Nationalism (Chapter 24 Section 1 and 2) Nationalism

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Nationalism - (Chapter 24 Section 1 and 2)

Nationalism - Excessive or fanatical devotion to a nation and its interest often associated with a belief that one country is superior to others.

  1. Congress of Vienna

    1. After the fall of Napoleon European Monarchs attempted to preserve absolute monarchies

      1. Led by Prince Klemens Von ______________of Austria (Hapsburg)

        1. He distrusted ______________and political change

        2. Wanted to continue the power of the ______________in ______________

    2. Goal of Congress was to never let ______________rise again

      1. Removed ______________of the French Revolution and Napoleon

      2. Forced France to pay ______________= payments for damages from war

    3. 15 years after Congress, ______________order destroyed beyond repair

      1. 1800s, ______________a growing force in Europe, fostered by decisions made at Congress of Vienna

        1. National groups ______________placing them under control of large empires; some empires included different ______________groups

        2. Italians split into ______________groups—much of northern Italy under ______________rule, other states under Hapsburgs, still others under a French ruler

        3. Italian nationalism grew in opposition to these conditions

          1. Elements of Nationalism (Use chart on page 714 to fill in definitions for Elements of Nationalism)

            1. Culture -

            2. History -

            3. Religion -

            4. Language -

            5. Territory –

  2. Italian Unification

    1. The “Brain, Heart and Sword” of Italian unification

      1. Mazzini and Young Italy

        1. 1831, popular writer, ______________launched nationalist group called ______________to fight for ______________of Italian states

          1. Mazzini had been exiled but smuggled patriotic ______________into Italy

          2. Young Italy ______________tens of thousands of Italians to cause of unification

        2. Mazzini considered ______________of Unification

      2. Camillio di Cavor

        1. One of most important leaders of Italian unification

          1. 1852, ______________became prime minister of independent Kingdom of Sardinia

          2. Believed thriving ______________important for Italy to be reborn

          3. Believed Italy should be reborn as ______________

            1. Cultivated powerful ______________

              1. ______________agreed to support Sardinia in war against Austria

                1. 1860, northern Italian states liberated from control of Austrian Empire

        2. Founded nationalist ______________Il Risorgimento—“resurgence” or “rebirth”

        3. Considered “______________” for Italian Unification

      3. Giuseppe ______________

        1. ______________of Italy

          1. Garibaldi joined Young Italy movement, 1833

            1. Nationalist activities forced Garibaldi to flee Italy twice

              1. Learned techniques of ______________warfare while living in South America

              2. Returned to Italy often to continue fight to free Italy from ______________domination

          2. The Red Shirts

            1. Followers known as ______________because of colorful uniforms

              1. By July 1860, using guerilla warfare, Garibaldi, Red Shirts gained control of island of Sicily

              2. September, Garibaldi, Sardinian troops conquered Naples

              3. Garibaldi offered Kingdom of Two Sicilies to ______________king Victor Emmanuel

    2. Unification

      1. 1861, territories held elections, all agreed to ______________

        1. Challenges

          1. ______________and ______________Problems

            1. Catholic Church did not recognize Italy as legitimate ______________

          2. Poverty, Emigration

            1. 1880s, large numbers left Italy, many for ______________

        2. Reforms

          1. As Italy industrialized, particularly in north, government passed reforms including laws limiting work ______________prohibiting ______________labor

          2. Government encouraged building transportation, water systems to improve cities, encourage industry

          3. Foreign Policy

            1. 1882, Italy formed military ______________with Austria-Hungary, Germany

              1. Agreed to ______________each other against any possible attack

              2. Arrangement known as ______________Alliance; this, other alliances, brought Europe to ______________in 1914

          4. Empire

            1. Italy tried to build empire

              1. Tried to gain control over ______________

              2. Failed after being defeated by larger Ethiopian army, 1896

              3. 1911, Italy declared war on ______________Empire; gained territory in Africa

  3. German Unification

    1. Germany was not a ______________nation in 1848, although the patchwork of ______________states did have a ______________language and ______________

