Name What was important about them & other important info?

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Early Humans Study Guide


What was important about them & other important info?

Who discovered them?

Where were they discovered?

When did they live?


southern ape”

--Walked on two—bipedalism,

--hands were different than the climbing hands of apes—hand jointed differently so they could make tools

--more ape than human

--did not live with dinosaurs—dinos had died out long before

--mainly ate vegetables or meat they could scavenge

--Lucy most famous b/c she was the oldest most complete skeleton

----20 when she died, 4 ft tall, weighed 50 pounds, 1/3 brain


----named after Beatles song, “Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds”

----her fossil is 3.2 million years old

--Raymond Dart (first to discover
--Donald Johanson (1974) discovered Lucy


3.6 to 1.8 million BCE

homo habilis

handy man”

---known for creating stone tools—so the time they lived in is called the Stone Age

--taller than Lucy or australopithecine, bigger brains too

--followed their food source and set up camps—always moving!

--ate fruits, veggies, and meat that they scavenged

--very basic tools and weapons

--lived with a band (family)

--used fire they found, but didn’t know how to start it—carried with them

The Leakeys: Louis, Mary & Richard


1.8 to 1.6 million BCE
Stone Age

homo erectus

upright human”

--about the same size as modern humans, brain was 2/3 the size of ours

--better tools---probably first hunter

--first to make and use fire, fire allowed them to:

---live in different places---colder climates—so they began

leaving Africa to follow their food source, human migration

--Ice Age caused glaciers to grow, which dropped the ocean level by 300ft---shallow areas were now dry land. Early Humans crossed from Asia to North America on Beringia ****know the order (continents) in which they migrated.

---protected them from animals

---cook their food—softer and safer to eat

---enjoy time with their band by the fire

Eugene Dubois—a very determined individual—he wasn’t even trained as an archaeologist---he was a Dutch surgeon.

(Java Man)

Java, Indonesia—but also other parts of the world—human migration

1,600,000 BCE to about 300,000 BCE




--bodies very similar to modern humans, very strong, stocky, larger brain!! (were not zombie-ish)

--hunters and gatherers---created advanced tools to help them live more comfortably—they had stone tipped spears

--first fossil was found in Neader Tal Valley, Germany (the fossil was of an old man)

--good at making fire

--lived in caves, but migrated with their food source

--not sure how they died out: 1) killed off by homo sapiens 2) merged with homo sapiens---since they lived during the same time

??? No one person is really connected to the discovery of Neandertal.

Construction workers “stumbled” upon Neanderthal remains




500,000 BCE to 30,000 BCE

homo sapiens

--early farmers

---people changed from food gathering to food producing because:

--more food=more people (population exploded)

--could stay in one place—built walled villages

--more time to do other jobs—division of labor

--Jericho and Catal Huyuk were the first farming settlements

--wheat and barley first crops

--women probably started agriculture

--dogs were the first to be domesticated—for hunting

--disadvantages of agriculture:

--when crops failed people died—too many people to go back to

hunting & gathering

--people began fighting over the land—land=survival & wealth

-loss of wild plant and animals when land was cleared for crops

--extra food was used for trading and saved for when crops failed


Piltdown Man

the faker”

--England was desperate to find “the missing link” between apes and humans. Germany had already found Neanderthal, but it was too human to be a link.

--- wasn’t found to be a fake until the 1950’s

--bones were that of human and animal—not fossilized

--threw archaeologists off

Charles Dawson

Early 1900’s

Piltdown, England

This event happened during WWI

Who were the BIG players of Early Human history?



Where & When

Charles Darwin

Created the theory of evolution

He published his first book "The Origin of Species" on 1859

Charles Dawson

Piltdown Man

Piltdown, England 1912

Raymond Dart


Africa, 1924

Donald Johanson


Africa 1974

Leakey Family:

Louis, Mary & Richard

Homo Habilis

Africa mid 1900’s

Eugene Dubois

Homo Erectus--------“Java Man”

Java, Indonesia 1891


agriculture---farming---the domestication of plants and animals

archaeologist-- a scientist who studies artifacts to learn about peoples from the past.

artifact--a human-made object

band---a small group of people---like a family

bipedalism---the ability to walk upright on two feet

culture—a group of people’s way of life---art, food, music, education…

domesticate—to tame for people’s use

evolve---to change

fossil--the remains of something that was once living.

hominid--early human--like australopithecine, homo habilis, homo erectus


hunter/gatherer--- people who have to search and kill for their food---no farming!

migration—to move from place to place usually in search of food

nomad—someone with NO settled home

paleoanthropologist---a scientist who studies the ancestors of modern humans

prehistory--events that happened before the invention of writing.

Society—a group of people who live under rules and traditions

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