Name of the war World War II falklands War



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Wars of the 20th Century



Name of the war

World War I

World War II

Falklands

War

Nicaraguan

War

Iran- Iraq War

Gulf War

Dates of the Conflict

1914-1918

September 1939- August 1945

Began Friday 02/04/82 with the Argentine invasion and occupation of the Falkland Islands along with south Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

Ended 14/06/82 with the Argentine surrender.



Nicaraguan War

1979-1990

•Civil war in Nicaragua between the FSLN (socialist ideologies) and The Contras (rebels

with capitalist ideologies and aided by the USA) both fighting for power and control




1980- 1988

August 2, 1990 – March 3, 1991

Countries involved

Major Nations: Germany, UK, USA(1917), Russia, Italy, France, Austria-Hungary, Britain colonies, Serbia, Belgium, Ottoman Empire, Romania

Albania, Algeria, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Britain, Borneo, Bulgaria, Burma, Canada, Ceylon, Chile, China, Congo, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Grenada, Gilbert Islands, Hong Kong, Hungary, India, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, Malaya, Malta, Marshall Islands, Morocco, Netherlands, New Guinea, Nicaragua, Norway, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sicily, Singapore, Soloman Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Soviet Union, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, United States, Vietnam, Yugoslavia

United Kingdom and Argentina

Nicaragua, the USA and a couple of other Central American countries were involved


Iran and Iraq

Iraq and its supporters (Jordan, Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization)

Kuwait and the United Nations (US, Saudi Arabia, Great Britain, France, Holland, Egypt, Syria, Oman, Qatar, Bahrain, UAE, Israel, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Canada, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Honduras, Italy, Niger, Romania, South Korea)



Causes:

1-Long term

2-Short Term

3-Trigger (?)

Nationalism, Colonisation, the arms race and the naval race., Imperialism, The assassination of Arch Duke Ferdinand, The alliance system,

- Treaty of Versailles left many issues unsolved after WWI: Germany was forced to accept guilt for the war, demilitarization, lost many land and colonial empire, and was forced to pay major reparations to the Allies, which made them very furious

-The old austro-hungarian and ottoman empires were broken up into smaller states and self determination that was set up in the Treaty of Versailles failed


- League of Nations: set up for all countries to achieve world peace by using negotiation, not war but it failed.

- Some countries like Germany and Russia were not allowed in the League when it was created, causing tensions.

- It had little power, and did not enforce the disarmaments of Treaty of Versailles so Italy, Germany, and Japan began building up armies.

- It didn’t have any power when Japan invaded Manchuria for raw materials and consumers for trade.

- It also didn’t stop Italy from invading Abyssinia

- It was inefficient because it was slow to act and call meetings


Domestic Civil Conflict in Germany: Weimar Republic very weak, and there were many internal groups, including the rising Nazis that were conflicting for power
Fascism: Germany and Italy were weak from the depression and WWI and dictators, Mussolini in Italy, and Hitler in Germany, took control of countries

- It made their government super powerful and they called for territorial expansion into neighboring countries


Great Depression

- caused anger and unemployment in Europe, especially in Germany, France and England because Germany couldn’t pay them their WWI reparations

- weakened Britain and France against Hitler’s rise

- Hitler used Depression in Germany to his advantage to get into office and become chancellor because he promised a brighter future for Germany


Short Term Cause

Hitler's Rearmament rally, 1935
• Treaty of Versailles broken
Beginning of Rearmament race
• Opposing nations of Germany divided

The Remilitarisation of the Rhineland, 1936
• Treaty of Versailles broken
• First successful military action by Hitler
• France lost the opportunity to stop Hitler.

The Anschluss, 1938
• Treaty of Versailles broken
• First time Hitler had annexed land outside Germany
• The beginning of Mussolini's support for Hitler
• First time Chamberlain appeased Hitler because Austria was 'too far away to help'.

