National water quality management strategy



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NATIONAL WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT STRATEGY

PAPER No. 4

Australian and New Zealand Guidelines for
Fresh and Marine Water Quality

Volume 3

Primary Industries — Rationale and Background Information

(Irrigation and general water uses, stock drinking water, aquaculture and human consumers of aquatic foods)

(Chapter 9)

October 2000

Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council

Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia
and New Zealand


Copies of this publication may be obtained from:

Australian Water Association

PO Box 388

ARTARMON NSW 2064

Tel: (02) 9413 1288

Fax: (02) 9413 1047



OR

Australian Government Info Shops in capital cities and Townsville. For locations, contact and ordering details go to: http://www.dofa.gov.au/infoaccess/


general/purchase_info_products.html or phone132 447 (toll free in Australia, 24 hr service)

OR

AFFA Shopfront

Edmund Barton Building

GPO Box 858

CANBERRA ACT 2601

Tel: TOLL FREE 1800 020 157



OR

NZ Water & Wastes Association

PO Box 13880

Onehunga, Auckland 1006

New Zealand

Tel: 64-9-636-3636


Fax: 64-9-636-1234
Email: water@nzwwa.org.nz

Material included in this document may be freely reproduced provided that due acknowledgment is given to the Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council and the Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand.

For further information on acknowledgment, contact:

The Secretary

Australian and New Zealand Environment
and Conservation Council

GPO Box 787

CANBERRA ACT 2601

Tel: (02) 6274 1428

Fax: (02) 6274 1858

OR

The Secretary

Agriculture and Resource Management Council
of Australia and New Zealand

GPO Box 858

CANBERRA ACT 2601

Tel: (02) 6272 5216

Fax: (02) 6272 4772








Environment Australia

Cataloguing-in-Publication Data:
Australian and New Zealand guidelines for fresh and marine water quality. Volume 3, Primary industries / Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council, Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand.
Bibliography.
Includes index.
(National water quality management strategy; no.4)
ISBN 09578245 0 5 (set)

ISSN 1038 7072


1. Water quality – Australia – Measurement.
2. Water quality – New Zealand – Measurement.
3. Water – Pollution – Environmental aspects – Australia. 4. Water – Pollution – Environmental aspects – New Zealand. 5. Water quality management – Australia. 6. Water quality management – New Zealand. I. Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council. II. Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand. III. Series
628.161’0994-dc21

Disclaimer
The contents of this document have been compiled using a range of source materials and while reasonable care has been taken in its compilation, the member governments of ANZECC and ARMCANZ and the organisations and individuals involved with the compilation of this document shall not be liable for any consequences which may result from using the contents of this document.

Produced in Australia for the Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council and the Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand.






