Name social studies class chapter four



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NAME _________________ SOCIAL STUDIES

CLASS _________________ CHAPTER FOUR







SECTION ONE

  • The Geography of Greece

  • The Minoans

  • The First Greek Kingdoms

  • A Move to Colonize

  • The Polis

SECTION TWO

  • Tyranny in the City-States

  • Sparta

  • Athens

SECTION THREE

SECTION FOUR

  • The Athenian Empire

  • Daily Life in Athens

  • The Peloponnesian War





SECTION ONE

The Geography of Greece

If you fly over Greece today, you will see a mountainous land framed by sparkling blue water. To the west is the Ionian (eye • OH• nee • uhn) Sea, to the south is the Mediterranean Sea, and to the east is the Aegean (ih • JEE • uhn) Sea. Hundreds of islands lie offshore, stretching across to Asia like stepping-stones. Mainland Greece is a peninsula (puh •NIHN• suh • luh)—a body of land with water on three sides.

Many ancient Greeks made a living from the sea. They became fishers, sailors, and traders. Others settled in farming communities. Greece’s mountains and rocky soil were not ideal for growing crops. However, the climate was mild, and in some places people could grow wheat, barley, olives, and grapes. They also raised sheep and goats.

Ancient Greeks felt deep ties to the land, but the mountains and seas divided them from one another. As a result, early Greek communities grew up fiercely independent.
GIST NOTE: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
1. Ancient Greeks made their living raising

A. sheep. C. horses.

B. cattle. D. rabbits.
2. How did geography discourage Greek unity?

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3. How did the geography of Greece influence where people settled and how they made a living?

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The Minoans

The island of Crete (KREET) lies southeast of the Greek mainland. There, in 1900, an English archaeologist by the name of Arthur Evans made the find of a lifetime. Evans uncovered the ruins of a grand palace that had been the center of Minoan (muh•NOH•uhn) civilization. The Minoans were not Greeks, but their civilization was the first to arise in the region that later became Greece.

The palace at Knossos (NAH • suhs) revealed the riches of an ancient society. Its twisting passageways led to many different rooms: private quarters for the royal family and storerooms packed with oil, wine, and grain. Other spaces were workshops for making jewelry, vases, and small ivory statues. The palace even had bathrooms.

The Minoans made their wealth from trade. They built ships from oak and cedar trees and sailed as far as Egypt and Syria. There they traded pottery and stone vases for ivory and metals. By 2000 B.C., Minoan ships controlled the eastern Mediterranean Sea. They carried goods to foreign ports and kept the sea free of pirates.

About 1450 B.C., the Minoan civilization suddenly collapsed. Some historians think undersea earthquakes caused giant waves that washed away the Minoans’ cities. Others think the cities were destroyed by a group of Greeks from the mainland. These invaders were called the Mycenaeans (MY• suh •NEE• uhns).
GIST NOTE: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
1. The __________ civilization was the first to arise in ancient Greece.
A. Phoenician C. Mycenaean

B. Dorian D. Minoan


2. The Minoans made their living as
A. soldiers. C. weavers.

B. traders. D. farmers.


3. How did the Minoans become a trading civilization?

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The First Greek Kingdoms

The Mycenaeans were originally from central Asia. They invaded the Greek mainland around 1900 B.C. and conquered the people living there. The Mycenaean leaders became the first Greek kings. Their warriors became nobles who ruled the people they had conquered. In the late 1800s, a German named Heinrich Schliemann (HYN• rihk SHLEE • MAHN) discovered one of their walled palaces in Mycenae (my • SEE • nee). He named the people of this civilization the

Mycenaeans.


What Were Mycenaean Kingdoms Like?

The centerpiece of each Mycenaean kingdom was a fortified palace on a hill. The ruler lived there, surrounded by giant stone walls. Beyond the palace walls lay large farms, or estates, that belonged to the nobles. Slaves and farmers lived on the estates and took shelter inside the fortress in times of danger.

Mycenaean palaces hummed with activity. Artisans tanned leather, sewed clothes, and made jars for wine and olive oil. Other workers made bronze swords and ox-hide shields. Government officials kept track of the wealth of every person in the kingdom. Then they collected wheat, livestock, and honey as taxes and stored them in the palace.
Power From Trade and War

Soon after the Mycenaeans set up their kingdoms, Minoan traders began to visit from Crete. As a result, Mycenaeans learned much about Minoan culture. They copied the ways Minoans worked with bronze and built ships. They learned how the Minoans used the sun and stars to find their way at sea. The Mycenaeans even started worshiping the Earth Mother, the

Minoans’ chief goddess.

