Name: us history Ms. Didyoung Key People and Terms of the American Revolution Patriots: Loyalists



Download 62.12 Kb.
Date conversion28.04.2016
Size62.12 Kb.
Revolutionary War Packet


Name:_______________________

US History

Ms. Didyoung

Key People and Terms of the American Revolution
1. Patriots:
2. Loyalists:
3. Redcoats:
4. Declaration of Independence:
5. Thomas Paine:


6. Paul Revere:

7. George Washington:
8. Sam Adams:

9. Thomas Jefferson:


10. Ben Franklin:


11. William Howe:


12. Charles Cornwallis:

13. Mercenary:
14. Hessians:

15. Treaty of Paris:

Battles of the American Revolution

Battle of Lexington and Concord:
Date:
Location (City/State):
Description (What happened?):

Outcome (Who won? Casualties?):

Battle of Bunker Hill:
Date:
Location (City/State):
Description (What happened?):

Outcome (Who won? Casualties?):
Battle of Trenton:
Date:
Location (City/State):
Description (What happened?):

Outcome (Who won? Casualties?):

Battle of Princeton:
Date:
Location (City/State):
Description (What happened?):

Outcome (Who won? Casualties?):

Battle of Savannah:
Date:
Location (City/State):
Description (What happened?):

Outcome (Who won? Casualties?):

Battle of Vincennes:
Date:
Location (City/State):
Description (What happened?):

Outcome (Who won? Casualties?):

Battle of Charleston:
Date:
Location (City/State):
Description (What happened?):

Outcome (Who won? Casualties?):

Battle of Camden:
Date:
Location (City/State):
Description (What happened?):

Outcome (Who won? Casualties?):

Battle of Kings Mountain:
Date:
Location (City/State):
Description (What happened?):

Outcome (Who won? Casualties?):

Battle of Yorktown:
Date:
Location (City/State):
Description (What happened?):

Outcome (Who won? Casualties?):
Discussion Questions
1. What were the main accomplishments of the Second Continental Congress?

2. What was the Olive Branch Petition and what was King George III’s response to it?

3. What two things did the British want to accomplish at the Battles of Lexington and Concord? Where they successful?

4. What was the first shot fired at Lexington known as? Why do you think it became known as this?

5. What happened at the Battle of Bunker Hill? Do you consider the battle to be a victory or a defeat for the United States?

6. When did the Battle of Trenton take place? Why did George Washington choose this date?

7. What happened at the Battle of Trenton? Why did the United States win so easily?

8. What happened at the Battle of Saratoga? How was it the turning point of the Revolutionary War?


9. Why were the French reluctant at first to sign an alliance with the United States? Why did they change their mind after the Battle of Saratoga?


10. Describe the hardships that American soldiers faced during the winter at Valley Forge. How would you have handled it?


11. What do you think of the American soldiers that deserted the Continental Army at Valley Forge? What would you have done?
12. Describe the role of Native Americans in the war?

13. Describe the war in the South.

14. What happened at Kings Mountain? What made this battle significant?

15. What happened at the Battle of Yorktown? How did the Revolutionary War come to an end?


16. Explain how the Battle of Yorktown might be viewed either as a Patriot victory or as a British loss..

17. What was the Treaty of Paris? What is the result?

18. Why did the British lose the war?

19. How did the Revolutionary War affect Loyalists, Native Americans, women, and slaves?

20. What did the Revolution accomplish and what ideas did it set in motion?



Comparing the British and the American War Effort

Both the British and the American armies had advantages and disadvantages. Take notes during class in the appropriate boxes below!




British

Advantages

Disadvantages

Americans

Advantages

Disadvantages

New Jersey and the Revolutionary War
During the American Revolutionary War, New Jersey was strategically located between the Continental Congress in Philadelphia and the British command center in New York City. From 1775 until 1783, New Jersey was the location of major battles and minor skirmishes that historic homes, battlefield sites and historical monuments bear testament to today.

For these reasons New Jersey has become known as the "Crossroads of the American Revolution". Although most battles were fought in southern New Jersey such as at Fort Monmouth, Fort Mercer and Trenton, Northern New Jersey offers many historical sites from this era. Prominent figures in American history who made their way through New Jersey during the war years included Alexander Hamilton, Benedict Arnold, George Washington and Thomas Paine among others. From Washington's 1776 retreat across New Jersey to the crossing of the Delaware River; from in the Battle of Monmouth to the brutal winter spent by the army in Morristown, New Jersey's role in the founding of the nation was vital.

NJ made important contributions of war material such as raw iron and worked iron, including field pieces, muskets, and shot, salt, gunpowder, and cloth. Manufacturing had been prohibited by the British, and these were new and vital industries that were started.

