Ft. Sumter and the sectional responses: In response to Fort Sumter both North and South witnessed a tremendous outpouring of support.
Southern strengths: Skilled military leadership, effective fighting forces, and defensive positions and tactics.
Southern expectations for foreign aid: “Cotton diplomacy” – Southerners thought that European nations would recognize and support the Confederacy because of the Europeans' dependence upon southern cotton. The British did not come to the aid of the South.
Southern constitution and Jefferson Davis
Material assets of the North: The material assets of the North during the Civil War became effective only in the long run.
The border states: Kentucky, Missouri, Maryland – Delaware (sides with Union camp)
Tactics and weapons: The use of the new, longer-range rifles during the Civil War produced horrible carnage.
Anaconda plan: During the early years of the Civil War, the northern navy concentrated on gaining footholds along the southern coast for a blockade.
Stalemate: Whereas the Union had to win a war of conquest and occupation, the South merely had to survive until its enemy tired and gave up.
Battle of Shiloh Church, 1862: The casualties for the battle at Shiloh Church were enormous because of the insufficient care of wounds on the battlefield. More men fell in the Battle of Shiloh Church than in the American Revolution, the War of 1812, and the Mexican War combined.
The swallows fly low
Over the fields in clouded days,
The forest-field of Shiloh--
Over the field where April rain
Solaced the parched one stretched in pain
Through the pause of night
That followed the Sunday fight
Around the church of Shiloh--
The church so lone, the log-built one,
That echoed to many a parting groan
And natural prayer
Of dying foemen mingled there--
Foemen at morn, but friends at eve--
Fame or country least their care:
(What like a bullet can undeceive!)
But now they lie low,
While over them the swallows skim,
And all is hushed at Shiloh.
George McClellan: Waging a defensive war in the early years, this general felt that a successful southern offensive would bring diplomatic recognition and might even force the North to sue for peace.
“A first rate, second rate man” ---- Wendell Phillips
The Battle of Antietam (or Sharpsburg) on September 17, 1862: A Union victory, this battle presented President Lincoln with the opportunity to issue a preliminary emancipation proclamation.
Emancipation Proclamation, January 1863: The Emancipation Proclamation was issued by Abraham Lincoln diplomatic concern of favorable foreign impressions of the North, implicit appeal to slaves to subvert the southern war effort, and the need to prepare northern whites for the eventuality of emancipation. The Emancipation Proclamation freed slaves in unconquered parts of the Confederacy. Lincoln was forced to walk a thin line between racist conservatives and radical abolitionists. The Emancipation Proclamation, defended by Lincoln as "an act of justice, warranted by the Constitution upon military necessity," helped prepare northerners for the eventuality of emancipation. Although it did not technically free any slaves at the time, it gave the war a moral purpose and laid to rest any possibility of foreign support for the Confederacy. It encouraged slaves to flee the South, subverting the southern war effort.
New York city Draft Riots, 1863: The largest civil disturbance of the nineteenth century occurred in New York City in early July 1863, as the NYC Draft Riots. The New York City draft riots exposed the racial and class antagonisms of northern society.