Name: us history before 1877

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US History before 1877

A.Causes of the American Revolution

B.French and Indian War

C.During the mid-1700s the British and French fought a war for control of North America

D.British Won but had to repay debt by issuing taxes on colonists

a. Stamp Act, Tea Act, Townsend Act

E.Taxation without representation

F.Colonists boycotted (refused to buy) British goods, some dressed as Indians and dumped tea off of a British ship

G.By 1775, the colonists and British soldiers exchanged shots at Lexington & Concord, the first battle of the American Revolution

H.American Revolution - starts (1775)

  1. George Washington as the Commander in Chief of the new Continental Army

  2. Americans Win the Revolution

    1. After winning the first battle at Lexington & Concord (1775), the American colonists lost many battles.

    2. Victory at Saratoga (1777), which brought the French into the war on our side.

    3. Yorktown (1783), the Continental Army forced the British to surrender and the war was over.

    4. In 1783, we became the United States of America

I.Declaration of Independence

    1. In 1776 the ‘2nd Continental Congress’ began discussing the idea of declaring independence from England.

    2. Thomas Jefferson was appointed to head a committee to draft (write) it.

    3. July 4, 1776, the final draft was approved:

      1. It explained why we should be free.

      2. It listed the grievances (complaints) we had with King George III and England’s Parliament.

      3. It declared our independence!

    4. 56 men met in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to sign the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776

      1. This was courageous because it was an act of treason punishable by hanging.

J.Interpreting the Declaration of Independence

    1. When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another,

      1. Sometimes it’s just not working and you have to roll with someone else.

    2. a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

      1. The respectful thing to do to tell your leaders why you are tired of their crap!

    3. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal,

      1. All men, except for women, slaves, Native Americans, or other minorities

    4. that they are endowed by their Creator with certain Unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.

      1. These rights cannot be taken without due process, meaning the government must follow certain steps before taking your life, liberty, or property. The king had not been following these legal steps.

E.That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed,

In order to protect these unalienable rights for the people, governments are created by the people, and these people agree or consent to follow the laws created.
K.Founding Forefathers of America

  1. John Trumball Jr., governor of Connecticut - refused to join the British, instead he supplied Washington’s troops with food, clothing, and weapons

L.John Peter Muhlenberg was a minister who used his role in the church to help recruit men for the colonial army; Black Regiment, after the black robes he wore

M.Dr. Benjamin Rush- known as the ‘Father of American Medicine’. He supported educating women and helped fund an African-American church.

N.Charles Carroll a wealthy businessman, he helped support Revolution with his own money.

O.Dr. John Witherspoon a church minister supported independence, he was quoted as saying; “America was not only ripe for independence, it was in danger of rotting for want of it.”

P.John Jay was a member of the Continental Congress that created the Constitution.

    1. He helped negotiate the ‘Treaty of Paris’ ending the American Revolution.

    2. One of the authors of the ‘Federalist Papers’ used to convince Americans to support the Constitution.

    3. John Jay was the 1st Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.

    4. Jay later served a governor of New York where he worked to fix prison problems and to abolish slavery

Q.The Constitution

Creates a system of government that promotes liberty, equality, and protection of individual rights, based on the desires of the people.

    1. Originally the colonies were ruled by a ‘loose’ agreement called the Articles of Confederation - government that failed, it gave too much power to the state governments and not enough to the federal government.

    2. In 1787 the Continental Congress wrote the U.S. Constitution, this document established the basic structure of our government.

      1. It created a government in which the people hold the power; they elect their own representatives, as shown in the first three words. “We the People…”

R.The founding forefathers wanted to create a government that was strong enough to defend our nation’s interests and to promote our general welfare.

S.They gave national (federal) government many powers and they made the federal law supreme over any state law. Supreme Law of the Land

T.Parts of Constitution

    1. The Preamble –Introduction; explains goals of Constitution

    2. The Articles - establish the different parts of government and the power and responsibilities of each branch.

    3. Amendments – changes made to the constitution

      1. First Ten Amendments - Bill of Rights

      2. 17 Amendments have been added over last 200+ years for a total of 27 Amendments

U.Principles of the Constitution

    1. Limited Government – powers are limited by the Constitution. King John signed Magna Carta in 1215 limiting the powers of the ruler.

    2. Popular Sovereignty – the people hold the power and give the government its power. We consent to be governed.

    3. Federalism – power is divided between the national government and the states. Some are shared, some only for national, some only for the states.

    1. Separation of Powers – federal government is divided into three separate branches.

    2. Checks and Balances – prevents any one branch from becoming too powerful, each branch can stop or ‘check’ the other two.

    3. Amendments – Constitution allows for changes or ‘amendments’ to adapt to changing times and events. The 1st 10 are the Bill of Rights; There has been 27 all totaled

VI. Branches of the Government

  1. Legislative Branch - the Congress was established under Article I - Congressmen are elected by the people of the USA to Create our laws, raise or lower taxes, declare war

1. Senate

        1. 2 Senators for each state, 100 Senators total

2.House of Representatives

        1. based on a states’ population, bigger states = more ‘reps, 435 Reps

V.Executive Branch - the President was established under Article II

    1. Commander of the Military, Signs bills into law, Appoints Supreme Court Judges

W.Judicial Branch - Supreme Court was established under Article III

    1. Marbury v Madison” gave Supreme Court the power of Judicial Review, to determine if a law follows the Constitution; lower courts across the US; 9 Justices on the Court

VII. Bill of Rights – First 10 amendments (changes) to the Constitution

A. 1st Amendment – Freedom of Religion, Speech, Press, Assembly, Petition

    1. 2nd Amendment – Right to bear arms

    2. 3rd Amendment – Prohibits quartering of soldiers

    3. 4th Amendment – No unreasonable searches

    4. 5th Amendment – due process of law

    5. 6th Amendment – fair and impartial trial

    6. 7th Amendment – trial by jury

    7. 8th Amendment – no cruel and unusual punishment

    8. 9th Amendment – all rights are covered even those not specifically mentioned in constitution

    9. 10th Amendment – gov’t has specific powers, all other powers are for states

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