Name: Essay: December 20 Unit 5: The Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment Directions



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Name:_________________________ Essay: December 20

Unit 5: The Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment
Directions: The following people, events, and terms have been provided as a guideline for which to take notes. Feel free to take notes in another manner if this does not work for you. I have not provided much space for each term as it is assumed that you will type the notes and you can expand upon each topic as much or as little as you wish.
Assignment #1: 484-485
What contributions did medieval scholars make to science?

What contributions did Renaissance scholars and artists make to science?

What role did technology and M=math play in the scientific revolution?

What is Hermeticism and why do some argue it made the scientific revolution possible?
Assignment #2: 485-493

Geocentric Conception



Nicolaus Copernicus





On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres




Heliocentric Conception




Tycho Brahe




Johannes Kepler




Three laws of planetary motion




Galileo Galilei





The Starry Messenger




Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems




How did Copernicus both change and maintain the Aristotelian-Ptolemaic view of the universe?

How did Brahe advance Copernicus’ ideas?

How did Kepler’s three laws of planetary motion change the universal conception forever?

What discoveries did Galileo make with his telescope?

What were Galileo’s experiences with the Church? How was he affected by this?

What were Galileo’s contributions to the idea of planetary motion?

Assignment #3: 493-495

Isaac Newton



Principia




World Machine




Three Laws of Motion




Universal Law of Gravitation




World Machine




What were Galileo’s contributions to the idea of planetary motion?

What work did Newton do with light and Math?

Why were Newton’s ideas of motion so important?
Assignment #4: 499-502

Rene Descartes



Discourse on Method




Cartesian Dualism




Rationalism




Scientific Method




Francis Bacon




Inductive reasoning




Deductive reasoning




Empiricism




How is Bacon’s method of inquiry different from that of Descartes?

How did Newton unite the two scientific methodologies?

Assignment #5: 502-505

Scientific Societies

-French Academy of Sciences



-Royal Society of England



Benedict de Spinoza




Ethics Demonstrated in the Geometrical Manner




Blaise Pascal




Pensées




What contributed to the spread of scientific ideas?

Why was the “new science” rapidly accepted in Europe?

How did natural philosophers try to bridge the growing gap between science and faith?
Assignment #6: 495-499

Galen




Galenic Functioning of the Body




Four Bodily Humors




Paracelsus




Macrocosm-Microcosm Analogy




“Like cures like”




Andreas Vesalius




On the Fabric of the Human Body




William Harvey




Robert Boyle




Boyle’s Law




Antoine Lavoisier




Margaret Cavendish




Maria Winkelmann




Why did Galen’s practices produce misconceptions?

How were Paracelsus’ ideas about chemistry different than those that came before?

How did Vesalius correct Galen’s mistakes?

What did Harvey discover and change about previous ideas on circulation?

What did Maria Winkelmann’s experience represent about women in general?

How did the Scientific Revolution actually hurt the position of women in society?
Assignment #7: 509-513

Enlightenment




Immanuel Kant




Bernard de Fontanelle




“Noble savage”




Cultural Relativism




John Locke




Tabula Rasa




Skepticism




Pierre Bayle




Historical and Critical Dictionary




Philosophes




Cosmopolitan




How did the thinkers of the enlightenment apply the ideas of the Scientific Revolution?

What was the importance of Fontanelle’s ideas?

How did Newton and Locke influence thought?

What similarities bound the philosophes together despite their background?
Assignment #8: 513-516

The Baron de Montesquieu




Spirit of Laws




Voltaire




Philosophic Letters




Treatise on Toleration




Deism




Denis Diderot




Encyclopedia




How would Montesquieu’s political philosophy impact future governments?

Why did Voltaire praise England?

How were the religious views of Voltaire and Diderot drastically different from other philosophers?
Assignment #9: 516-517

David Hume




Treatise on Human Nature




Physiocrats




Francois Quesnay




Laissez-faire




Adam Smith




Wealth of Nations




Economic Liberalism




Describe the three principals of natural economic law as stated by the physiocrats.

Explain Adam Smith’s economic ideals. How is he both similar to and different than the other physiocrats?
Assignment #10: 517-519

Paul d’Holbach




System of Nature




Marie-Jean de Condorcet




Progress of the Human Mind




Jean-Jacques Rousseu




The Social Contract




Emile




How did Holbach’s views on nature shape his spiritual beliefs?

What was ironic about Condorcet’s death?

How does Rousseau attempt to harmonize individual liberty with government authority?

What were Rousseau’s views on education and women?
Assignment #11: 519-522

Mary Astell




Mary Wollstonecraft




Vindication of the Rights of Women




Salon




Marie-Therese Geoffrin




What was the standard “scientific” belief about women by the 17th century?

What were two key arguments which supported a changing view of women during the Enlightenment?

Who was most affected by the Enlightenment?

What was the role of women in the salons of Paris?
Assignment #12: 522-528

Rococo




Antoine Watteau




Balthasar Neumann




Neoclassicism




Jacques-Louis David




Johann Sebastian Bach




George Frederick Handel




Franz Joseph Hadyn




Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart




High Culture




Popular culture




How did the Rococo style contrast with the Baroque movement which preceded it?

How was the Neoclassical style different from the Rococo?

What elements of the Baroque style do Bach and Handel demonstrate in their music?

How did the philosophes revolutionize the writing of history?

What important developments came about as a result of the growth of publishing and reading in the 18th century?

What changes in the field of education took place in the 18th century?


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