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Earth Science

Chapter 1.3 Introduction to Mapping

Part 1: Notes

Globes are often displayed in classrooms or your home. They are realistic representations of the Earth’s surface and show the surface features such as continents and ocean basins of correct relative _________, __________, and ___________________. Globes are therefore considered an ______________ (although shrunken) version of the Earth.

We locate positions on the Earth using a global grid where lines parallel to the ______________ are called lines of ___________________ and lines perpendicular to the equator are called lines of ______________________. Lines of latitude measure in degrees from _____ to _____ (both North and South) and lines of longitude measure in degrees from ____ to ______ (both East and West). To report a location, you need to designate both the lines of ________________ and _______________. Reporting locations using the global grid is like reporting points on a graph by using x and y coordinates.

A map is constructed from the information on a globe. The name of the map type depends on how the information from the globe is projected from the globe to a map. Hence, map types are called map _______________. We will learn about 4 types of map projections: _______________, _______________, __________, and _______________. Though every map is _______________ in some way, each of these projections is designed to present certain information in the best possible way.

Before we describe each map projection, there are certain things you should look for on any map (and globe). They should have a ____________ which gives orientation according to the heading (north/south/east/west); a ___________ which relates sizes on the map to actual sizes; and a _______ to identify any ___________.

A _______________ projection is named after a mapmaker named Gerardus Mercator. He created a map to help sailors navigate the Earth (see pg 12, figure 10). The map is rectangular in shape with ______________ lines of latitude and ______________ lines of longitude that are parallel to each other. Because the Earth’s ________________________ is largest at the equator and decreases towards the poles, by creating a rectangular map, you really stretch the __________ and _______ of objects with the distortion increasing as you move from the equator towards the poles. However, this map is still useful because it shows ___________________ correctly.

A _________________ projection is a modified Mercator projection. (see pg 13, figure 11) The lines of latitude are still parallel to each other but the lines of longitude are closer together towards the poles giving it a ____________ look. This helps to ____________ the distortion seen in the Mercator projection but does not completely eliminate it.

A ____________ projection is used for road and weather maps and displays a smaller area of the Earth. (see pg 13, figure 11) There is one line of latitude which the projection is based on where there will be almost no _______________. The further you move from this line of latitude on the map, the more distortion.

A ____________ projection can give accurate distances and ________________. It is created by focusing on one point on the globe. (see pg 13, figure 13) They show the ______________ distance between two points with great _______________ .

Part 2: Appendix D United States Physical Map

Use pp. 744-745:

1. Write down the scale: ___________________________________________________________________

2. Record a few of the symbols on the map legend:

3. Locate the compass. Where is it ? (lower left/lower right/middle, etc.) Show what it looks like:

4. Find the map scale. Instead of listing the scale as a proportion like 1: 40,000, it shows two shaded bars. The top bar is in kilometers and the bottom is in miles. We will practice with scale more later, for now, is Cuba closer to 500 km in length or 500 miles?

5. Find the map legend (also called the map “key”). Use the symbols on the key to find the following:



a.) The Capital City: ________________________ b.) The Capital City of Kentucky: _________________

6. This is called a physical map because it shows the physical layout of the US symbolically. Still looking in the key, how does this map show you elevation?


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