Nationalism Conflict I. Unification of Germany (Nationalism) A. The Rise of Prussia (Modern Germany)
1. Otto von Bismarck – he was appointed chancellor of Prussia. Over the next decade he guided German unification. Bismarck was loyal to the Prussian King. Unification was a means to make the Prussian King, William I, the ruler of a strong German state.
2. “Blood and Iron” – Bismarck believed that the only way to unify Germany was through this policy. He believed Germany could be united through war and industrialization. In seven years, Bismarck led Prussia into three wars.
a. Danish War – Prussia allied with Austria to seize land from Denmark
b. Austro-Prussian War – Prussia turned against Austria to gain more land.
c. Franco-Prussian War – Prussia and German allies easily defeated France
II. Unification of Italy (Nationalism) A. Three great leaders of Italian Nationalism
1. Giuseppe Mazzini (soul) – formed the Young Italy national movement in 1831, but was exiled for his views.
2. Count Camillo Cavour (brain) – prime minister of the Italian state of Sardinia, he formed alliances with France and later with Prussia.
3. Giuseppe Garibaldi (sword) – He was a soldier who led forces that won control of southern Italy and helped unite with the north.
III. Zionism (Nationalism) Theodore Herzl – He began this movement in 1896. It called for the creation of a Jewish state in Palestine. This movement eventually led to the creation of Israel in 1948.
IV. Austria-Hungary A. Key Leaders and Events
Hapsburg (ruling family) – early 1800’s face many problems due to industrialization and nationalism. Eventually forced to crush revolts.
Francis Joseph – came to the thrown at age of 18 and attempted to make reforms to save the empire. His reforms did little because he did not help the non-German speaking ethnic groups in the country.
Ferenc Deak – (1866) after Austria was defeated by Prussia, he helped establish the Dual-Monarchy. Austria and Hungary are now two separate states with their own constitutions. Joseph still rules over both. Leads to collapse in the early 1900’s.
“The Sick Man of Europe” – The Ottoman Empire was too large and old. They attempted to maintain a traditional way of life and they tried to stop nationalistic feelings inside their borders. Europeans also hoped to gain some of their lands.
The empire weakened by numerous revolts by ethnic groups in the empire. By 1908 these groups gained their independence. This includes Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece, Romania, and Montenegro.