Contents


Contents 3

Figures 4

Tables 4

9.1 Water quality for irrigation and general use 8

9.2.1 General considerations for assessment of irrigation water quality 8

9.2.1.1 Catchment water balance 9

9.2.1.2 Soil characteristics 9

9.2.1.3 Crop tolerance 9

9.2.1.4 Climatic conditions 10

9.2.1.5 Subsurface drainage 10

9.2.2 Biological parameters 10

9.2.2.1 Algae 10

9.2.2.2 Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) 11

9.2.2.3 Human and animal pathogens 12

9.2.2.4 Plant pathogens 15

9.2.3 Salinity and sodicity 17

9.2.3.1 Description 17

9.2.3.2 Factors affecting irrigation salinity 18

9.2.3.3 Worked examples 53

9.2.3.4 Alternative approaches to deriving guideline values 57

9.2.4 Major ions of concern for irrigation water quality 61

9.2.4.1 Bicarbonate 61

9.2.4.2 Chloride 62

9.2.4.3 Sodium 64

9.2.5 Heavy metals and metalloids 65

9.2.5.1 Scope 65

9.2.5.2 Methodology for development of guideline values 66

9.2.5.4 Arsenic 74

9.2.5.5 Beryllium 75

9.2.5.6 Boron 75

9.2.5.7 Cadmium 76

9.2.5.9 Cobalt 78

9.2.5.10 Copper 79

9.2.5.11 Fluoride 80

9.2.5.12 Iron 81

9.2.5.13 Lead 82

9.2.5.15 Manganese 83

9.2.5.16 Mercury 84

9.2.5.18 Nickel 85

9.2.5.19 Selenium 86

9.2.5.20 Uranium 87

9.2.5.21 Vanadium 87

9.2.6 Nitrogen and phosphorus 89

9.2.6.1 Methodology for development of guidelines 89

9.2.6.2 Nitrogen 90

9.2.6.3 Phosphorus 100

9.2.7 Pesticides 106

9.2.7.1 Description 107

9.2.7.2 Derivation of guidelines 108

9.2.8 Radiological quality 108

9.2.8.1 Description 108

9.2.8.2 Effect on human and animal health 109

9.2.8.3 Derivation of guideline values 109

9.2.9 General water uses 110

9.2.9.1 pH 110

9.2.9.2 Corrosion 111

9.2.9.3 Fouling 117

9.2.9.4 Agricultural chemical preparation 122

9.2.10 Future information needs for irrigation and general water use 124

9.2.10.1 Biological parameters 124

9.2.10.2 Salinity and sodicity 124

9.2.10.3 Heavy metals and metalloids in irrigation water 124

9.2.10.4 Phosphorus 125

9.2.10.5 Pesticides 125

9.2.10.6 Other irrigation water quality issues 126

9.2.10.7 Corrosion and fouling issues 126

9.3.1 Introduction 128

9.3.2 Derivation and use of guidelines 128

9.3.3 Biological parameters 129

9.3.3.1 Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) 129

9.3.3.2 Pathogens and parasites 132

9.3.4 Major ions of concern for livestock drinking water quality 133

9.3.4.1 Calcium 133

9.3.4.2 Magnesium 134

9.3.4.3 Nitrate and nitrite 135

9.3.4.4 Sulfate 136

9.3.4.5 Total dissolved solids (salinity) 137

9.3.5 Heavy metals and metalloids 139

9.3.5.1 Aluminium 139

9.3.5.2 Arsenic 141

9.3.5.3 Beryllium 142

9.3.5.4 Boron 143

9.3.5.5 Cadmium 144

9.3.5.6 Chromium 144

9.3.5.7 Cobalt 145

9.3.5.8 Copper 145

9.3.5.9 Fluoride 146

9.3.5.10 Iron 147

9.3.5.11 Lead 148

9.3.5.12 Manganese 149

9.3.5.13 Mercury 149

9.3.5.14 Molybdenum 150

9.3.5.15 Nickel 152

9.3.5.16 Selenium 152

9.3.5.17 Uranium 153

9.3.5.18 Vanadium 154

9.3.5.19 Zinc 154

9.3.6 Pesticides 155

9.3.7 Radiological quality 156

9.3.8.1 Biological parameters 157

9.3.8.2 Pesticides 158

9.2 Aquaculture and human consumers of aquatic foods 159

9.4.1 Introduction 159

9.4.1.1 Aquaculture in Australia and New Zealand 160

9.4.1.2 Relationship between water quality, aquaculture production and human food safety 161

9.4.1.3 Philosophy behind setting the water quality guidelines 162

9.4.1.4 Approach to deriving water quality guidelines 164

9.4.1.5 Discussion on confidence levels 167

9.4.2.1 Physico-chemical parameters 170

9.4.2.2 Inorganic toxicants (heavy metals and others) 185

9.4.2.3 Organic toxicants 209

9.4.2.4 Pathogens and biological contaminants 217

9.4.3 Water quality guidelines for the protection of human consumers of aquatic foods 222

9.4.3.1 Physio-chemical parameters 224

9.4.3.2 Chemical contaminants 224

9.4.3.4 Off-flavour compounds 230

9.4.3.5 Preventative and management approaches 231

9.4.4 Some precautionary comments 242

9.4.5 Priorities for research and development 245

References 248

Section 9.1 Introduction 248

Appendix 1 Participants and personal communications for ‘Aquaculture and consumers of aquatic foods’ Section 271

Participants 271

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