Sudetenland and The Munich Agreement, 1938
• Was the first time Hitler took land that was not simply redressing the Treaty of Versailles
• Convinced Hitler that Chamberlain and Daladier could be bullied and compared them to worms.
• Convinced Stalin that C and D would not stand up to Hitler and led to make Nazi-Soviet Pact

The invasion of Czechoslovakia, 1939

• First time Hitler had massacred non-German people- showed he wanted world revolution.
• Britain outraged- trigger of war.


The Polish Guarantee, 1939

• End of appeasement - a 'non-negotiable' which provoked war
• Caused Britain to declare war on 3 September 1939.

Trigger: The Nazi-Soviet Pact, 1939

• Hitler decides to invade Poland and triggers Britain to stop him by war.

Soon all major participants follow into war





1. Dispute over ownership of the Islands between Spain, France, the United Kingdom and The United provinces of the Riverplate (now Argentina) since British occupation in 1764.

2. In the 1970s there had been a string of dictators who had left the country with economic and human rights issues. President Galtieri felt that a speedy take over of the Falklands would gain public support for the government.

3. Argentina invasion and occupation of the Falklands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.


) Long Term – the population’s opposition to the capitalist Somoza dictatorship

(dictatorship supported by the National Guard and the USA) 2) Short Term - the fall of

the dictator creates tensions for power between the two groups 3) Trigger – the FSLN

seizes power in 1979 and The Contras rebel

(Some of the population did not like having a capitalist dictatorship but would prefer it to

the socialist FSLN, others were for the FSLN)




Long: The rivalry between the two countries over the border.

Short: Iranian revolution

Trigger: Sudan Hussein invaded Iran to get their land and the area that makes their oil.

Long term– Kuwait was considered to be a part of Iraq since 1961 and conflicts had begun arising since then. The failure of the Iraq-Iran war also played a major reason that allowed a second war to commence as one side was dissatisfied with the consequences.

Short term- Rich deposits of oil reserves in Kuwait, not to mention expanding their land

Trigger-The invasion of Kuwait from Iraq, lead by Hussein

Additional reasons

-Iraq wanted Kuwait to forgive the $13 billion lent to them during the Iran-Iraq war but Kuwait disagreed, raising conflicts

-Iraq claimed that oil reserves were poached by Kuwait, Kuwait claiming to have taken oil from their own land



Main Battles

Alsace-Lorraine, The battle of Marne, The battle of Ypres, the battle of Somme, the battle of Cambrai, The battle of Verdun

Atlantic September 1939 - May 1945
-Longest Battle of World War II
Germany lost 50,000 Naval Officers
-Allies lost 50,000

Berlin April 16 - May 2, 1945

-Germany lost 200,000 killed and over 200,000 civilians killed.
-Soviet Union lost 600,000 men killed and wounded.

Britain July 10 - October 31, 1940

-Largest Air Battle in History.
-Germany loses 3,000 Pilots
-England loses 1,800 Pilots as well as 20,000 British Civilians are killed.

Kursk July 5 - August 23, 1943
-Germany launches its 3rd Summer Offensive against the Russians and its last.
-The largest Tank Battle ever fought in History.
-Germany lost 100,000 killed/wounded/captured and Soviet Union lost 250,000 killed and 600,000 wounded and the destruction of 50% of their tanks.

Midway June 3-6, 1942

-The Greatest Air Craft Carrier Battle in History.
-Japan lost 3,500 Sailors and USA loses 500.

Normandy (including D-Day) June 6 - August 25, 1944
-Invasion of Western Europe by the Allied forces.
-Germany lost 216,000 men killed/wounded/captured.
-Allies lost 209,000 killed/wounded/captured.

Stalingrad August 21, 1942 - February 2, 1943
-The Bloodiest battle ever fought in history.
-Germany lost 300,000 killed/wounded/captured and Soviet Union lost 1,200,000 killed.


The Falklands conflict was a series of small battles, some of the most notable ones being: The Battle of Mount Harriet, The Battle of Mount Longdon, The Battle of Wireless Ridge, The Battle of Mount Tumbledown and the Battle of Two Sisters.

