Name: Derek Age: 10



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Evaluation Report: Derek

Identifying Information


Name: Derek
Age: 10

Grade: 4


Reason for Referral
Derek has a history of school difficulties and repeated the third grade. He will enter fourth grade next fall. Derek’s teachers report inattention in class, as well as difficulty following instructions and staying engaged and on task for more than a few minutes. Derek seldom turns in completed homework. The Student Improvement Team has referred him for an evaluation to determine if he is eligible for special education services. He is able to do grade-level work in math, but is failing social studies and science. He currently is reading on a second-grade level
According to information provided by Derek’s third-grade teacher, Derek has an extremely difficult time completing independent assignments. Even when classroom accommodations are made (e.g., moving his seat closer to the teacher’s desk and providing one-on-one instruction and assistance), Derek’s attention drifted to the point that he was unable to maintain his concentration for more than a few minutes at a time.

History and Background Information


Derek’s mother and father attended an initial, prereferral conference. His mother briefly described Derek’s developmental history. She stated that Derek has a history of ear difficulties, including a ruptured eardrum. Derek’s mother is very concerned about her son’s continued difficulty staying focused and occasional hyperactivity.
Derek’s mother tries to assist him with his homework, but reports that he is easily distracted and directions need to be repeated often. Derek is argumentative with his parents at times, but they characterize him as being “pretty good” about managing his personal care (getting up, getting dressed, etc.). Derek’s everyday interactions with others are not a source of concern to his parents.
Derek’s parents report that his favorite subjects are math and science (even though he is getting failing grades in science) and his least favorite subjects are spelling and written language. Reading is “OK” in his view, as long as he is interested in the subject matter. Derek enjoys a variety of sports, including golf, soccer, football, lacrosse, and baseball. He is not on medication for behavior or attention control, but he does take medication (Seldane) for allergies.

Earle Knowlton

Developing Effective Individualized Education Programs: A Case-Based Tutorial, 2e
©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved. page 1 of 6

Derek’s parents are dismayed that repeating the third grade did not help their son catch up, and they are angry at the school district for this failure. They are fearful that his academic difficulties will intensify unless he receives a program of intensive, individualized instruction on a daily basis. They would like Derek to attend a special class for students with learning disabilities.



Test Results
A multifactored evaluation was completed to assess Derek’s skills in reading, written language, and spelling. At the time of the assessment, Derek’s chronological age was ten years and seven months. Derek’s overall grade equivalent score on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills was 3.0, and his full-scale intelligence quotient score was 95 (WISC-IV). The Conner’s Teaching Rating Scale indicated clinically significant elevations for the hyperactivity index and hyperactivity subscales, and the Conner’s Parent Rating Scale indicated clinically significant scores for the impulse-hyperactive, learning problems, anxiety, and hyperactivity index subscales.


WISC-IV







Verbal Comprehension Index

99

47%

Perceptual Comprehension Index

107

68%

Working Memory Index

90

25%

Processing Speed Index

95

37%

Full-Scale IQ

95

37%

Individual Subtest Scores










Subtest

Standard Score (Average = 10)

Similarities

8

Vocabulary

10

Comprehension

9

Block Design

11

Picture Concepts

11

Matrix Reasoning

10

Digit Span

7

Letter-Number Sequencing

7

Coding

8

Symbol Search

9

Earle Knowlton



Developing Effective Individualized Education Programs: A Case-Based Tutorial, 2e
©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved. page 2 of 6



Woodcock Reading Mastery Test
The Woodcock Reading Mastery Test is a broad-based assessment for reading that includes subtests on Word Identification, Word Attack, and Comprehension. The average standard score is 100 (50th percentile). Cluster scores are aggregates of specific subtests. For example, the Basic Skills Cluster combines Word Identification and Word Attack, while the Comprehension Cluster combines Word Comprehension and Passage Comprehension. The Total Reading Score combines all four subtests. Two scores are reported for Word Comprehension and Passage Comprehension, Reading Comprehension Cluster, and Total Reading Cluster. The top number is the score earned when the testing protocol was followed, meaning Derek read the items. The bottom number represents Derek’s scores when the items were read to him.
In the Word Identification subtest, Derek pronounced fifty-seven words correctly. When presented with a word that he did not know, Derek attempted to sound it out. For example, he said cleandor for calendar, curtain for certain, winded for wounded, college for cologne, and so forth. His scores indicate that his Word Identification skill is in the 11th percentile with a standard score of 82. This score is below average (50th percentile; standard score 100) for this assessment.
Table A.1 Derek’s Scores on Woodcock Reading Mastery Test

Subtest

Grade

Age Equivalent

Percentile

Standard Score




Equivalent










Word

3.4

8-6

11

82

Identification













Word Attack

1.6

6-10

2

69

Word

3.5

8-10

19

87

Comprehension

4.2

9-5

32

93

Passage

2.8

8-1

7

78

Comprehension

3.5

8-10

23

89

Basic Skills

*

*

6

76

Cluster













Reading Comp.

*

*

10

82

Cluster







24

89

Total Reading

*

*

6

77

Cluster







12

83

Derek’s performance in Word Attack was well below the expected (mean) performance for his age. He decoded ten words of the twenty-four that he attempted. Some substitutions included saying ilt for ift, fi for fay, oos for oss, wed for weat, bumfy for bufty, and verp for vunhip. His standard score of 69 (2nd percentile) places him over two standard deviations below the mean for this assessment.


