Name Section New Deal #9 Historical Context



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Name_________________________________________Section _____________
New Deal #9

Historical Context:
Today, almost two generations after his death, Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s place in history is secure. FDR is remembered as one of America’s greatest presidents, the man who successfully guided the nation through the Great Depression and World War II. His New Deal programs profoundly changed our nation and the role of government in our daily lives. Social Security, the abolition of child labor, the federal minimum wage, the right of laboring men and women to organize unions and collectively bargain for better wages and working conditions, TVA and rural electrification, FDIC to protect savings accounts-these are parts of the New Deal, benefitting Americans even today. These , and other, now expired, programs helped millions of Americans. You might think that there was little question that he should have been elected four times to the presidency.

Yet, for though he was loved by millions, he and his policies were strongly opposed by many others. For some, their hostility toward FDR could accurately be described as hatred. In fact few, if any, presidents inspired such deep anger and scorn. In order to understand FDR, his programs, and his legacy in American history, we need to learn more about those who opposed his New Deal programs and why so many of them grew to hate his so much.


Task:
Consider why people objected to FDR’s New Deal programs. Some felt it brought too much government involvement in the lives of American’s, while others demanded that the government take an even larger role. Through the documents provided, examine and arrive at conclusions as to why individuals came to criticize the New Deal.
Directions:


  • Read the documents to arrive at an understanding of the task above. Analyze the content to determine how you might use the document to complete the task.

  • Complete Part A short answers.

  • Write a well organized essay that includes an introduction with a thesis (main idea) statement, several paragraphs explaining the thesis, and a conclusion.

  • Use ALL the documents.

  • Do not simply repeat what the documents say. Explain how it supports your thesis.

  • Include specific related additional information from your study of social studies.


Part A

Short Answer: The following documents relate to why people objected to FDR’s New Deal programs. Examine each document carefully and then answer the question(s) which follow it. Incomplete sentences or phrases may be used to answer the question, but DO NOT use one word answers.
Part B

Essay: Complete the TASK in a well organized essay. Describe and explain the reasons people objected to the New Deal and FDR. In your essay refer to A MAJORITY of the documents you analyzed in Part A. Include additional specific, relevant information from your study of social studies.
Part A
Document 1
This political cartoon was published by the Columbus Dispatch on February 10, 1937.


What is the topic of the cartoon? Who is represented by the two figures? ___________________

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Can you do this in baseball? with the three branches of government? Is the artist supporting or criticizing FDR? Explain. ________________________________________________________

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Document 2
President Roosevelt made this statement in November of 1935.

I can realize that gentlemen in well-warmed and well-stocked clubs will [complain about] the expenses of Government because...their Government is spending money for work relief.

What critics of the New Deal is FDR addressing?______________________________________

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Why are they complaining?_______________________________________________________

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Document 3
In December 1935, Fortune magazine ran an article entitled “The Case Against Roosevelt.” Fortune, a magazine that is generally presented a pro-business viewpoint, was read by well-educated professionals and business managers. The following is from that article.
What the business grievance comes down to in the last analysis is that the government of Mr. Roosevelt is a government of men and not laws....the menace of dictatorship and the essence of dictatorship is government by personal will. What happens when a dictator, either fascist or communist, takes over is that a man or group of men undertake to make a direct attack on social and economic problems. The appeal of the dictator is: “Let us save ourselves! Let us act!”...the Roosevelt theory of federal administration is a menacing and dangerous thing.

According to the article what kind of leader is Roosevelt?_______________________________

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What is meant by “a government of men and not laws?” ________________________________

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Why would the author consider this “dangerous?” _____________________________________

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Document 4
Former President Herbert Hoover, who was defeated by FDR in the 1932 election, said the following in a speech given in October of 1936, in the closing days of that year’s presidential election.
Through four years of experience this New Deal attack upon free institutions has emerged as the [most significant] issue in America. [This attack includes]...coercion and compulsory organization of men...great trade monopolies and price fixing through codes...”economic planning” to regiment and coerce the farmer...national plans to put the government into business competition with its citizens...currency inflation...attempts to centralize relief in Washington for politics and social experimentation.
What are three reasons Hoover gives for attacking the New Deal? ________________________

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What New Deal programs are specifically being attacked? ______________________________

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Explain how you know that these are the programs to which Hoover objects. ________________

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What policy of Hoover’s did the New Deal contradict? _________________________________

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Document 5
President Roosevelt has cleverly camouflaged a most amazing and startling proposal for packing the Supreme Court....Increasing the number of judges from nine to fifteen would not make this high tribunal (court) act any more promptly than it does now, but would give the President control of the Judiciary Department.
This proposal should give every American grave concern for it is a step toward absolutism and complete dictatorial power.