Mostly guerrilla warfare on both parts


Imposed war, holy defenses it is part of the cold war and the Persian gulf conflicts

Only one battle took place. As the Iraqi’s refused to withdraw from Kuwait, the Allies began bombing the military and infrastructures of Iraq, hoping to weaken their abilities to start a war. The Iraqi forces responded aggressively by devastating some cities in Israel and Saudi Arabia, hoping to provoke them to get involved in the war. Nevertheless, due to the pledge of president Bush that the US would take care all the chaos, Israel refrained themselves from retaliating. The air forces of the Allied nations had done enough damage to end the war before ground troops were to be utilized.

Treaties that ended

the war and terms

of the agreements

The treaty of versaille lead to the The League of Nations

Yalta Conference - February 1945:

- Germany not defeated so Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill agreed to split Germany into four zones of occupation

- allowed free elections in Eastern European countries

- Russia agreed to join them in war against Japan when Germany was defeated



Potsdam Conference: July - August 1945
- American President Truman, Soviet Premier Stalin, British Prime Ministers Churchill and Atlee met after Germany defeated
-The terms of Japan's surrender were agreed

-the Council of Foreign Ministers made up peace treaties

-Poland's borders discussed

-Germany's disarmament and reparations decided



Anglo-Soviet Treaty: 26 May 1942
-British Foreign Secretary Sir Anthony Eden
-Soviet Foreign Secretary Vyacheslav Molotov.
- A treaty between Britain and the Soviet Union, specifying that neither country could make peace with Germany or its allies without the consent of the other.

Paris Peace Treaties, 1947
-President Truman
-Soviet Premier Stalin
-British Prime Ministers Churchill and Atlee
- Allowed Italy, Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Finland to reassume their responsibilities as sovereign states in international affairs and to qualify for membership in the United Nations.

Signed agreement between Argentina and the United Kingdom that returned the Islands to the United Kingdom and left everything as it was before the conflict.

The Central American Peace Plan (Peace Treaty 1988) ended the war on the

condition that Nicaragua improved its human rights, standards of living, etc…




The treaties that ended the war was the united nations security council resolution 598. It was created unanimously on july 20th 1987.

Firstly, Iraq had to accept the “no fly zone” imposition which prohibited aircrafts in Iraq from flying in their area of land to prevent possible bombing attacks against Kuwait.

Secondly, the UN established a five member boundary commission that encouraged the inviolability of the Kuwait-Iraq borders. It also decided to give six oil reserves and a part of the Iraqi’s naval base in Umm Qasr. However, Iraq continued to disapprove of these modifications and continued to claim Kuwait as a part of Iraq until 1992 when physical demarcation took place between their boundaries.



Results:

1-Long term

2-Short term

Germany split and regions were given to other major nations

-Germany were forced to pay reparations

-Germany couldn’t force the youth to conscribe to the army


Short term results

-Severe rationing of food in Britain continued

for up to 5 years after the war

-First time people were tried and punished for criminal attempt to wage war and crime against humanity

-The rise of socialism in Democratic Europe: Direct result of all classes fighting together during the war

Long term results

Germany split into two parts, one communist (part of the Soviet Union), one capitalist(part of USA).

-USA and other Allied countries gained superpower.

-Split of Europe into Democratic West and Communist East

-Rise of Communist China, due to destruction of Japanese Empire- which lead to Korean war

-Decline of British Empire; Rise of America as main industrial nation of world

-Turning of Japan from a military power to and economic power

-The UN was created, thereby setting an International Government to bond the nations.

-Japan suffered a major outbreak of leukemia due to the radiation released by the bomb.


1. After 8 years diplomatic relations between Argentina and the United Kingdom resumed and the naval exclusion zone around the Falkland’s and other islands was lifted.

2. The Argentine regime was overthrown and the government held democratic elections shortly after the war ended.




: 1) Changes in the economy: land is redistributed 2) Cultural Revolution:

Ministry of Culture, literacy campaigns 3) Democracy and elections 4) Loss of lives,

homes, and cities


It affected the scientific and technological advancement of both countries. In Iraq its scientific and technological productivity collapsed but in and is still not recovered in Iran experienced a scientific revival and has the fastest scientific growth rate in the world today because of the war.

