Name Date Chapter 9 Summary: Manifest Destiny (1800-1850) ssush7



Download 34.03 Kb.
Date conversion15.05.2016
Size34.03 Kb.
Name __________________________________ Date ___________________
Chapter 9 Summary: Manifest Destiny (1800-1850)

SSUSH7: Students will explain the process of economic growth, its regional and national impact in the first half of the 19th century, and the different responses to it.

SSUSH7b. Describe the westward growth of the United States; include the emerging concept of Manifest Destiny.
Important Vocabulary Terms and Topics
Directions: Circle terms or topics you remember and write a statement to show your understanding.

Expansionists

Manifest Destiny

Santa Fe Trail

Oregon Trail

Mormons

Brigham Young

Treaty of Fort Laramie





Section 1: Migrating to the West

(Manifest Destiny: Americans moved west, energized by their belief in the rightful expansion of the United States from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean).


In the 1840s, many Americans came to believe that it was their right to expand the nation to the South and West. Expansionists in the United States wanted to take over New Mexico, Texas, and California and justified it by pointing to the weaknesses of the Mexican government and economy. The expansionists justified their view though the concept of Manifest Destiny and favored territorial growth or influence of a country. Writer John O’Sullivan gave voice to this view calling it the nation’s “manifest destiny” to expand from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. Others argued that it was God’s will for the United States to expand across the entire continent. So many people began to pick up stakes and move west in addition more and more pioneers headed west in wagon trains to Oregon and California. Some were attracted by land in abundance. Business owners hoped to establish trade with Asian nations. Another factor was the financial chaos caused by the Panic of 1837, which convinced many people to try their luck out west.
Settlers took many trails west. The daring young American trappers who hunted for beaver pelts in the Rockies were called Mountain Men. Most worked for two large fur companies, which provided their supplies. Trading with Mexico is sparked by the Mexican government interest in American manufactured goods. The Santa Fe Trail led from Independence, Missouri to Santa Fe, New Mexico. Traders (trading with Mexico) traveled to Santa Fe, where they sold cloth, guns, and knives and bought silver, gold, furs, horses, and mules. The Missionaries reach out for more land. The Oregon Trail stretched from Independence, Missouri to Portland, Oregon became more of a family or religious trail. By 1844, about 5,000 Americans had established farms in Oregon. They packed their families and everything they could carry onto covered wagons.

One group hoped to live apart from other settlers. Mormons were a religious group that had often been persecuted for their beliefs. After the death of their founder, Joseph Smith, Brigham Young, their leader, decided that the Mormons would be safest if they lived along. Starting in 1843 organized wagon trains roll westward. In 1847, thousands of Mormons settled near the Great Salt Lake in Utah territory. They shared water and timberland and build a thriving community around Salt Lake City, Utah. Brigham Young becomes the first governor of the Utah Territory serving for eight years and would serve as president of the Mormon Church for the next 30 years.



By 1830 hundreds of thousands or thousands settle in the Michigan Territory and the states of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. White settlers confronted Native Americans living on the lands they desired. One such confrontation resulted in the Black Hawk War in the early 1830s. The Native Americans were forced to move west. Gradually Native Americans give up their homelands in one treaty after another. By 1840 most Native Americans in the eastern states have resettled on reservations west of the Mississippi River, in what becomes known as Indian country. In 1851, the government signed the Fort Laramie Treaty with many Native American groups in which they gave up the territories away from the major trails in order for the federal government to protect migrants. The Native Americans retained the right to live on and use the Great Plains so they could continue their way of life in pursuing buffalo across the artificial boundaries. They also agreed to let settlers cross their country and to allow the government to build forts and roads.

UNITED STATES STUDY QUESTIONS


Based on information above (in summary) answer the following questions. You may also use book for more information relating to Chapter 9 section 1.
Ch. 9, Section 1


  1. What factors contributed to the move west?

People moved west because of abundant land, the ideology of Manifest Destiny, to seek trade with Asian nations and overcome the Panic of 1837.