New Jersey has a long sea coast with many small bays and small ports. During the Revolution they became important points for shipping since NYC was held by the British, and Philadelphia was held for a time. Both commercial shipping and privateers out to capture British shipping based themselves in NJ, and British losses to NJ privateers was a constant sore spot. Occasionally, the British would raid a small port, or supply loyalist units from one. Ships were built along the ocean and Delaware River for use against the British. The fighting force of the United States fleet, and State ships was small, but the effect of the commerce raiding on British merchantmen was an important factor in winning the war. Many sea battles were fought in N.J. ocean waters. The small towns along the shore were raided much like the Neutral Ground (the area along the Hudson River (the North River) from above the New York border south to beyond Sandy Hook, was called the Neutral ground.). They were accessible by water, provided various materials to the revolution, such as salt, and raided the British, so were targeted.



Major actions in the state include:

  • The forced Abandonment of Fort Lee, Nov. 20th, 1776 starting the retreat of the American army across NJ to the other side of the Delaware river.

  • The first battle of Trenton, Dec 26th, 1776

  • The Battle of Princeton, Jan 3rd, 1777

  • The Battle of Bound Brook, April 14th, 1777

  • The Battle of Short Hills, June, 1777

  • The Battle of Monmouth, June 28th, 1778

  • The Battle of Connecticut Farms, June 6th, 1780

  • The Battle of Springfield, June 23rd, 1780, last large action in the north.

  • In addition, there were hundreds, even thousands, of smaller battles, engagements, skirmishes, raids, ambushes, etc. involving regular troops, militia units and loyalist units, and many actions off the coast of sea vessels.


Short Response Question
Directions: Using the reading on New Jersey and the Revolutionary War as well as the class notes and lecture, answer the following question.
Question: How was New Jersey involved in the Revolutionary War? Do you think their role in the Revolutionary War was important, why or why not? What contributions did New Jersey make to the war effort?
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Women of the American Revolution
By February 1775, it seemed clear England and the Thirteen Colonies were drifting toward war.
From the first real fights at Lexington and Concord (April 19, 1775), all through the long years of war to follow, women were ready to serve the cause of freedom. Ruth Draper, of Connecticut, did her part, baking bread for two days and nights as minutemen rushed north that April. Later she gave up her pewter plates to be melted down and made into bullets. Other females spied on the British or nursed the wounded after battles. Like Elizabeth Hagar (“Handy Betty the Blacksmith”), who repaired weapons, others took jobs usually done by men. And often the ladies fought themselves. During the bloody retreat from Concord, the redcoats passed through what one described as a furnace of musket fire. A stunned British soldier reported grimly (and with poor spelling): “Even the women had firelocks [guns].” Side by side, minutemen and “minutemaids” blasted the British.
Once fighting had begun, thousands of women faced difficult new decisions. If a husband joined the army how could a wife run the farm alone? Who would keep the mill or shop operating? And could a mother watch her young sons march away? Elizabeth Martin, a South Carolina lady, watched seven sons leave home and enlist in the army. “Go, boys, and fight for your country.” she told them all. “Fight till death, if you must; but never let your country be dishonored. Were I a man I would go with you.”
When an American army pushed north into Canada, Jemina Warner went along with husband James. The march was a disaster. Day after day, the troops hacked their way through heavy forest. Fall weather turned cold and wet. Food ran low. Sickness swept the army, and James fell ill. One day he dropped behind the other troops. Jemina stopped to go back after him, only to find him dying in the woods. Regardless of danger, she remained by his side, holding his hand, till the “King of Terrors” carried him away. Then she covered his body in leaves and marched off to rejoin the army.

Margaret “Molly” Corbin was another woman who soon found herself in combat. After her husband was assigned to the defense of a fort near New York City, Margaret refused to go to safety. When British and Hessian units attacked (November 16, 1776) they met heavy fire and fell back. Pressing forward a second time, they came climbing over the rugged ground and defensive obstacles. Inside U. S. lines John Corbin was manning an artillery piece. One of the gunners fell wounded. So his wife leaped to fill the place. Another shot killed her husband. Molly continued firing the cannon till she was also badly wounded.

After the battle ended a doctor found her lying in a pool of blood beside her husband’s body. Hit in the chest and jaw, with one arm shattered, Molly survived but never recovered full use of her injured limb. In 1779 Congress voted to reward her for her service. Molly was voted half-pay, a yearly outfit of new clothing, and a daily issue of rum or whiskey (then typical in most armies).

http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-p3h9pg22edw/t1kuzgexepi/aaaaaaaaa-w/biu0k-03iby/s640/molly+pitcher.jpg


Two years later, Mary Ludwig Hays found herself in similar circumstances during the Battle of Monmouth (June 28, 1778). Her husband was working a cannon when the British lines advanced. On a blistering hot summer day, Mary won the nickname “Molly Pitcher,” fetching water from a nearby stream for American troops. With temperatures at 98º her greatest efforts were not enough. Dozens of soldiers, including her husband, fell to heat stroke.