      1. ______________revolution swept through ______________

        1. German ______________also took opportunity to revolt

        2. Differed over whether to support ______________monarchy or ______________

        3. Agreed that German unity would promote ______________rights, ______________reforms

      2. Unkept Promises

        1. Facing calls for increased democracy, Prussian king ______________promised constitution, other reforms

          1. End of 1848, went back on ______________constitution never written

            1. Banned publications, organizations that supported ______________

      3. Economic and Cultural Unity

        1. 1834, ______________customs union, created; removed tariffs on products traded between German states

          1. Inspired businesspeople to support unification; encouraged growth of railroads connecting German states; joined Germans economically

          2. German ______________growing; sense of German ______________growing as well

    2. Otto Von ______________

      1. conservative (supported ______________politician, leading ______________behind ______________unification

        1. Became prominent in ______________politics

        2. 1847, gave strongly conservative speech at ______________Assembly

        3. 1862, new Prussian king, ______________chose Bismarck as ______________minister

      2. Philosophy

        1. Believed Prussia ______________to lead German people to unification

          1. Practiced ______________policies based on interests of Prussia

      3. “Blood and Iron”

        1. Politics of reality evident in push to increase Prussian ______________power

          1. Speech to Parliament: German unity not won by ______________majority vote but by “______________

          2. Built Prussian army into great ______________machine

      4. Bismarck’s Wars for Unification

        1. ______________War with Denmark = Victory for Prussia united Northern German States

        2. ______________-Prussian War = Austria versus Prussia = Victory for Prussia who controlled all but three German Territories

        3. ______________-Prussian War = France versus Prussia = Final victory for Prussia who united all of the German States.

        4. Peace treaty signed at ______________

          1. Peace treaty had far-reaching consequences

            1. Victory established ______________German empire

            2. Proclaimed Wilhelm I first ______________—emperor—of German Empire

              1. Wilhelm appointed ______________first chancellor

            3. German victory changed ______________of power in Europe

              1. Napoleon III gone; ______________no longer as powerful

                1. Forced France to pay ______________—money for war damages

              2. As Germany grew ______________new empire rose in power

        5. Alliances

          1. Bismarck made alliances with _______________ _____________

            1. Nations agreed to help ______________one another from possible attack

      5. Wilhelm II ______________Bismarck as prime minister after ______________

    3. Empires Growth and Change

      1. Government and the Church

        1. Bismarck believed Roman Catholic Church posed ______________to government

          1. Believed ______________not church, should control aspects of ______________like ______________

          2. Worked to ______________influence of Catholic Church in Germany

        2. This struggle between the government and the church was known as ______________which means “the struggle for culture.”

      2. Economic Change

        1. ______________connected country

        2. Explosion of ______________

        3. ______________Reforms

True/False Read each FALSE statement below. On the line provided, replace the underlined words with a term from the word bank to make the sentence TRUE.

Giuseppe Garibaldi

Victor Emmanuel


Giuseppe Mazzini

a lack of

1. An Italian named Victor Emmanuel formed a nationalist group called Young Italy to fight for the unification of the separate Italian states.

2. Camillo di Cavour wanted united Italy to be a republic.

3. Camillo di Cavour and his followers, known as the Red Shirts, used guerrilla warfare tactics in the military campaign to unify Italy.

4. Once southern and northern Italy were united, Giuseppe Garibaldi became the king of Italy.

5. After unification, social and economic problems, as well as regional differences, led to strong unity among many Italians.

1. Otto von Bismarck’s political philosophy, later known as realpolitik, meant

a. he developed policies based on the interests of Prussia.

b. he weighed what was best for Europe.

c. he was unwilling to use military force.

d. he insisted that the borders of weaker nations should be protected.

2. After the Franco-Prussian War

a. Prussia surrendered to France.

b. a unified German empire was established.

c. Germany divided into two nations.

d. Napoleon III ruled the German Confederation.

3. . Bismarck’s efforts to limit the influence of the Catholic Church in Germany was called

a. realpolitik.

b. Kulturkampf.

c. reich.

d. Zollverein.

4. . Bismarck sought to reduce the appeal of socialism by

a. vetoing all legislation that aided workers.

b. refusing to invest in industry.

c. assassinating the emperor.

d. enacting his own reforms.

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