In 1937, soon after his second inaugural, FDR proposed a law aimed to change the make-up of the Supreme Court. During his first term, the Court had ruled a number of New Deal programs unconstitutional. FDR in an effort to reshape the Court to make it more favorable to New Deal legislation, proposed that he be permitted to appoint a number of new justices, expanding the size of the Court from nine to fifteen. He presented it a plan to lessen the workload on those justices over the age of 70. This “reform” was opposed by Congress and the public. The following is part of a public statement by Frank Gannett, owner and publisher of a chain or newspapers, written in February of 1937.

What branch of the government is this critical of?______________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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What relationship between the three branches of government is this referring to?_____________

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What might this violate? Explain. __________________________________________________

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Document 6
U.S. Senator Huey Long, from Louisiana, became a vocal critic of FDR and the New Deal during Roosevelt’s first term, in the depths of the Depression. Before being elected to the Senate, Long had served as governor of Louisiana. He had built a nationwide following among the poor for his vocal attacks on the rich and powerful. In 1932 Long formulated a “Share the Wealth” program, advocating very high taxes on the rich and on large inheritances to fund social programs aimed to benefit the poor. The popularity he gained from this led him to run for president in 1936 against FDR, however in late 1935 he was assassinated. The following is from a radio speech given by Long in January of 1935 and later printed in the Congressional Record.

We are in our third year of the Roosevelt depression, with conditions growing worse... We must now become awakened! We must know the truth and speak the truth. There is no use to wait three more years. It is not Roosevelt or Ruin; it is Roosevelt’s ruin.


When I saw him [FDR} spending all his time...with business partners of Mr. John D. Rockefeller, Jr., with such men as the Astors, etc., maybe I ought to have had better sense than to have believed he would ever break down their big fortunes to give enough to the masses to end poverty....
So therefore I call upon the men and women of America to immediately join in our work and movement to share the wealth.

1. The fortunes of the multi-millionaires and billionaires shall be reduced so that no one person shall own more than a few million dollars.

2. We propose to limit the amount any one man can earn in one year or inherit to $1 million....

3. ...we throw into the government Treasury the money and property from which will care for million of people who have nothing...we will provide a home and the comforts of home, with such conveniences as radio and automobile, for every family in America, free of debt.

4. We guarantee food and clothing and employment for everyone who should work by shortening the hours of labor to thirty hours per week, maybe less, and to eleven months per year, maybe less....

5. We should provide education... for every child...through college and vocational education....

6. We should give a pension to every person above sixty years of age....

7. ...we would grant a moratorium on all debts which people owe that they cannot pay.

Who is Long now blaming for the depression?________________________________________

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What programs of Long’s sound similar to the New Deal and which differ? Same:____________

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Different:____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

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Document 7


This cartoon appeared in May of 1933, soon after FDR’s first inaugural.
To whom is FDR being compared? _________________________________________________
How does he differ from those to whom is being compared? _____________________________

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Is this cartoon complementary or critical? Explain. ____________________________________

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Part B
The question we need to answer is:
Why did people object to the New Deal and FDR?


I. Name one group or individual who objected to the New Deal: _________________________

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Why did they object? ____________________________________________________________

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Supply a quote from a document to support the reason for objecting. ______________________

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II. Name another group or individual who objected to the New Deal: ______________________

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Why did they object? ____________________________________________________________

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Supply a quote from a document to support the reason for objecting. ______________________

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III. Name another group or individual who objected to the New Deal: _____________________

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Why did they object? ____________________________________________________________

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Supply a quote from a document to support the reason for objecting. ______________________

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IV. Summarize briefly why people objected to the New Deal and FDR. ____________________

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Using this information and your knowledge of the 1930s, write an essay answering the question:
Why did people object to the New Deal and FDR?


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