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  1. In Europe during the Middle Ages, increases in trade and commerce resulted in

1. lower living standards for industrial workers.
2. decreased economic rivalry between kings.
3. increased political power for the clergy.
4. development of towns and cities

  1. An important long-term result of the Crusades in the Middle East was the

  1. increased tension between Muslims and Christians.

  2. destruction of Muslim military power.

  3. creation of a large Christian state on the Red Sea.

  4. restoration of the Byzantine Empire.

  1. In Europe, the Crusades resulted in

  1. a greater isolation of the region from the world.

  2. an increased demand for goods from the Middle East and Asia.

  3. the adoption of Islam as the official religion of many European nations.

  4. the strengthening of the feudal system.

4. In English history, the Magna Carta (1215), the Petition of Rights (1628), and the Bill of Rights (1689) all reinforced the concept of

1. a limited monarchy.

2. religious toleration.
3. a laissez-faire economy.
4. universal suffrage

5. According to the theory of mercantilism, colonies should be

1. acquired as markets and sources of raw materials.
2. considered an economic burden for the colonial power.
3. granted independence as soon as possible.
4. encouraged to develop their own industries.

6. A major effect of the decline of the Roman Empire was that Western Europe

1. came under the control of the Muslims.
2. was absorbed by the Byzantine Empire.
3. returned to a republican form of government.
4. entered a period of chaos and disorder.

7. Buildings such as the Gothic cathedrals in Western Europe and the Parthenon in ancient Greece reflect each society's

1. imperialist attitudes.
2. cultural values.
3. belief in democracy.
4. rigid social structure

8. In some parts of Europe, trade declined, barter replaced money, and there was no strong central government. Constant invasions caused people to concentrate on survival.

Which historical period is described in this quotation?

  1. Age of Exploration

  2. Reformation

  3. Early Middle Ages

  4. Pax Romana

9. In Europe during the Middle Ages, increases in trade and commerce resulted in

  1. lower living standards for industrial workers

  2. decreased economic rivalry between kings

  3. increased political power for the clergy

  4. development of towns and cities

10. During the Middle Ages, Europeans did not eat potatoes or corn because these vegetables

  1. were forbidden by the Catholic Church for religious reasons

  2. had not yet been introduced to Europe from the New World

  3. were believed to be poisonous

  4. were too expensive to import from China

11. “All things were under its domain...its power was such that no one could hope to escape its scrutiny.”

Which European institution during the Middle Ages is best described by this statement?


