Name: Introduction to wwii: 1939-1945



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Introduction to WWII: 1939-1945

Objective

Following the lesson, SWBAT…



Rise of dictatorships:

Dictatorship:

After ___________________________________ Russia became 1st Communist state (Soviet Union)



_____________________ established a brutal totalitarian dictatorship

New political parties like the Italian fascists and German National Socialists (Nazis) took advantage

In ________________, Benito Mussolini developed the Fascist party

Nazi leader ____________________ established dictatorship in Germany



The United States

Isolationism:

2 presidents during WWII:











Failure of the League of Nations

League of Nations too weak to resist new dictators

Idea of collective security:



  • Failed when U.S. & USSR did not join

  • Germany/Japan left League of Nations in _____________

Appeasement Fails: _______________________________

Appeasement:

Hitler:


  • Annexed Austria in 1938

  • Demanded Sudetenland (_____________________________________________________________)

1938- ______________________________ – British and French leaders (w/o consulting Czechs) agree to give Hitler part of Czechoslovakia to avoid war

German invasion of Poland

America preserves a cautious neutrality

  • _________________________________ (1935-1937): prohibited Americans from traveling on the ships of nations at war & were prohibited from selling arms to countries at war

  • Americas could sell non-military goods to Britain and other nations opposed to aggression, but on a “______________________________” basis

  • FDR delivered his ________________________________________________: told America that peaceful nations need to stick together to quarantine aggressive nations

American Actions

  • Group of American volunteer fighter pilots, known as _______________________________ were recruited to send supplies & engage in combat with Japanese pilots

    • Destroyed almost 300 Japanese aircraft

  • FDR ran for an unprecedented 3rd term

  • FDR proposed ______________________________: allowing U.S. to sell, lease, or lend war materials to “any country whose defense the President deems vital to the defense of the U.S.”

  • Roosevelt encouraged a world based on “_______________________________”:

Freedom…

  • FDR met with British Prime Minister ___________________________________________, announcing that their countries sought no territorial gains, freedom of the seas, & an end to war

    • They signed the ______________________________ (laying foundation for United Nations)

Americans at War

The Home Front



Paying for the War

To raise money for war, the gov’t issued ____________________________________

Reduced the amount of currency in the economy

Illustrated high level of __________________________________ during the war – willingness of millions of Americans to help the war effort



Industrial Production and Rationing

  • Americans had to _____________________: regulating the amount of goods a consumer could obtain

________________________________ were issued to each family, based on the size. Rationed

essential goods like _________________________



  • Draft & industrial production brought an end to high unemployment from Great Depression



  • Americans planted ____________________________: vegetable gardens that helped to make sure there was an adequate foods supply for troops & civilians

The Office of War Information

  • 1942- President created the ____________________________________ created pro-Allied, anti-Axis propaganda to make citizens more aware

  • Required all movies produced during the war contribute in some way to war effort



  • OWI started the _____________________________ during the war, sending messages overseas

Women in the Work Force

  • Women joined _______________________________________: after training, women took clerical jobs in the military

  • Women filled jobs formerly held by men

  • Between 1941 and 1945, more than_______________________ women entered the work force

African Americans In WWII



  • More than _______________________registered for the draft

  • Forced to serve in segregated units



  • ___________________________: African-American fighter group in the Air Corps

  • Main job was to help on bombing missions

Native Americans In WWII

  • Native Americans enlisted for military service in higher proportions than any other minority group



  • More than ______________________ served in combat



Mexican Americans In WWII

  • Served in army & navy

  • However, continued to face segregated housing, high unemployment, and low wages

Forced Relocation of Japanese Americans

  • 1942- FDR issued ________________________________________: permitted military commanders to require Japanese Americans to relocate to interior internment camps away from Western coastal regions

  • Camps provided crowded and primitive living conditions

  • Forced Relocation of Japanese Americans

  • FDR justified it as military necessity

Korematsu vs. U.S.

  • Korematsu was a Japanese American convicted of continuing to remain in a restricted area

  • Supreme Court upheld FDR’s order on the grounds that

___________________________________________________________

  • 5 years later, Congress apologized to interned Japanese Americans and voted to pay compensation to the families involved


Increasing U.S.-Japanese Tensions

  • Japan occupied southern Indochina in 1941

  • _________________________________ responded by cutting off trade w/ Japan

Pearl Harbor: “A Date Which Will Live In Infamy”

  • On _________________________________ 2 waves of Japanese airplanes attacked the U.S. Pacific fleet stationed in ______________________ Hawaii

  • “_____________________________” ideas change nearly overnight

The U.S. Gets Involved in War

  • 4 days later, Germany & Italy (______________________________), declared war on U.S.