Around 1400 B.C., the Mycenaeans replaced the Minoans as the major power on the Mediterranean. They traded widely, sailing to Egypt and southern Italy. Some historians think they conquered Crete and nearby islands.

Although trade made the Mycenaeans wealthy, they were prouder of their deeds in battle. Their most famous victory is probably the Trojan War. In the next chapter, you will learn the legend of how the Mycenaean king Agamemnon (A • guh •MEHM• nahn) used trickery to win that war.
What Was the Dark Age?

By 1200 B.C., the Mycenaeans were in trouble. Earthquakes and fighting among the kingdoms had destroyed their hilltop forts. By 1100 B.C., Mycenaean civilization had collapsed.

The years between 1100 B.C. and 750 B.C. were difficult for the Greeks. Overseas trade

slowed and poverty took hold. Farmers grew only enough food to meet their own family’s needs. People also stopped teaching others how to write or do craftwork. Before long, the Greeks had forgotten their written language and how to make many things. As a result, historians call this time the Dark Age.

The changes that took place in the Dark Age were not all bad, however. One positive development was a huge population shift. Thousands of Greeks left the mainland and settled on islands in the Aegean Sea. Other Greeks moved to the western shores of Asia Minor, to what is now the country of Turkey. This wave of movement expanded the reach of Greek culture.

Meanwhile, people known as the Dorians (DOHR • ee • uhns) invaded Greece. Many settled in the southwest on the Peloponnesus (PEH • luh •puh•NEE• suhs) peninsula. The Dorians brought iron weapons with them, giving Greece more advanced technology. Iron weapons and farm tools were stronger and cheaper than those made of bronze.

Gradually, people began to farm again and to produce surplus food. As a result, trade revived. One benefit of the increased trade was a new way of writing. As you read in Chapter 3, the Greeks picked up the idea of an alphabet from the Phoenicians, one of their trading partners who lived on the coast of the eastern Mediterranean.

The Greek alphabet had 24 letters that stood for different sounds. It made reading and writing Greek much simpler than ever before. Soon people were writing down tales that had been passed down by storytellers for generations.


1. Name one factor that started the collapse of the Mycenaean civilization.

A. the Trojan War

B. The people forgot their written language.

C. earthquakes

D. Thousands left the mainland to settle on islands.
2. The Mycenaeans came to Greece from

A. Western Europe. C. Central Asia.

B. India. D. China.
3. What changes occurred during Greece’s Dark Age?

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A Move to Colonize

As Greece recovered from its Dark Age, its population rose quickly. By 700 B.C., farmers could no longer grow enough grain to feed everyone. As a result, cities began sending people outside Greece to start colonies (KAH• luh • nees).Acolony is a settlement in a new territory that keeps close ties to its homeland.

Between 750 B.C. and 550 B.C., adventurous Greeks streamed to the coasts of Italy, France, Spain, North Africa, and western Asia. With each new colony, Greek culture spread farther.

Colonists traded regularly with their “parent” cities, shipping them grains, metals, fish, timber, and enslaved people. In return, the colonists received pottery, wine, and olive oil from the mainland. Overseas trade got an extra boost during the 600s B.C., when the Greeks began to mint coins. Merchants were soon exchanging goods for money rather than for more goods.

The growth of trade led to the growth of industry. As the demand for goods grew, producers had to keep pace. People in different areas began specializing in making certain products. For example, pottery making became popular in places with large amounts of clay.
1. What was the central cause for colonization in the Greek civilization?
A. constant war C. rapid growth in population

B. power D. education


2. How did new colonies affect industry?

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3. Why did the use of money help trade to grow?

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The Polis

By the end of the Dark Age, many nobles who owned large estates had overthrown the Greek kings. They created citystates. Like the Mesopotamian city-states you read about in Chapter 1, those in Greece were made up of a town or city and the surrounding countryside. Each Greek city-state, known as a polis (PAH• luhs), was like a tiny independent country.

The main gathering place in the polis was usually a hill. Afortified area, called an acropolis (uh •KRAH•puh• luhs), stood at the top of the hill. It provided a safe refuge in case of attacks. Sometimes the acropolis also served as a religious center. Temples and altars were built there to honor the many Greek gods and goddesses.

Below the acropolis was an open area called an agora (A •guh• ruh). This space had two functions: it was both a market and a place where people could meet and debate issues.

City-states varied in size. Some were a few miles square, while others covered hundreds of square miles. They also varied in population. More than 300,000 people lived in Athens by 500 B.C. Most city-states were much smaller, however.
What Was Greek Citizenship?

Each Greek city-state was run by its citizens. When we speak of citizens, we mean members of a political community who treat each other as equals and who have rights and responsibilities. This was very different from ancient Mesopotamia or Egypt. There, most people were subjects. They had no rights, no say in government, and no choice but to obey their rulers.