  1. What was Manifest Destiny and how did it encourage people to settle the West?

It was the idea that the United States had a God-given right to control most or all of North American (from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean). It helped movtivate settlers to go west and justified U.S. expansion.


  1. Explain the difference in the Santa Fe Trail and the Oregon Trail?

The Santa Fe Trail led from Independence, Missouri to Santa Fe, New Mexico. Traders (trading with Mexico) traveled to Santa Fe, where they sold cloth, guns, and knives and bought silver, gold, furs, horses, and mules. The Missionaries reach out for more land. The Oregon Trail stretched from Independence, Missouri to Portland, Oregon became more of a family or religious trail. By 1844, about 5,000 Americans had established farms in Oregon.
4. Explain the cause and effect of the Black Hawk War.

White settlers confronted Native Americans living on the lands they desired. The Native Americans were forced to move west. Gradually Native Americans give up their homelands in one treaty after another. In 1851, the government signed the Fort Laramie Treaty with many Native American groups in which they gave up the territories away from the major trails in order for the federal government to protect migrants.
Name __________________________________ Date ___________________
Chapter 9 Summary: Manifest Destiny (1800-1850)

SSUSH8 The student will explain the relationship between growing north-south divisions and westward expansion.

SSUSH8d. Describe the war with Mexico and the Wilmot Proviso.
Important Vocabulary Terms and Topics
Directions: Circle terms or topics you remember and write a statement to show your understanding.


Stephen Austin

Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

Alamo

Lone Star Republic

Sam Houston

Annex

James K. Polk

“Fifty-Four Forty or Fight

Mexican-American War

Zachary Taylor

Bear Flag Republic

Winfield Scott





Section 2: Texas and the Mexican-American War

(Expansion in Texas: Mexico offered land grants to American settlers, but conflict developed over religion and other cultural differences, and the issue of slavery).
Texas, which was part of Mexico, had few settlers. Although the land was good for farming, people feared attacks by Native Americans. Hoping to improve its economy, Mexico loosened trade restrictions between its northernmost areas—present-day California, New Mexico, and Texas—and the United States. It also encouraged Americans to settle in Texas. Americans began to settle in Texas, looking for good farmlands in large portions.

In the early 1820s, many Americans settled in Texas. Called Anglos or American settlers), they soon outnumbered the Tejanos, or Mexican settlers. As the number of Anglos grew and the community thrived, many in the United States considered making Texas part of their country. Stephen F. Austin, an American emigrant, was a leader of the Anglo community that settled in the town of Austin. The Anglos had disagreements with the Mexican government. Mexico had banned slavery, but the Anglo settlers—many from the South—wanted to keep their slaves. The Anglo settlers had to also agree to become Mexican citizens, worship as Roman Catholics, and accept the Mexican Constitution, (which banned slavery). In 1830, Mexico banned Anglo (American settlers) immigration to Texas. When Austin convinced Mexican leaders to drop the ban, large numbers of Americans again streamed in.



While Austin tried to obtain great self-government for Texas, the Mexican leader, Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, overthrew the Mexican Constitution. In 1835, the Anglos (American settlers) settlement grew to about 30,000 which greatly outnumbered the native (Mexican-Tejanos) population. Austin encouraged those living in the southern region known as Texas to revolt against the Mexican dictator, General Santa Anna due to failed compromises with Santa Anna. So many Texans armed themselves against the Mexican government. They attacked Santa Anna’s troops in San Antonio. They fought a number of battles for independence. The Mexicans surrendered, but attacked the Texans two months later in the Battle of Alamo. As a result, Santa Anna led an army north and defeated a small garrison of Texans at the Alamo killing key leaders such as William Travis, James Bowie, and Davy Crockett. The Texans defeat at the Alamo did not stop Texan independence. They had considered themselves independent from Mexico renaming the territory the Lone Star Republic, because of the single star on its flag. On April 21, 1836, the capture of Santa Anna guaranteed Texan independence. A leader of this fight was Sam Houston, a recent immigrant from Tennessee. After winning the Battle of San Jacinto, Sam Houston and the Texans forced Santa Anna to sign a treaty granting them independence and recognizing the Republic of Texas. Once the leaders met and declared Texas’ independence citizens of Texas elected Sam Houston as their first President of the Republic of Texas, once called the Lone Star Republic. Texas was a republic for almost ten years and Texans wanted to join the United States (become annexed), but Northerners opposed the addition of another slave state to the Union. In 1845, after much debate, President Polk worked out a deal vowing to obtain both Texas and Oregon. A vote took place in Congress which approved annexation of Texas to the Union. Texas finally was annexed, or incorporated, into the United States as a slave state, with the Oregon Territory remaining a free area. This infuriated the Mexican government and Mexico then ended all of its relations with the United States.