After the war the oil production in both countries were damaged in air raids. Iran has yet to fully recover.



Short -Economic and trade sanctions ensued, resulting to thousands of deaths from famine and poverty in Iraq.

Long –Iraq slowly became isolated from other Arab nations.

Even Yemen was put through hardships by Saudi Arabia when they had expressed sympathy for Iraq, which lead to the Saudi-Yemen border conflict


Historiography:

different

interpretations

-In spite of the horror and bloodshed, the First World War inspired powerful and beautiful art and literature. (F. Scott Fitzgerald, 'This Side of Paradise)

- “the conflict stretched to all corners of the earth(stevenson)

-German aggression caused the war(niall Ferguson, The Pity of War)


- all famous historians all agree that Germany was the leading country and Hitler’s actions precipitated the war
Henri Amouroux: French historian accounting the occupation of France under German rule

- didn’t judge, but observed the motives and detail of the occupation of the Germans

- accused for being too soft on the Germans and Vichy government
Robert Paxton: French historian, specialized in Vichy France-the government of France that collaborated with the Axis Powers (Germany, Italy, Japanese) from July 1940 to August 1944, and fascism

-argued that France voluntarily entered into collaboration government with them, not German forced


Paul Carell: German historian

- wrote: Hitler Moves East and Scorched Earth

- leading post-war chronicler of the German side of World War II on the Eastern Front through mid-1944

- biased towards Germans and doesn't mention German crimes, or unpleasant truths


Daniel Jodah Goldhagen:American historian, wrote Hitler’s Willing Executioners

-sparked much controversy because claimed that Germans citizens willingly killed Jews in the holocaust because it was part of their national identity

-said that anti-Semitism was part of their beliefs


The British and the Argentineans fought the Falkland’s war because they both thought that they should own the Island’s. These are the different perspectives why they thought the Falklands should be theirs:
Argentinean Perspective:

Argentinean historian Maria Laura San Martino de Dromi has maps from as early as 1522 showing that the “Malvinas” (Spanish for Falkland Islands) were part of the Argentinean nation. There are also documents that from 1522 that state that the Spanish explorer Magellan was the first to have sighted the Islands. This is why the Argentines have a strong claim to the Islands.


British Perspective:

British historians Simon Jenkins and Max Hastings claim in their book The Battle of the Falklands that the British were the first to claim the Islands when in 1690 the English captain John Strong allegedly landed in the Falklands and claimed the land under the rule of the king. For this reason the British claim the islands as theirs.



There are different interpretations of this war depending on whether you are pro left-wing

or pro right-wing but it is undeniable that both the FSLN and The Contras completely

disregarded human rights during warfare (rape, torture, murder…).


On different websites it says who started it is different some blame Iraq some blame Iran.

Historian Joseph S. Nye Jr

“If Kuwait exported broccoli, we wouldn’t be there now”. Historian Joseph Nye Believed that oil was one of the possible aspects of why the US had sent troops to the Persian Gulf. Oil provided 40% of energy in the US, with 45% being imported, of which a quarter comes from the Persian Gulf. The physical effects of losing access to oil in the Persian Gulf did not seem much of a threat, however, looking at it over the long run, problems could entail with difficulties purchasing petroleum in the future.

Another reason why the US had sent half a million soldiers to the Persian Gulf was to ensure security over the globe. The spread of nuclear technology of mass destruction became a threat to world peace as such weapons could possibly fall into the hands of terrorists who were antagonistic to the US.

Richard Falk

In response to the aggression of Iraq, president Bush was reliant on the term “new world order”, which referred to the idea that most of the world’s political thought came into unison with the UN’s security council, pinpointing the violations of law that Iraq had gone against when invading Kuwait.