Earle Knowlton

Developing Effective Individualized Education Programs: A Case-Based Tutorial, 2e
©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved. page 3 of 6

Derek’s Word Comprehension score, which is indicative of his ability to provide antonyms, synonyms, and analogies, was influenced by his significantly higher performance on analogies. He was able to provide correct responses to twelve antonyms (thirteen when read to him) and five synonyms (five when read to him). His standard score when protocol was followed is 87 (19th percentile), placing him slightly below average with his same age peers. When the items were read to him, however, Derek’s standard score improved to 93 (32nd percentile).


When the protocol was followed, Derek correctly answered twenty-nine of forty-four questions that he attempted on the Passage Comprehension section. When the items were read to him, he answered thirty-five of forty-four questions correctly. His standard score of 78 (7th percentile) obtained when the protocol was followed, places him below average compared with his same-age peers. Derek’s standard score increased to 89 (23rd percentile) when the material was read to him, continuing to place him below average compared with his same-age peers.
Examining Derek’s raw score performance and comparing that performance to the average performance of students his age provides another picture of his comparative capabilities. For instance, he identified fifty-seven sight words. Students at his age level identify an average of seventy-three words, approximately 28 percent more words. He decoded ten nonsense words correctly for the Word Attack portion of the test. Average students at his age identify thirty-one words, approximately three times as many. With respect to Passage Comprehension, he responded correctly to twenty-nine items. He would have needed a raw score of 41, or twelve more items correct, to have achieved an average score compared with his same-age peers.
Overall, it would appear that Derek’s reading skills range from below average to well below average across all domains. Derek’s lowest standard score, which is over two standard deviations from the mean, occurred on the Word Attack portion of the test. Derek used a phonetic decoding strategy when attempting to decode words in the Word Identification and Word Attack sections.
Test of Written Language
A subtest of the Test of Written Language-2 was used to assess Derek’s written language performance. This component consisted of providing him with a story starter in the form of a futuristic picture. His unedited story follows.
The space mam is warking on the moom the gue in the bull dosser and gasing to tray to mave durt at last to the other guy so he could buled a munton and thay to buld a citey so other peple can go up ther and maduy pupely can liabe on the moom.
His transcribed story, as he told it, is as follows:
The space man is working on the moon the guy in the bulldozer and giving to the tray to move dirt at last to the other guy so he could build a mountain and they to build a city so other people can go up there and maybe people can live on the moon.
Derek wrote fifty-three words and thirty-seven different words. His type-token ratio (different words/total words), which is used as one indication of vocabulary development, was .69. Ratios

Earle Knowlton

Developing Effective Individualized Education Programs: A Case-Based Tutorial, 2e
©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved. page 4 of 6

in the .6 range are generally considered to be an indication of an underdeveloped vocabulary repertoire. Derek misspelled twenty-three words, approximately 43 percent of the total number of words. Derek wrote with a cursive writing style.


An examination of Derek’s written language sample shows evidence of syntactical and spelling errors. It also shows low productivity (quantity of writing) based on his age. Derek’s written language selection would likely be judged underdeveloped for a student his age.

Test of Written Spelling
The Test of Written Spelling-3 (TWS-3) was used to assess Derek’s spelling performance. The mean standard score is 100; the mean percentile is 50. Based on the norms established by the TWS-3, Derek’s performance fell within the “well below average” range. The TWS-3 results obtained are presented in the matrix in Table A.2.

Table A.2 Test of Written Spelling-3 (TWS-3)



TWS-3

Raw Score

Standard Score

Percentile

Grade













Equivalent

Predictable

5

73

5

<.5

Words













Unpredictable

5

64

<1

.5

Words













Total Words

10

60

<1

<.5

These data support the conclusion that Derek’s total spelling performance falls well below the average score for students his age. Derek earned a raw score of 5 for Predictable Words. He would have needed a raw score of 27 to achieve an average score (standard score 100; 50th percentile). In essence, he would have needed to spell over five times as many words correctly to be at the mean. Derek earned a raw score of 5 for Unpredictable Words. He would have needed a score of 23 to achieve an average score (standard score 100; 50th percentile). Stated another way, he would have needed to spell approximately four and a half times as many words correctly to earn an average score. Based on Total Words, Derek’s score falls well over two standard deviations from the mean.

Summary and Recommendations
Derek is a fourth grade student with average ability who repeated third grade last year. He has difficulty paying attention and remaining focused on instruction and schoolwork. His reading, writing and spelling skills are significantly below grade level. There appears to be a significant discrepancy between Derek’s ability and his achievement in school. This discrepancy generally reflects a learning difference and Derek’s profile indicates he meets the criteria as a student with learning disabilities that would benefit from special education and related services. Additionally,

Earle Knowlton

Developing Effective Individualized Education Programs: A Case-Based Tutorial, 2e
©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved. page 5 of 6

consideration should be given to Derek’s attention problems and a program designed that teaches him to be an organized and strategic learner.


Earle Knowlton



Developing Effective Individualized Education Programs: A Case-Based Tutorial, 2e
©2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved. page 6 of 6


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