Name: Date: apush II period Mrs. Hornstein Review Ch. 27-30



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Name: __________________________ Date: _____________

APUSH II period ___ Mrs. Hornstein



Review Ch. 27-30



1.

How do you account for the economic prosperity of the postwar era?



2.

Why did the suburb achieve paramount significance for Americans in the 1950s?



3.

Who were the people who occupied “the Other America”? Why were they there rather than in mainstream America?



4.

The __________ was established in 1944 to stabilize the value of currencies and provide a secure and predictable monetary environment for trade through its encouragement of fixed exchange rates, using the __________ as the benchmark currency.



5.

In 1947, multinational trade negotiations resulted in the first ___________, which led to the establishment of an international body to oversee trade rules and practices.



6.

Between 1900 and 1930, excepting World War I, the U.S. spent less than ____________percent of its Gross National Production on the military.



7.

Reflecting the trend in the expansion of corporate ownership after World War II, by 1970, big multiplant brewers controlled ____________ percent of the beer market.



8.

By 1960 the U.S. enjoyed a trade surplus with foreign nations at the value of $___________ billion.



9.

After World War II, many families financed their home purchases through the __________ and the __________, which allowed them to buy with small down payments and low-interest loans.



10.

Suburban living was most at home in the so-called __________ Belt, where taxes were low, the climate mild, and open space allowed for sprawling subdivisions.



11.

The __________ highway system, one of the largest civil engineering projects in history, would eventually link the entire country with highways.



12.

By the late 1950s, public concern over nuclear testing had become a high-profile issue, leading to antinuclear groups such as Physicians for __________ to call for an international test ban.



13.

In 1954, the phrase “__________” was inserted into the Pledge of Allegiance; in 1956, Congress added the words “__________” to all U.S. coins.



14.

Author of the best-selling book Baby and Child Care, Dr. ____________ led a generation of mothers to reform childrearing practices.



15.

One of the most important childhood diseases eradicated in 1954 was_______________.



16.

In the 1950s, many psychologists pronounced __________ as being the only “normal” female gender role.



17.

A popular Hollywood movie in 1951 that showcased youth culture was __________.



18.

New York painter __________'s huge canvases of splattered and swirled paint mystified most Americans of the 1950s but, for some, were the essence of the artistic movement known as __________.



19.

__________'s 1956 poem __________ became a manifesto of the Beat generation.



20.

During the 1950s, affluent whites left the cities and settled in the __________.



21.

The ___________, passed in 1952, ended the exclusion of Japanese, Koreans, and southeast Asians from entering the U.S.



22.

In 1959, an estimated 180,000 people fled ___________ after Fidel Castro came to power.



23.

In 1953 Congress passed a resolution authorizing a program to terminate the ________________ status of Indian tribes in the United States.



24.

City planners, politicians, and real estate developers responded to cities' decaying infrastructure and services with __________.



25.

A new phase in the civil rights movement began in 1960 when four black college students conducted a(n) __________ at a Woolworth's store in __________.



26.

In 1960 Ella Baker helped to found the _________________to facilitate student sit-ins.



27.

In what ways is the prosperity of the 1950s explained by the Cold War?



28.

How do you explain the preeminence of civil rights in the politics of the 1960s?



29.

Why is “the man in the gray flannel suit” the representative businessman of the 1950s?



30.

What do we mean by the “labor-management accord”?



31.

In what ways does the growth of the Sun Belt reflect key themes of the suburban explosion?



32.

What was the relationship between consumer culture and the emphasis on family life in the postwar era?



33.

Is it correct to say that the 1950s was exclusively a time of cultural conformity?



34.

What were the most significant migration trends in this era?



35.

What were the key components of the urban crisis?



36.

What is the significance of the Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka decision?



37.

What are the differences between Kennedy's New Frontier and Johnson's Great Society?



38.

Why is the United States' involvement in the Vietnam War so often called a “quagmire”?



39.

The civil rights organization known as ________ sent interracial groups on interstate buses throughout the South to desegregate transportation lines and facilities. These dangerous trips were called “________,” and the violence they provoked caused national outrage and forced Attorney General ________ to intervene.



40.

By using fire hoses, electric cattle prods, and police dogs against peaceful civil rights demonstrators, ________, the commissioner of public safety in the city of ________, provoked national revulsion.



41.

On the night that President Kennedy went on national television to say that he would introduce civil rights legislation, ________, president of the Mississippi NAACP, was killed by a rifle shot in the back.



42.

The March on Washington confirmed ________'s position as a leader of the African American cause.



43.

In August 1961, the Soviet Union ordered the construction of the ________ to stop the exodus of East Germans into West Berlin.



44.

On October 22, 1962, President Kennedy announced that the United States would block the introduction of Soviet-made ________ into ________.



45.

President Kennedy developed the military doctrine of ________ in response to Soviet-sponsored “wars of national liberation.”



46.

“________,” the major 1964 civil rights campaign to register African American voters in Mississippi, drew idealistic white and black student volunteers from all over the nation, but resulted in violence, murder, and the registration of only 1,200 black voters.



47.

Following the violent attack by state police on civil rights marchers near ________ in March 1965, President Lyndon Johnson asked Congress for the civil rights legislation that became known as the ________ of 1965.



48.

Enacting federal health insurance legislation in 1965, Congress created two major health plans: ________ to care for the elderly and ________ to care for the poor.



49.

The ________ was the Great Society's showcase for conducting the War on Poverty, administering some of the measures of the Johnson administration including Head Start, VISTA, and the Job Corps.



50.

After an incident involving the U.S. destroyer Maddox, Congress passed the __________ Resolution to allow offensive military operations in Vietnam.