the Guild




the Church


the nation-state

12. The Middle Ages in Western Europe was characterized by


the manor system and the importance of land ownership


absolute monarchies and strong central governments


decreased emphasis on religion in daily life


extensive trade with Asia and the Middle East

13. Feudal societies are generally characterized by


an emphasis on social order


a representative government


many economic opportunities


the protection of political rights

14. The art, music, and philosophy of the medieval period in Europe generally dealt with


human scientific achievements


religious themes




classic Greek and Roman subjects

15. Which statement best describes the result of the Crusades?


Europeans maintained a lasting control over much of the Middle East


Islamic influence dominated Europe


Europeans developed tolerance of Non-Christian religions


trade between Europe and the Middle East was expanded

16. What were two indirect results of the Crusades?


trade and commerce increased and the feudal system was strengthened


trade and commerce declined and the feudal system was strengthened


trade and commerce increased and the feudal system was weakened


trade and commerce declined and the feudal system was weakened

17. In Europe during the Middle Ages, the force that provided unification and stability was the


central government in Rome


military alliance between France and Germany


federation of the craft guilds


Roman Catholic Church

18. Feudalism in Western Europe was similar to feudalism in Japan in that


power was based on class relationships


equality among the social classes


direct democracy



19. Which is a characteristic of a feudal society?


rapid social change


high literacy rate


industrial-based economy


rigid class structure

20. One important effect of the Crusades on Western Europe was that they


led to a decline in the importance of the church in Western Europe


furthered cultural diffusion throughout Western Europe


introduced the Industrial Revolution to Western Europe


ended the western European quest for an overseas empire

21. In European feudal society, an individual’s social status was generally determined by




education and training


individual abilities



22. Which economic system existed in Europe during the early Middle Ages?


free market







23. One major result of the Crusades was the


permanent occupation of the Holy Land by the Europeans


long-term decrease in European trade


conversion of most Muslims to Christianity


spread of Middle Eastern culture and technology to Europe

24. The growth of feudalism in Europe during the Middle Ages was primarily caused by the


rivalry between the colonial empires


suppression of internationalism


decline of the Roman Catholic Church


collapse of a strong central government

25. The Crusades have been called “history’s most successful failures.” Which statement best explains this expression?


The Crusades did not achieve their original goals, but they brought about many desirable changes in Europe.


Although the Crusaders captured the Holy Land, they were unable to bring about democratic reforms.


The Crusades helped bring about the fall of the Roman Empire


The Crusaders prevented the Turks from capturing Constantinople for many centuries

26. The Roman Catholic Church during the Middle Ages in Europe can best be described as a church that


favored separation from secular governments


avoided involvement in social and educational matters


was a strong force that divided many people


was a stabilizing influence during a period of weak central governments

27. A major goal of the Christian Church during the Crusades (1096–1291) was to


establish Christianity in western Europe


capture the Holy Land from Islamic rulers


unite warring Arab peoples


strengthen English dominance in the Arab world

28. The bubonic plague affected economic development in medieval times by
(1) encouraging the introduction of new types of crops

(2) causing production to decline and prices to rise

(3) sparking the ideas of socialism and reform

(4) destroying the guild system

29. Base your answers to questions 29 and 30 on the speakers’ statements below and on your knowledge of

social studies.

Speaker A: We must fight to keep control of Jerusalem in the hands of those who believe in Allah.

Speaker B: Come and battle while there is still time to protect the Holy Land where Christ walked.

Speaker C: We must go forth to heal the split between the churches.

Speaker D: An investment in ships and knights will yield control of profitable trade routes.
29. Which speaker expresses a Muslim perspective during the Crusades?
(1) A (3) C

(2) B (4) D

30. Which speaker is expressing an economic motive for the Crusades?
(1) A (3) C

(2) B (4) D

31. Which action is linked to the spread of the Black Death to Europe during the 14th century?
(1) trade with Asia

(2) conquest of Japan

(3) trade across the Sahara

(4) exploration of the Western Hemisphere

32. In Western Europe, feudalism developed after the
(1) Roman Empire collapsed

(2) Renaissance began

(3) city of Constantinople fell

(4) Mongols invaded

33. Letting some farmland remain unplanted as a means of increasing food production is most

closely associated with

(1) modern irrigation methods

(2) the three-field system

(3) the enclosure movement

(4) slash-and-burn agriculture

Base your answer to question 34 on the statements below and on your knowledge of social studies.
. . . For many in the contemporary Arab world, the Crusades are viewed as having begun nearly a millennium of conflict with what would become the West. The Crusades are seen as representing the constant threat of Western encroachment [trespassing]. But many scholars say that is a more recent and inaccurate view of the Crusades. . . .

— Mike Shuster, reporter, NPR

The Medieval Crusades were taken and then turned into something that they never really were in the first place. They were turned into a kind of a proto-imperialism, an attempt to bring the fruits of European civilization to the Middle East, when, in fact, during the Middle Ages the great sophisticated and wealthy power was the

Muslim world. Europe was the Third World. . . .

— Thomas Madden, St. Louis University All Things Considered, NPR - August 17, 2004

34 These statements indicate that the history of the


(1) has been neglected by experts

(2) was of little importance

(3) is the subject of debate and interpretation

(4) illustrates the importance of tolerance and understanding

Base your answer to question 35 on the table below and on your knowledge of social studies.

