supported Dreyfus

  20. Anti-Semitism-prejudice against jews

  21. Theodor Herzl-Hungarian jewish journalist that published Jewish State

  22. Zionism- Movement that called for rebuilding a Jewish state in Palestine

  23. Basel, Switzerland-Location for first Congress of Zionists

  24. Jeanne-Elizabeth Schmahl-Founded French Union for Women’s Suffrage-1944 women given right to vote in France

United States of America

  1. The New Colossus-Poem about U.S.

  2. Emma Lazarus-wrote “The New Colossus”

  3. Thomas Jefferson-President of USA

  4. Louisiana Purchase-purchased in 1803 from Napoleon by the USA

  5. Lone Star Republic-Texas

  6. The Mexican War of 1846-USA annexed California

  7. Manifest Destiny-American belief that they are destined to control the continent from sea to sea

  8. Alaska-purchased in 1867 from Russia by USA

  9. Hawaii-1898 annexed

  10. Gold Rush-1800’s people flocked to the western portion of the US to find gold

  11. Chief Joseph-Native American that fought and later surrened to the US gov’t in 1877

  12. Abolition-free slaves

  13. Frederick Douglass-African American Abolitionist-former slave

  14. William Lloyd Garrison-African American that owned the newspaper the Liberator

  15. Harriet Beecher Stowe-wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin

  16. Lucretia Mott-Abolitionist and Suffragette

  17. Elizabeth Cady Stanton-Suffragette

  18. Seneca Falls Convention-1848 Conventions for women’s rights

  19. Declaration of Sentiments-list of freedoms for women presented at the Seneca Falls Convention

  20. Abraham Lincoln-President of USA-1860 opposed the expansion of slavery in territories out west.

  21. Civil War-Confederates (South) vs, Union (North)

  22. Robert E. Lee-General for Confederate Army

  23. Gettysburg-3 day bloody battle where the north pushed the south back-turning point

  24. Ulysses S. Grant-General for the Union army

  25. Fourteenth Amendment-freedom of slaves

  26. Fifteenth Amendment-African American males can vote

  27. Jim Crow laws-“Separate but equal” laws

  28. Segregation-legal separation of races

  29. Cyrus McCormick-invented mechanical reaper

  30. Andrew Carnegie-steel company (very rich)

  31. John D. Rockefeller-Standard Oil Company (very rich)

  32. Henry Ford-“Model T” assembly line (very rich)

  33. American federation of Labor-Labor union that fought for better wages, hours and working conditions

  34. Populist Party-farmers + city workers fighting for rights (got the 8-hour day)
    Immigrants-new people from foreign countries

  35. “Golden Door”-the door that let immigrants in the USA –some fought to close it