President James K. Polk was determined to end the Texas dispute and obtain even more land from Mexico. He offered to buy Texas, California, and New Mexico, but Mexico did not accept. The tensions over the U.S. annexation of Texas led to war with Mexico, resulting in huge territorial gains for the United States. Mexico refused to accept the new borders of Texas. Polk decided to provoke a war. He order the soldiers to march from Texas to block the Rio-Grande—an area that Mexico claimed as its own. So Zachary Taylor led his troops to occupy the contested borderland between the Nueces River and Rio Grande River. While waiting for the inevitable conflict, Polk drafted a declaration of war. The debate in Congress was fierce. Many northerners disliked Polk’s actions, seeing them as an excuse to extend slavery. Southerners who opposed obtaining more Mexican land became supporters of Polk once extending slavery became part of the debate. Meanwhile, in May 1846, the Mexicans attacked American soldiers in Texas killing eleven. Polk asked Congress to declare war, which it did.

A United States force marched in Santa Fe, New Mexico, and seized the area without a shot. The troops then moved to California. American settlers there had already proclaimed their independence, declaring the Bear Flag Republic. When the U.S. troops and a naval force arrived, Mexican troops yielded. The main fighting took place in Mexico. General Zachary Taylor (Old Rough and Ready) captured Monterrey and won a victory against Santa Anna at Buena Vista. At the same time, General Winfield Scott (Old Fuss and Feathers) captured the port of Veracruz and then took Mexico City, the capital. In 1847, once Scott had captured Mexico City, the war would end a year later with an American victory.



The United States was not the only nations to claim ownership of Oregon—Great Britain did, too. In 1818 Britain and the United States agree to joint occupation of the region. The British were mainly interested in the area to provide beaver furs. When the demand for beaver decline, they yielded their claim in 1846. The United States threat of war for the territory with slogan “Fifty-Four Forty or Fight” was enough for Great Britain to give way to the territory.

UNITED STATES STUDY QUESTIONS


Based on information above (in summary) answer the following questions. You may also use book for more information relating to Chapter 9 section 2.
Ch. 9, Section 2


  1. Why did the Mexican government encourage Americans to settle in Texas?

Mexico wanted Americans to settle in Texas because they wanted protection of the territory from raids by hostile Native Americans and American horse thieves. Also, they thought this policy would encourage more to convert to Catholicism and be less of a threat to them.


  1. Why did the United States and Mexico come into conflict over Texas?

Conflict: Language differences (English vs. Spanish); Religious differences (most Americans were Protestant and did not adopt Roman Catholicism as agreed); Slavery (Americans continued slavery, though outlawed in Mexico); Americans wanted more freedom and government stability than Mexico was willing or able to offer.



  1. What occurred at the Alamo? What was its significance?

ALAMO:Santa Anna’s troops laid seige for 12 days; Mexican troops finally scaled the walls and killed nearly all Texan defenders. The significance (to the Texans):

The battle was most responsible for the TEXANS winning Texas its freedom from Mexico.


  1. Why did Texas’s request for annexation to the United States cause controversy?

Many Americans were at first reluctant to annex Texas because the Northerners opposed slavery; objected to the annexation of another slave territory; opposed the expansion of slavery; did not want slave state to outnumber the free states; many feared annexation would lead to war with Mexico.