Authors


Niall Ferguson, Siegfried Sassoon

Anne Frank: Diary of a Young Girl by Anne Frank

- a diary written by a teenage Jewish girl living and hiding in Germany from the Nazi’s during the Holocaust

- depicts life of a Jewish family living in the Holocaust

I Could Never Be So Lucky Again: An Autobiography of James H. Jimmy Doolittle by James Doolitle


-autobiography about an air warrior of WW2

- he lead the Japan air raids, a true American hero


I Was Hitler's Chaffeur: The Memoir of Erich Kempka by Erich Kempka
- memoir of the man who was Erich Hitler's personal driver from 1934 through to the Führer's dramatic suicide in 1945.

-eyewitness memoir of what happened first hand with Hitler leading up to and during the war until the day he committed suicide





Max Hastings and Simon Jenkins. Maria Laura San Martino de Dromi




  • troops, 1982 Iraqi. "Iran-Iraq War." Tripod | Create a Website or Blog with Online Hosting. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Aug. 2011.

time, this. "Iran–Iraq War - eNotes.com Reference." eNotes - Literature Study Guides, Lesson Plans, and More.. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Aug. 2011. .

Roger A. Lee

Also known as The History Guy, Roger Lee holds several degrees in history, art and political science. He owns a private website called “The History Guy” held for educational purposes since 1997.

He is currently the Assistant Principal at Auburn Senior High School in Washington.
Joseph S. Nye

Joseph S. Nye earned his Ph. D degree in Harvard University and joined the Harvard Faculty in 1964. He has worked in three government agencies, and has worked in many different fields traveling to more than 90 countries.


Richard Falk

A professor of Princeton University, he had recently published a book called The Great Terror War, considering the American response to the 9/11 Terrorism. He describes himself as an American-Jewish, and is an author of many books.



Thesis (causes,

country of origin)


World War One was a war fought between the Central Powers and the Allies from 1914 to 1918.

Due to resentments Germany held against France and Britain after its harsh punishments from the Treaty of Versailles after World War I, the rise of fascism as Hitler’s seized power in Germany, the fragile economic conditions and lack of willingness to begin another war in Britain and France caused by WWI and the Great Depression, and finally, Hitler’s unopposed path in attempting his European conquest, World War Two erupted in 1939 in Europe. It was the most destructive and traumatizing war the world has ever seen on economic, social, and political levels, and forever changed global interactions.

The Falkland’s War was a limited, short war fought between the United Kingdom and Argentina over ownership of the British Falkland’s islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. The Argentineans wanted to gain back the British colonial Islands just off the coast of Argentina but the British were very serious about keeping them. The result of this was a 74day war where Argentina was defeated and the United Kingdom showed it had complete ownership over the islands.

Nicaragua plunged into a civil war in 1979 because the FSLN was ruthless in

seizing and trying to maintain its power to reform the government and The Contras were

just as terrible when rebelling against them to make sure that capitalism survived in

Nicaragua.




The imposed war or the Iraq-Iran war started because of the rivalry between the two countries, the Iranian revolution and finally Sudan Hussein invading Iran and ended because of the treaties by the UN.

Triggered by past discords among the two nations, Iraq re-attempted to annex Kuwait but were soon faced with defeat as the UN got involved into resolving the dispute; with Iraq having to dig its own grave slowly becoming isolated from their neighbors and suffering from famine.

Evaluation:

Characteristics of

the war (global,

total, etc.) provide

definition

The war should have started out as a limited war but it escalated to a total war.

- total war for the main participants:

-Total war is the type of war where almost every resource of a country are utilized, the whole population is mobilized, and the entire economy is used to fully destroy the enemy.



The Falkland’s war is classified as a limited war because of the fact that only a limited amount of resources were used by the sides and the fighting was restricted to the Falkland’s and South Sandwich islands and South Georgia. Only a limited degree of mobilization was used.




It is often compared to world war 1 and it effected the economy greatly. Used trench war fare, chemical gases, human wave attacks. The UN rule saying do not use chemical gases was caused because of this war. Affected the oil sent around the world

The Gulf War was an easy win to the Allied forces. Before the UN ground troops were to be used in the battlefields, the air forces had implied enough damage to the Iraqi’s for them to surrender. As the UN nations had assembled into a union of more than 20 nations, it is feasible to suggest it as a global war. Although not every single one of the UN nations had provided troops,


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