Name social studies class chapter twelve



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NAME _________________ SOCIAL STUDIES

CLASS _________________ CHAPTER TWELVE





SECTION ONE

  • The Mongols

  • Mongol Rule in China

SECTION TWO



  • The Rise of the Ming

  • China Explores the World




SECTION ONE

The Mongols


The Mongols lived in an area north of China called Mongolia (mahn•GOH• lee • uh). They were made up of tribes, or groups of related families, loosely joined together. The Mongols raised cattle, goats, sheep, and horses. They followed their herds as the animals grazed Mongolia’s great steppes (STEHPS). Steppes are wide rolling grassy plains that stretch from the Black Sea to northern China.
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From an early period in their history, the Mongols were known for two things. One was their ability to ride horses well. Mongols practically lived on horseback, learning to ride at age four or five.

The other skill for which the Mongols were known was the ability to wage war. They could fire arrows at enemies from a distance while charging at them. Then they would attack with spears and swords.


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Who Was Genghis Khan?

The man who would unite the Mongols was born in the 1160s. He was named Temujin (teh •MOO• juhn), which means “blacksmith.” Temujin showed his leadership skills early. He was still a young man when he began to unite the Mongol tribes.


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In 1206 a meeting of Mongol leaders took place somewhere in the Gobi (GOH• bee), a vast desert that covers parts of Mongolia and China. At that meeting, Temujin was elected Genghis Khan (GEHNG• guhs KAHN), which means “strong ruler.” Genghis Khan brought together Mongol laws in a new code. He also created a group of tribal chiefs to help him plan military campaigns. From the time of his election until the end of his life, Genghis Khan fought to conquer the lands beyond Mongolia.

Genghis Khan gathered an army of more than 100,000 warriors. He placed his soldiers into well-trained groups. Commanding them were officers chosen for their abilities, not for their family ties. These changes made the Mongols the most skilled fighting force in the world at that time.


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Genghis Khan began building his empire by conquering other people on the steppes. These victories brought him wealth and new soldiers to fill the army. Soon the Mongols were strong enough to attack major civilizations. In 1211 Mongol forces turned east and invaded China. Within three years, they had taken all of northern China. They then moved west and

struck at the cities and kingdoms that controlled parts of the Silk Road.

Genghis Khan and his Mongol warriors became known for their cruelty and use of terror (TEHR • uhr). Terror refers to violent actions that are meant to scare people into surrendering, or giving up. Mongol warriors attacked, robbed, and burned cities. Within a short time, the Mongols became known for their fierce ways, and many people surrendered to them without fighting.
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The Mongol Empire

Genghis Khan died in 1227. His large empire was divided among his four sons. Under their leadership, the empire continued to expand. The Mongols swept into parts of eastern and central Europe. They also conquered much of southwest Asia. In 1258 the famous Muslim city of Baghdad fell to the Mongols. Mongol armies then pushed through Syria and Palestine to Egypt. They were finally stopped by the Muslim rulers of Egypt in 1260.


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The Mongols united all of these different territories under their rule. Their empire reached from the Pacific Ocean in the east to Eastern Europe in the west and from Siberia in the north to the Himalaya in the south. It was the largest land empire the world had ever known.

Despite widespread destruction, the Mongols eventually brought peace to the lands they ruled. Peace encouraged trade, which helped the Mongols. Many of Asia’s trade routes now lay in Mongol hands. The Mongols taxed the products traded over these roads and, as a result, grew wealthy.


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The Mongols felt great respect for the advanced cultures they conquered. Sometimes they even adopted some of the beliefs and customs they encountered. For example, the Mongols in southwest Asia accepted Islam and adopted Arab, Persian, and Turkish ways.

The Mongols also learned many things from the Chinese. As they battled Chinese troops, they learned about gunpowder and its use as an explosive. They also saw the Chinese use the fire lance, a weapon that used gunpowder. Quickly, the Mongols adopted both gunpowder and the fire lance for use in battle. These new weapons made Mongol armies even more frightening to their enemies.


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1. Early in their history, Mongols were known for the ability to ride horses and to
A. farm the steppe. B. make spears.

C. grow wheat. D. wage war.


2. Officers in Genghis Khan’s army were chosen for their __________, which made his army the most skilled in the world.
A. family ties B. abilities

C. wealth D. learning

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Mongol Rule in China


In 1260 the Mongols named Genghis Khan’s grandson, Kublai, to be the new khan, or ruler. Kublai Khan (KOO• BLUH KAHN) continued the Mongol conquest of China that his father had begun. In 1264 Kublai moved his capital from Karakorum in Mongolia to Khanbaliq in northern China. Today the modern city of Beijing (BAY • JIHNG) stands on the site of the Mongols’ Chinese capital.
What Did the Mongols Do in China?