The Greeks were the first people to develop the idea of citizenship. Today, the word applies to almost everyone in a society. However, in most Greek city-states, only free native-born men who owned land could be citizens. From their point of view, the citystate was made up of their lands, and it was their responsibility to run it. They did not think anyone else should be a citizen.

Some city-states, such as Athens, eventually dropped the land-owning requirement. Slaves and foreign-born residents, however, continued to be excluded. As for women and children, they might qualify for citizenship, but they had none of the rights that went with it.

What exactly were the rights of Greek citizens? They could gather in the agora to choose their officials and pass laws. They had the right to vote, hold office, own property, and defend themselves in court. In return, citizens had a duty to serve in government and to fight for their polis as citizen soldiers.
Citizens as Soldiers

In early Greece, wars were waged by nobles riding horses and chariots. As the idea of citizenship developed, however, the military system changed. By 700 B.C., the city-states had

begun to depend on armies of ordinary citizens called hoplites (HAHP• LYTS).

Unable to afford horses, the hoplites fought on foot and went into battle heavily armed. Each carried a round shield, a short sword, and a 9-foot (2.7-m) spear. Row upon row of soldiers

marched forward together, shoulder to shoulder. With their shields creating a protective wall, they gave their enemies few openings to defeat them.

Hoplites made good soldiers because, as citizens, they took pride in fighting for their city-state. However, “hometown” loyalties also divided the Greeks and caused them to distrust one another. A lack of unity always existed among the Greek city-states.


1. Greek city-states were run by their
A. soldiers. C. politicians.

B. citizens. D. kings.


2. Under the Greek definition of “citizen,” who qualified for citizenship?
A. free native-born men who owned land

B. freed slaves who owned land

C. wealthy women who owned land

D. foreign-born men with land


3. How did citizenship make the Greeks different from other ancient peoples?

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4. Name three rights granted to Greek citizens that American citizens have today.

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SECTION TWO

Tyranny in the City-States

As you read in the last section, kings ruled the first Greek communities. However, by the end of the Dark Age, the nobles who owned large farms had seized power from the kings.

Rule by the nobles would also be short lived. The first challenge to their rule came from the owners of small farms. These farmers often needed money to live on until they could harvest and sell their crops. Many borrowed money from the nobles, promising to give up their fields if they could not repay the loans. Time and time again, farmers lost their land. Then they had to work for the nobles or become laborers in the city. In desperate cases, they sold themselves into slavery.


GIST NOTE: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
By 650 B.C., small farmers began to demand changes in the power structure. Merchants and artisans also wanted to share in governing. Both groups had become very wealthy from the trade between city-states. Because they did not own land, however, they were not citizens and had no say in running the polis.

The growing unhappiness led to the rise of tyrants. A tyrant (TY • ruhnt) is someone

who takes power by force and rules with total authority. Today the word describes a harsh, oppressive ruler. Most early Greek tyrants, though, acted wisely and fairly.

During the 600s B.C., tyrants managed to overthrow the nobles because they had the backing of the common people. Key support came from the hoplites in the army, many of whom were also farmers.


GIST NOTE: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Tyrants made themselves popular by building new marketplaces, temples, and walls. However, rule by one person was the opposite of what most Greeks wanted. They longed for rule by law with all citizens participating in the government.

By 500 B.C., tyrants had fallen out of favor in Greece. Most city-states became either oligarchies or democracies. In an oligarchy (AH• luh • GAHR • kee), a few people hold power. In a democracy (dih • MAH • kruh • see), all citizens share in running the government. The oligarchy of Sparta (SPAHR• tuh) and the democracy of Athens (A • thuhnz) became two of the most powerful governments of early Greece.


GIST NOTE: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
1. The type of leader who came to power in Greece around 600 B.C. was
A. an ephor. C. a tyrant.

B. a democrat. D. an oligarch.


2. Why were tyrants popular in the city-states?

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3. Why did the tyrants fall out of favor with the Greeks?

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Sparta


As you read in the last section, Sparta was founded by the Dorians—Greeks who invaded the Peloponnesus in the Dark Age. Like other city-states, Sparta needed more land as it grew, but its people did not set up colonies. Instead, they conquered and enslaved their neighbors. The Spartans called their captive workers helots (HEH • luhts). This name comes from the Greek word for “capture.”
Why Was the Military So Important?

Spartans feared that the helots might someday rebel. As a result, the government firmly controlled the people of Sparta and trained the boys and men for war.

At age seven, boys left their family to live in barracks. They were harshly treated to make them tough. The Greek historian Plutarch describes life for Spartan boys:
After they were twelve years old,

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