  • Americans were now engaged in a ______________________ war – ____________________________

The Bataan Death March, 1942

  • ______________________________ faced an invasion by Japanese after Pearl Harbor

  • 1 month later, U.S. and Philippine forces surrendered to Japanese

  • Japanese forced prisoners to undertake a 60 mile march through the jungle known as ____________________________________

  • About _____________________ of the Americans died along the way

The War Turns Against Japan

  • U.S. gained naval superiority over Japan by ___________________________________: liberating Pacific islands from Japanese control one island at a time

  • __________________________: Navajo language was used to speak in a language the Japanese could not decipher

  • __________________________: turning point of war in the Pacific

    • Japanese Pacific fleet commander devised a plan to lure the U.S. Pacific fleet into a battle near Midway (tiny Pacific island)

    • U.S. deciphered Japanese secret codes & knew about plan before the attack

  • U.S. Army in Pacific was under __________________________________

    • Americans took Philippines and Guam

  • Throughout war, _________________________ acted as Chief of Staff

    • Helped to supply army of 8 million men and oversee creation of the first atomic bomb

The Atomic Bomb

  • 1939- ______________________ sent a letter to FDR telling him Germany may be developing an atomic bomb

  • 1942- FDR sent American scientists to _____________________ to develop and explode the World’s 1st_____________________ (this is called _________________________) (1945)

  • Meanwhile… FDR who had been elected for the 4th time, died of a heart attack in April 1945, just before Germany surrendered (__________________________ becomes president)

Decision to Drop the Bomb

  • _________________________ feared an invasion of Japan would lead to a million American casualties

  • Truman wanted to use the _____________________________ against Japan rather than sustain high losses

  • __________________- atomic bomb exploded over ____________________. 3 days later, one explodes over _____________________

  • Japan surrendered shortly after

WWII In Europe

The War in Europe

  • Nazis were in control of most of Europe and North Africa

  • Invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941 & declared war on the U.S. before defeating Britain

The Campaign in Africa and Italy

  • 1942- Allied troops landed in North Africa

    • After defeating German forces, they crossed the Mediterranean and advanced into Italy in 1943

  • ________________________: one of the commanders to invade North Africa & Sicily

    • Popular due to high survival rates, but was harsh

Allies Invade France & Germany

  • June 6, 1944 – ________________:

    • troops under command of General _______________________ began invasion by landing at 5 beaches on the northwest coast of France at _________________________

  • thousands of Allied troops landed at the beaches of Normandy

The Allies Invade

  • After the landing, Allies move eastward liberating Paris in August 1944

  • Germans attacked Allies in _______________________ in December 1944

    • Large death toll

    • Major victory for the Allies

    • American, British, & French led invasion from the west, Soviets entered from the east

  • May 1945- Soviets captured Berlin

  • Hitler committed suicide and Germany surrendered

  • ______________________________: one of 1st African-American soldiers to see combat in the war

    • 52 years later, President Clinton finally awarded Baker highest praise – Medal of Honor

The Holocaust

  • ___________________: effort to murder an entire people or nationality

    • _____________________: Anti-Jewish sentiment

  • ________________________: attempted genocide of Jewish people during WWII

  • Hitler’s Final Solution: plan to rid Europe of Jewish people

      • Nazis also targeted minority groups, the disabled, homosexuals, etc.

  • Nazis built large concentration camps around Europe

    • 6 million Jewish people (2/3 of those living in Europe) were killed

    • 11 million people were killed in all

    • Liberation of Camps: Allies advanced into Germany and liberated concentration camps

Legacy of WWII

  • ________________________________________: Allies put surviving Nazi leaders on trial for “crimes against humanity” in Nuremberg, Germany

    • Most hanged or imprisoned

  • “_______________________________” and the division of Germany: After war, Germany divided into 4 zones by U.S., Britain, France, & Soviet Union, each occupying one zone

  • Occupation of Japan: ___________________________ assigned task of rebuilding Japan

    • Overseas empire taken away

    • Military leaders punished

    • Japan renounced use of nuclear weapons and waging war

    • Given new Constitution in 1947, establishing a democracy




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