  1. Why did Polk compromise with the British?

He knew that there would be war with Mexico over the annexation of Texas and did not want to fight another war with Britain over the Oregon Territory.
Section 3: War with Mexico
Important Vocabulary Terms and Topics

Directions: Circle terms or topics you remember and write a statement to show your understanding.

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

Gadsden Purchase

Wilmot Proviso

Forty-Niners

California Gold Rush

(Mexican-American War: The conflict over the border of Texas causes a war in which President Polk supports the Texans claim to land south and west of the Nueces River as far as the Rio Grande. The Mexican government was defeated by a well-trained American military).
Mexico lost almost four times as many soldiers as the United States. The Mexican-American War lasted for nearly two years, between 1846 and 1848, when Mexico yielded to American terms. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which ended the Mexican-American War in 1848, and also cost the Mexico its northern provinces. By adding to Texas the territories of present-day California, Nevada, Utah, New Mexico, most of Arizona, and parts of Colorado and Wyoming, and Texas, (all territorial parts were called the Mexican Cession) the United States grew by one-third recognizing the Rio Grande as the southern border of Texas. In the treaty, the United States paid $15 million to Mexico for the lands known as the Mexican Cession). Five years later the Mexican government sells parts of present-day southern New Mexico and Arizona to the United States for $10 million in the Gadsden Purchase. The acquisition of land caused additional tension in the country. Congress debated which areas could have slavery and which could not.

Previously, in 1846, Senator David Wilmot of Pennsylvania attempted to ban the spread of slavery into any lands acquired from Mexico by attaching an antislavery provision to funding for the Mexican-American War. Known as the Wilmot Proviso, it fueled the debate and division over slavery. Unsuccessfully, the proposal broke party unity and divided Congress. The Wilmot Proviso passed in the House of Representatives but failed in the Senate. Wilmot continued well into the 1850s to put forth legislation to prohibit slavery in western lands. Ultimately, the debate divided politicians, resulting in the formation of the Republican Party in 1854. Built on an antislavery platform, the Republican Party wanted the federal government to ban slavery from new territories. Abolition became the focus in the 1856 presidential election. Sectionalism will soon result in a country embroiled in a Civil War.



The new lands seemed too far away for most settlers, but that changed in 1848, the territory quickly brought wealth to the United States. In January 1848, gold was discovered in California. In the following years, a mass migration known as the California Gold Rush brought some 80,000 fortune-seekers to California. These thousands of prospectors—called “forty-niners”—came to California in search of gold during the great Gold Rush. In five years, California’s population grew from 14,000 to 225,000. These forty-niners led a tough life, and few miners became rich. Many who came to California were young white men, who discriminated against the Native Americans and native Mexicans. San Francisco became a booming city, and the next year California applied for statehood as a state that banned slavery. This again renewed the heated debate about free states and slave states. California was finally admitted as a free state, tipping the balance to 16 free states and 15 slave states. Thus, the lands won from Mexico increased tensions between North and South.

UNITED STATES STUDY QUESTIONS


Based on information above (in summary) answer the following questions. You may also use book for more information relating to Chapter 9 section 3.
Ch. 9, Section 3


  1. What was cause and effect of the Mexican-American War?

Causes: Expansionists pursue Manifest Destiny, Texas wins independence from Mexico, Boundary disputes arise between Mexico and Texas, United States annexes Texas, President Polk send U.S. troops into disputed area of Texas, and Mexican and U.S. troops clash in Texas. Effect: United States wins quick victory, Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo cedes Southwest to United States, Wilmot Proviso is proposed, then defeated in Congress, Issue of Slavery in West divides nation, Mexican Americans in West lose many rights, Americans migrate to California during Gold Rush.


  1. What made the Wilmot Proviso so divisive?

It made slavery a prominent issue, splitting the two main political parties along North-South lines, or proslavery and anti-slavery lines.


  1. What were the effects of the California Gold Rush?

The Gold Rush brought people from around the world rushing to California, it also brought about the quick addition of California to the Union. Many people (Mexicans) faced discrimination, Native Americans were killed; there was overcrowding, lonliness, disease, and violence.


The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2016
send message

    Main page