In 1271 Kublai Khan decided to become China’s next emperor. Within 10 years, the Mongols had conquered southern China and put an end to the Song dynasty. Kublai Khan started the Yuan (YOO•AHN) dynasty. Yuan means “beginning,” and its name showed that the Mongols wanted to rule China for a long time. But the Yuan dynasty would last only about 100 years. Kublai would rule for 30 of those years.

Kublai Khan gave Mongol leaders the top jobs in China’s government, but he knew he needed Chinese scholar-officials to run the government. So he let many of the Chinese keep their government jobs.

The Mongols were different from the Chinese in many ways. They had their own language, laws, and customs. This kept them separate from Chinese society. The Mongols were rulers at the top of Chinese society, but they did not mix with the Chinese people.

Like many Chinese, the Mongols were Buddhists. They were tolerant, however, of other religions. For example, Kublai Khan invited Christians, Muslims, and Hindus from outside China to practice their faiths and to win converts.

Under Mongol rule, China reached the height of its wealth and power. Its splendor drew foreigners who came to China over the Silk Road. Khanbaliq, the capital, became known for it wide streets, beautiful palaces, and fine homes.

One of the most famous European travelers to reach China was Marco Polo (MAHR • koh POH• loh). He came from the city of Venice in Italy. Kublai Khan was fascinated by Marco Polo’s stories about his travels. For about 16 years, Kublai sent Polo on many fact-finding trips. When Polo finally returned to Europe, he wrote a book about his adventures. His accounts of the wonders of China amazed Europeans.
Trade and Conquest

The Mongols ruled a large empire that stretched from China to eastern Europe. As a result, China prospered from increased trade with other areas. Goods such as silver, spices, carpets, and cotton flowed in from Europe and other parts of Asia. In return, China shipped out tea, silk, and porcelain. Europeans and Muslims also brought Chinese discoveries, such as steel, gunpowder, and the compass, back to their homelands.

The Mongols enlarged China’s empire and conquered Vietnam and northern Korea. The rulers of Korea, called the Koryo, remained in power because they accepted Mongol control. The Mongols forced thousands of Koreans to build warships. These ships were used by the Mongols to invade Japan. You will read about the Mongol invasions of Japan in a later chapter.
1. The Mongols were different from the Chinese in language, laws, and
A. farming. B. government.

C. religion. D. customs.


2. With increased trade, Chinese discoveries, such as steel, the compass, and __________, made their way to Europe.
A. tea B. porcelain

C. gunpowder D. silk


3. Who founded the Yuan dynasty?
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SECTION TWO

The Rise of the Ming
Kublai Khan died in 1294. A series of weak rulers followed him, and Mongol power began to decline. During the 1300s, problems mounted for the Yuan dynasty. Mongol groups in Mongolia to the north broke away. At the same time, many Chinese resented Mongol controls and wanted their own dynasty.
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How Did the Ming Dynasty Begin?

A series of rebellions finally drove out the Mongols. In 1368 a rebel leader named Zhu Yuanzhang (JOO YOO•AHN• JAHNG) became emperor. Zhu reunited the country and set up his capital at Nanjing (NAHN• JIHNG) in southern China. There, he founded the Ming, or “Brilliant,” dynasty.

As emperor, Zhu took the name Hong Wu, or the “Military Emperor.” He brought back order, but he also proved to be a cruel leader. Hong Wu trusted no one and killed officials he suspected of treason (TREE • zuhn), or disloyalty to the government. Hong Wu ruled China for 30 years. When he died in 1398, his son became emperor and

took the name of Yong Le (YUNG LEE).


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Yong Le worked hard to show that he was a powerful emperor. In 1421 he moved the capital north to Beijing. There, he built a large area of palaces and government buildings known as the Imperial City. The very center of the Imperial City was known as the Forbidden City. Only top officials could enter the Forbidden City because it was home to China’s emperors.

The Forbidden City had beautiful gardens and many palaces with thousands of rooms. The emperor and his court lived there in luxury for more than 500 years. The

of the Forbidden City still exist. You can visit them if you travel to China.

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How Did the Ming Reform China?

Ming emperors made all the decisions, but they still needed officials to carry out their orders. They restored the civil service examinations and made the tests even harder. From time to time, Ming officials carried out a census (SEHN • suhs), or a count of the number of people. This helped them collect taxes more accurately.

With the strong government of the early Ming emperors providing peace and security, China’s economy began to grow. Hong Wu ordered many of the canals and farms destroyed by the Mongols to be rebuilt and ordered people to move to the new farms. He also ordered new forests to be planted and new roads to be paved.

Agriculture thrived as farmers worked on the new lands and grew more crops. Ming rulers repaired and expanded the Grand Canal so that rice and other goods could again be shipped from southern to northern China. They imported new types of rice from southeast Asia that grew faster. This helped feed the growing number of people living in cities. The Ming also supported the silk industry and encouraged farmers to start growing cotton and weaving cloth. For the first time, cotton became the cloth worn by most Chinese.