  36. Progressives-Reformers for labor, business and voting rights

  37. Nineteenth Amendment-1920 Women can now vote in the USA

  38. Spanish American war-1898 USA acquired Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico

  39. Isolationism-limited involvement in World affairs

  40. Expansionists-urged nation to pursue global economic and military interests

  41. Alfred T. Mahan-famous expansionist-believed the USA should get bigger.


Germany

  1. Ernst M. Arndt: poet The German’s Fatherland

  2. Prince Clemens Von Metternich: Austrian leader @ Congress of Vienna

  3. Prussia: Pre Germany

  4. Napoleon: French emperor, expanded France

  5. Confederation of the Rhine: combined areas of Germany named by Napoleon

  6. Congress of Vienna: set up to establish balance of power after fall of Napoleon

  7. German Confederation: portion of Germany named by COV

  8. Zollverein: promoted economic unity in Germany

  9. Frankfurt Assembly: created constitution for Germany

  10. King Frederick William IV: Prussian King during 1848 revolution.

  11. Otto Von Bismarck: Prussian P.M., united Germany, became Chancellor of Germany

  12. Realpolitik: “politics of reality”, philosophy based on practical goals, used by Bismarck

  13. “Blood and Iron”:Bismarck’s policy = war

  14. Hohenzollerns: ruling family of Prussia

  15. Schleswig and Holstein: provinces in Denmark taken by Germany and Austria

  16. Austro-Prussian War: Prussia took Holstein from Austria (August 1866)

  17. Franco-Prussian War: War w/France; Prussia won (1870-1871)

  18. Napoleon III: Grand-nephew of Napoleon. Emperor of France

  19. Kaiser: German ruler (root word is Caesar)

  20. North German Confederation: name for German lands after war w/Austria

  21. William I: King of Prussia became 1st Kaiser of Germany

  22. Second Reich: German gov’t 2 house legislature

  23. Bundesrat: upper house appointed by ruler of Germany

  24. Reichstag: lower house elected officials

  25. Hall of Mirrors: (Palace of Versailles) meeting held there after Franco-Prussian War

  26. Alfred Krupp: idustrial leader in Germany. Made steel weapons for world

  27. August Thyssen: business tycoon

  28. “Water Rats”: Bismarck’s nickname for Britain

  29. Iron Chancellor: nickname for Bismarck

  30. Lutheranism: Protestant Religion (Martin Luther)

  31. Kulturkampf: “Battle for Civilization” (make Catholics loyal to Germany)

  32. Jesuits: Christians

  33. Karl Marx: Marxism/Communist Manifesto (co-wrote)

  34. Social Democratic Party: 1840s German Marxists demanded right for workers

  35. William II: 1888 Kaiser of Germany, fired Bismarck

Italy

  1. Guiseppe Mazzini: founded Young Italy

  2. Young Italy: Nationalist group wanted independence for Italians

  3. Risorgimento: wanted to unite Italy

  4. Victor Emmanuel: King of Sardinia

  5. Count Camillo Cavour: PM of Sardinia promoted Italian unification

  6. Crimean War: btwn Britain and Russia (lost)

  7. Guiseppe Garibaldi: leader of red shirts, united southern Italy

  8. Red Shirts:nationalist group for Italian independence

  9. Victor Emmanuel II: King of united Italy

Austria & Ottoman Empire

  1. Anarchists: against gov’t

  2. Hapsburgs: ruling family of Austria

  3. Ottoman Turks: Muslims leaders of Balkan peninsula and Asia minor

  4. Francis I: Austrian Emperor

  5. Socialism: People own & control everythin

  6. Francis Joseph: Emperor of Austria

  7. Dual Monarchy: Austria-Hungary

  8. Francis Deak: Hungarian leader for independence

  9. “The Sick Man of Europe”/Balkan Powder Keg: Ottoman Empire

Russia

  1. Repression: to hold down

  2. Peter the Great: modernized Russia

  3. Catherine the Great: expanded Russia

  4. Russian Colossus: Great World Power

  5. Serfdom: peasant tied to land/forced to work and live on land

  6. Autocracy: total rule

  7. Alexander I: czar 1801-1825

  8. Nicholas I: czar 1825-1855

  9. Decembrist Revolt: army officers revolted wanting constitution/failed

  10. Censorship: to cancel/not allow

  11. Orthodoxy: literal/by the book Christian or Jewish

  12. Nationalism: pride in one’s country/people that share common language + culture in want of independence

  13. Alexander II: czar 1855-1881

  14. Emancipation: to free

  15. People’s Will: terrorist group that killed Alexander II

  16. Alexander III: czar 1881-1894

  17. Russification: to make Russian (1 language, 1 religion)

  18. Anti-Semitism: against Jewish people

  19. Pogroms: violent mob attacks on Jewish people

  20. Refugees: no homeland

  21. Nicholas II: czar 1894-1917

  22. Trans-Siberian Railway: 5,000 miles from European Russia to Pacific Ocean

  23. Russo-Japanese War: 1904 lost

  24. Vladamir Ulyanov: Lenin

  25. Father Gapon: Orthodox priest organized protest & killed

  26. Bloody Sunday: protest by workers order to be killed by czar

  27. Revolution of 1905: workers took over government

  28. Autonomy: self-rule

  29. October Manifesto: freedom of person, conscience, speech, assembly + union

  30. Duma: elected national legislature


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