Population of the Largest Medieval Cities in 1250 and 1450

The 10 largest cities in 1250

1 Hangchow 320,000

2 Cairo 300,000

3 Fez 200,000

4 Kamakura 200,000

5 Pagan 180,000

6 Paris 160,000

7 Peking 140,000

8 Canton 140,000

9 Nanking 130,000

10 Marrakesh 125,000

The 10 largest cities in 1450

1 Peking 600,000

2 Vijayanagar 455,000

3 Cairo 380,000

4 Hangchow 250,000

5 Tabriz 200,000

6 Canton 175,000

7 Granada 165,000

8 Nanking 150,000

9 Paris 150,000

10 Kyoto 150,000
35 Which statement can best be supported by the information in this table?
(1) The population of Paris increased between 1250 and 1450.

(2) The populations of Cairo and Nanking were higher in 1250 than in 1450.

(3) The population of most large cities exceeded one million people in 1450.

(4) The population of Peking increased more than the population of Canton between 1250 and 1450.

36 Which circumstance best describes a long-term result of the Crusades?
(1) Muslim control of Jerusalem ended.

(2) Feudalism began in western Europe.

(3) Cultural exchanges between the Middle East and Europe grew.

(4) Christians and Muslims achieved a lasting peace.

37 Which document limited the power of the English monarchy during the Middle Ages?

(1) Magna Carta (3) Justinian Code

(2) Twelve Tables (4) Rig Veda

38 Both European medieval knights and Japanese samurai warriors pledged oaths of
(1) loyalty to their military leader

(2) devotion to their nation-state

(3) service to their church

(4) allegiance to their families

Base your answer to question 39 on the drawing below and on your knowledge of social studies.

A Typical Medieval Manor

39. What inference can be drawn from the location of the church in this drawing?

(1) The mill was managed by the church.

(2) Religion played a significant role in the lives of the residents.

(3) The church controlled trade within the manor.

(4) The church played a limited role in education.

40. Revival of trade in western Europe, decline of feudalism, revival of interest in learning, and cultural interaction with the Middle East are associated with the
(1) impact of the Crusades

(2) effects of the barter system

(3) growth of the Maya Empire

(4) rise of Charlemagne

41.The Magna Carta, the Petition of Right, and the English Bill of Rights were created to
(1) limit the power of English monarchs

(2) establish laws protecting the rights of Protestants

(3) organize England’s colonial empire

(4) abolish the role of Parliament

42. The Magna Carta can be described as a

(1) journal about English feudal society

(2) list of feudal rights that limited the power of the English monarchy

(3) census of all tax-paying nobility in feudal England

(4) statement of grievances of the middle class in England

Base your answers to questions 43 and 44 on the illustration below and on your knowledge of social studies.

43. The illustration represents a society based on
(1) social class

(2) educational achievement

(3) accumulated wealth

(4) political ability

44. This illustration suggests that the European feudal system was
(1) designed to promote political and economic equality

(2) controlled by a powerful middle class

(3) intended to provide opportunities for social mobility

(4) supported by the labor of the peasants

Base your answer to question 45 on the graph below and on your knowledge of social studies.

45. The principal cause of the trend in England shown in the graph was

(1) famine (3) immigration

(2) disease (4) a lower birthrate

46. Which heading would be best for the partial outline below?

  1. _____________________________

A. Desire to be released from feudal obligations

B. Defense of the Holy Land

C. Forgiveness of sins

D. Desire for wealth from the Middle East
1) Reasons for the Reformation

(2) European Motives for Fighting the Crusades

(3) Causes of the fall of the Roman Empire

(4) Reasons for the Split between the Eastern and Western Churches

Answer the first question above as # 47 and the second question for # 48

Answers> 47- 4

48 - 1

49. Which geographic theme is the focus of this map?

(1) Regions: How They Form and Change

(2) Movement: Humans Interacting on Earth

(3) Location: Position on the Earth’s Surface

(4) Place: Physical and Human Characteristics

50. The map shows that the Black Death

(1) began in England and Ireland and then spread eastward

(2) spread slowly over several decades

(3) affected most areas of western Europe

(4) was most severe in Italy

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