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Chinese Culture

Chinese culture also advanced under the Ming. As merchants and artisans grew wealthier, they wanted to learn more and be entertained. During the Ming period, Chinese writers produced many novels (NAH• vuhls), or long fictional stories. The Chinese also enjoyed seeing dramas on stage. These works combined spoken words and songs with dances, costumes, and symbolic gestures.


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1. After Mongolian rule of China weakened, the __________ dynasty came to power.


A. Hong B. Ming

C. Zhu D. Yong


2. Within the Imperial City, Emperor Yong Le built __________, which still stands today.
A. the Government City B. the City of Kings

C. the Empire City D. the Forbidden City


3. What was the Forbidden City?
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China Explores the World


Early Ming emperors were curious about the world outside of China. They also wanted to increase China’s influence abroad. To reach these goals, Ming emperors built a large fleet of ships. The new ships usually traveled along China’s coast. However, they could also sail in the open sea.
Who Was Zheng He?

From 1405 to 1431, Emperor Yong Le sent the fleet on seven overseas voyages. The emperor wanted to trade with other kingdoms, show off China’s power, and demand that weaker kingdoms pay tribute to China.

The leader of these journeys was a Chinese Muslim and court official named Zheng He (JUNG HUH). Zheng He’s voyages were quite impressive. His first fleet had 62 large ships, 250 smaller ships, and almost 28,000 men. The largest ship was over 440 feet (134 m) long. That made it more than five times as long as the Santa María that Christopher Columbus sailed almost 90 years later!

Where Did Zheng He Travel?

Zheng He took his first fleet to southeast Asia. In later voyages, he reached India, sailed up the Persian Gulf to Arabia, and even landed in East Africa. In these areas, Zheng He traded Chinese goods, such as silk, paper, and porcelain. He brought back silver, spices, wood, and other goods. From Africa, Zheng He returned home with giraffes and other animals for the emperor’s zoo.

As a result of Zheng He’s voyages, Chinese merchants settled in Southeast Asia and India. There, they not only traded goods but also spread Chinese culture. Chinese merchants at home and abroad grew rich from the trade of the voyages and added to China’s wealth.

Despite these benefits, Chinese officials complained that the trips cost too much. They also said that trips were bad for China’s way of life because they brought in new ideas from the outside world and helped merchants become rich.

Confucius had taught that people should place loyalty to society ahead of their own desires. To the officials, China’s merchants were disobeying this teaching by working to gain money for themselves.

After Zheng He’s death, the Confucian officials persuaded the emperor to stop the voyages. The boats were dismantled, and no more ships capable of long distance ocean travel were allowed to be built. As a result, China’s trade with other countries sharply declined. Within 50 years, the shipbuilding technology was forgotten.
The Europeans Arrive in China

Chinese officials were not able to cut off all of China’s contacts with the outside world. In 1514 a fleet from the European country of Portugal (POHR • chih • guhl) arrived off the coast of China. It was the first time Europeans had ever sailed to China and the first direct contact between China and Europe since the journeys of Marco Polo.

The Portuguese wanted China to trade with their country. They also wanted to convince the Chinese to become Christians. At the time, the Ming government was not impressed by the Portuguese. China was at the height of its power and did not feel threatened by outsiders. The Chinese thought the Europeans were barbarians (bahr •BEHR• ee • uhns), or uncivilized people.

At first, the Chinese refused to trade with the Portuguese, but by 1600, they had allowed Portugal to set up a trading post at the port of Macao (muh •KOW) in southern China. Goods were carried on European ships between Macao and Japan. Still, trade between China and Europe remained limited.

Despite restrictions, ideas from Europe did reach China. Christian missionaries traveled to China on European ships. Many of these missionaries were Jesuits, a special group of Roman Catholic priests. They were highly educated, and their scientific knowledge impressed the Chinese. To get China to accept European ideas, the Jesuits brought with them clocks, eyeglasses, and scientific instruments. Although they tried, the Jesuits did not convince many Chinese to become Christians.

Why Did the Ming Dynasty Fall?

After a long era of prosperity and growth, the Ming dynasty began to decline. Ming emperors had gathered too much power into their own hands. With the emperor having so much control, officials had little desire to make improvements. As time passed, Ming rulers themselves became weak. Greedy officials who lived in luxury took over the country. They placed heavy taxes on the peasants, who began to revolt.

As law and order disappeared, a people called the Manchus attacked China’s northern border. The Manchus lived to the northeast of the Great Wall in an area known

today as Manchuria. The Manchus defeated Chinese armies and captured Beijing. In 1644 they set up a new dynasty.
1. Ming China’s most famous explorer, __________, spread Chinese culture and established trade with cities far from China.
A. Marco Polo B. Yong Le

C. Confucius D. Zheng He


2. Chinese merchants settled in Southeast Asia and
A. India. B. Italy.

C. Portugal. D. Japan.


3. The __________ invaded China and eventually defeated the weakened Ming Empire.
A. Jesuits B. barbarians.

C. Portuguese D. Manchus


4. What caused the Ming dynasty to decline and fall?
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