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Industrialization & Imperialism Test Study Guide
Directions: Answer these questions ON A SEPARATE SHEET OF PAPER using notes and handouts from class and/or Chapters 7&12 in your textbook. You will receive homework grades for completion of this assignment.
Identify characteristics of life in Britain BEFORE the Industrial Revolution.
Agriculture – farming
Work done by hand
Cottage Industry – work done in homes
Industrialization is a shift from an agricultural (farming) economy to one based on industry (manufacturing).
Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in Britain? List three reasons.
-Natural resources (iron, coal, rivers)
-New technologies and sources of energy
-Large population = labor supply
-Capital (money) from colonies
Identify three results of the Enclosure Movement.
-More land for crops
-Increases output (more crops) and profits
-Laborers forced off land – moved to cities to find work (urbanization)
What was the Cotton Gin?
Machine that easily separates cotton fibers from seeds
The cotton gin led to a demand for what?
Improvements by James Watt made steam the best source of power for machinery.
The invention of the train and expansion of railroads:
Increased/decreased (circle one) communication
Increased/decreased (circle one) trade
Increased/decreased (circle one) the demand for coal
Increased/decreased (circle one) the numbers of jobs
What is urbanization?
Movement of people to cities
The first factories developed in what industry?
Why were many factory workers women and children?
Women and children could be paid less
How did the assembly line benefit production – what was so good about it?
Made work faster, easier, and cheaper (mass production)
What were some of the poor working conditions faced by factory workers during the Industrial Revolution?
-No health or safety codes (dangerous)
Living Conditions in Factory Towns
What were some of the poor living conditions faced by factory workers during the Industrial Revolution?
-No running water
-No sewage or sanitation
-Tenement housing (cramped)
-No health or safety codes
What is a tenement?
Multi-family building with substandard conditions
Who lived in tenements?
Advocating for Change
What did labor unions work to achieve?
-Laws for better working conditions (more money, shorter hours, safety codes, an end to child labor)
What strategy did labor unions use to negotiate improved conditions for workers?
Why did Upton Sinclair write The Jungle?
-Troubles of the working class
-Corruption of the American meatpacking industry
What legislation (laws) were created as a result of The Jungle?
-Pure Food and Drug Act
-Meat Inspection Act
What are the principles of communism?
-Govt has total control & should distribute equally
-No classes (no rich and no poor)
-Society as a whole is important (not individual)
-No private property
Why did Karl Marx hate capitalism?
-Unfair – benefitted a few rich, but most people were poor
Effects of the Industrial Revolution
Identify two POSITIVE effects of the Industrial Revolution.
-New inventions (railroads, machines)
-New opportunities for women
-Growth of education
-Middle class (flexible social structure)
Identify two NEGATIVE effects of the Industrial Revolution.
-Rigid schedules, long hours
-Dangerous working conditions
-Imperialism (need for resources)
-Tenement housing and diseases
What is imperialism?
A stronger/advanced country takes control of a weaker/less developed country to exploit the resources
How did industrialization lead to imperialism?
A need for raw materials/resources and new trade markets
What is direct rule?
“Mother country” sends someone to rule the country – viceroy
What is indirect rule?
“Mother country” governs through local rulers
What is a sphere of influence?
Foreign power claims exclusive trading privileges but doesn’t govern
Identify the five motives for 19th Century imperialism.
What European country colonized India?
What was the Open Door Policy?
U.S. proposal to open China to trade
What was the goal of the Boxer Rebellion?
Kill/expel foreigners from China
What was the Meiji Restoration?
Japan’s modernization (social, political, economic/industrial)