Then a general became confused and ordered American lines to fall back. According to witnesses, Mrs. Hays refused. Perhaps she gave a hearty curse, or spit out her chew of tobacco. We do know she shouted at the men to stand their ground. The gunners stayed and blasted great holes in the advancing redcoat ranks. At one point, Molly placed her legs far apart as she worked her gun. “A cannon shot from the enemy passed directly between her legs without doing any damage [other] than carrying away the lower part of her petticoat.” For a moment she surveyed the situation. Then she remarked that it was “lucky it did not pass a little higher... and continued her occupation.” Legend has it that Washington saw her in action. After the battle ended it is said he made Molly Hays a sergeant.

Deborah Sampson (or we should say: “Robert Shurtliffe”) disguised herself as a man and enlisted in the army. She served bravely and was wounded twice, once suffering a sword cut to the side of her head. (Other sources claim Sampson enlisted in 1782, to avoid an undesirable marriage.) She herself would say that her mother was fond of a certain young man—and expected them to wed. Indeed, Mrs. Sampson “seemed struck with wonder” when her daughter seemed reluctant. When this poor “lump of a man,” as Deborah described him, proposed anyway, after drinking too much rum, the young woman made up her mind to run away.

She would explain later how she disguised her sex, tightly wrapping her chest, and using a variety of tricks. The first time she enlisted, under the name “Timothy Thayer,” she became drunk and revealed her secret. She tried again, as “Robert Shurtliffe,” and managed to sign up with a regiment from Massachusetts. On one occasion she volunteered with thirty men to flush out a group of Tories operating nearby. In the night fight, which followed several of the enemy was killed. Deborah was wounded in the leg. “I considered this as a death wound, or as being equivalent to it,” she explained, “as it must, I thought, lead to the discovery of my sex.”


Directions: Use the reading from above to fill in the chart below with important women and their contributions during the Revolution.
Ways Women Contributed to the Revolution:

Name

Contribution












































Valley Forge

Directions: Please read the paragraphs below and answer each question (think). When both you and your partner are finished reading and answering the questions, please discuss the answers you got (pair). We will go over the answers together as a class (share).

The series of maneuvers and engagements that led to the Valley Forge encampment began in late August 1777 when Sir William Howe, commander in chief of British forces in North America, landed his veteran army at the upper end of Chesapeake Bay. His objective was to take Philadelphia, the patriot capital. General Washington positioned his Continental Army to defend the city. Howe's skillful tactics, combined with errors made by Washington's army, led to a British victory at Brandywine, the flight of the Continental Congress to York, PA., the British occupation of Philadelphia, and a defeat at Germantown.



  1. Why did the British win the battle at Brandywine? _______________________

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

With winter setting in, General Washington looked for a place to rest and train his men. He selected Valley Forge, located 18 miles northwest of Philadelphia. It was an excellent choice. Named for an iron forge on Valley Creek, the area was close enough to the British to keep their raiding and foraging parties out of the interior of Pennsylvania, yet far enough away to halt the threat of British surprise attacks. The high ground of Mount Joy and Mount Misery, combined with the Schuylkill River to the north, made the area easily defensible.



  1. Name one positive reason for placing the army at Valley Forge___________________

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Valley Forge, 18 miles northwest of Philadelphia, is among the best-known places associated with the Revolutionary War. The village received its name from the iron forge built along Valley Creek in the 1740s. By the time of the Revolution, a sawmill and gristmill had been built in the area, making the place an important supply base for the Americans.



  1. What were some of the benefits of keeping the army at Valley Forge?___________

_______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

But before the American Army encamped here, the British army encamped here first. They not only destroyed the forge and mills, but more importantly, they forced Washington to either defend his supply depot in Reading to the west or the city of Philadelphia to the east. With the British army in between, he could not defend both. To make the decision more difficult, not defending Philadelphia would have political consequences.


  1. What do you think “political consequences” means? __________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Making a military decision, Washington chose Reading, giving the British a clear path to Philadelphia. On September 26th, British forces marched into the city and took possession of it. With Valley Forge now free, Washington was able choose it for his winter encampment.



  1. How was Washington able to place his army at Valley Forge? ____________________

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Washington’s soldiers suffered from a lack of supplies and food; nearly 10,000 soldiers had no coats or shoes. Despite their hardships, the soldiers improved from careful drilling supervised by Baron Von Steuben, who had come to help the Patriots. In June 1778, the British evacuated Philadelphia, retreating from New Jersey into New York City.



  1. What were some of the conditions in Valley Forge for the Patriots? ________________

_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2016
send message

    Main page