51.

In 1966, the Senate Foreign Relations Committee chaired by Senator __________ conducted televised hearings that raised questions about the Johnson administration's Vietnam policies.



52.

The first major student demonstrations erupted in the fall of 1964 at the ______________.



53.

A spur to student protest was a change in the military's ______________, which in January of 1966 abolished automatic student deferments.



54.

The personification of the new counterculture was the ___________.



55.

Bob Dylan's 1963 song __________ reflected the despair of individuals whose faith in liberalism was wearing thin in the year of the Birmingham demonstrations and John F. Kennedy's assassination.



56.

In 1966, Huey Newton and Bobby Seale founded the __________ as a militant self-defense organization dedicated to protecting blacks from police violence.



57.

The 1967 rioting in __________ killed forty-three persons and destroyed property valued at $50 million.



58.

Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated in the city of __________.



59.

Sparked by the murder of a local Sioux by a group of whites, the __________ organized the occupation of __________ in 1973 to dramatize Native Americans' grievances against federal Indian policy.



60.

In strict military terms, the Tet offensive was a __________ for the Vietcong, but in America, the attack swung public opinion __________ the war.



61.

Televised scenes of rioting during the August nominating convention in __________ cemented a popular impression of the Democrats as the party of disorder.



62.

The Democratic nominee for president in 1968 was __________.



63.

The __________ consensus—agreement about a New Deal approach to social and economic ills—peaked in the mid-1960s before flaming out under the combined pressure of the Vietnam War and cultural conflict.



64.

Why was Kennedy an effective politician?



65.

Why did civil rights become a big issue during the Kennedy years?



66.

What were the results of Kennedy's foreign policy?



67.

Why, after years of resistance, did Congress pass the great civil rights acts of 1964 and 1965?



68.

What were the key components of the Great Society?



69.

What factors limited the success of the War on Poverty?



70.

What difficulties did the United States face in fighting a war against North Vietnam and the Vietcong in South Vietnam?



71.

Why did President Johnson suffer a “credibility gap” over Vietnam?



72.

What was the student role in the antiwar movement? How can we explain students' willingness to protest the war?



73.

What are the elements in the counterculture of the 1960s?



74.

How do you account for the Black Power movement?



75.

How do you explain the spillover of the black civil rights struggle into the Mexican American and Native American communities?



76.

What were the critical events of 1968 that have led historians to describe it as a “watershed year”?



77.

Why did the Democrats lose their grip as the majority party in late 1960s?



78.

What impact did the Nixon administration have on American politics?



79.

Why are the 1970s considered an era of “declining expectations” for Americans?



80.

What were the major causes of the apparent weakening of the United States as a superpower during this period?

Line length does not indicate the answer's length; some answers may contain more than one word.





81.

Nixon called his antigovernment platform the “_____________.”



82.

Nixon's “realism” in foreign affairs was fervently seconded by his national security adviser, __________.



83.

In 1972, Nixon visited ________ in Beijing, China, bringing the two nations closer together than ever before.



84.

To blunt Communist attacks in late 1971, President Nixon ordered bombing raids against North Vietnam and the __________ of North Vietnamese ports.



85.

By signing the __________ treaty in Moscow in 1972, the United States and the Soviet Union agreed to limit the production and deployment of intercontinental ballistic missiles and antiballistic missile systems.



86.

During the Vietnam War, __________ U.S. troops died, and another __________ were wounded.



87.

In his drive for the Democratic presidential nomination in 1972, liberal candidate __________ benefited greatly from changes in the party's rules governing the selection of __________ to the party's nominating convention.



88.

On June 17, 1972, police charged five men with breaking into the __________ National Committee's headquarters at the __________ complex in Washington, D.C.



89.

On August 9, 1974, Nixon became the first president to __________ from office.



90.

In the aftermath of Watergate, Congress strengthened the __________ Act, which protected privacy and access to federal records.



91.

With the adoption of __________ in 1972, colleges and universities that received federal funds were prohibited from discriminating on the basis of sex.



92.

__________, a lawyer and self-described housewife, led the antifeminist backlash.



93.

The massive federal effort to assist racial and ethnic minorities is known as __________.



94.

Between 1970 and 1977, the population of _____________ in colleges and universities doubled.



95.

A popular former Republican governor of California, ____________ surprised many by his robust advocacy of civil rights and civil liberties as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court during the 1950s and 1960s.



96.

In 1973, OPEC instituted an oil embargo against the United States, Western Europe, and Japan in retaliation for their aid to __________ during the Yom Kippur War.



97.

Rachel Carson's book _____________, which analyzed the impact of pesticides on the food chain, ignited the modern environmental movement.



98.

The first _______________was held on April 22, 1970, when 20 million citizens gathered in communities across the country to express their support for the endangered planet.



99.

In January 1969, a major oil spill took place off the coast of ___________, California.



100.

The high cost of the __________ War and the __________ Society contributed to a steadily growing federal deficit and spiraling inflation.



101.

In the 1970s, the combination of __________ and __________—so-called stagflation—resisted conventional government remedies such as deficit spending and tax reduction.



102.

By the late 1970s, the older industrial regions of the United States were referred to as the __________ Belt.



103.

Managing the __________ was Carter's major domestic challenge.



104.

In foreign policy, President Carter achieved important breakthroughs when he brought the countries of __________ and ________ together to begin making peace.



105.

In 1979, a revolution in __________ led by __________ produced a major crisis in American self-confidence as the United States proved to be utterly incapable of influencing events to its advantage.



106.

Why is the Nixon presidency considered a transitional one between the liberalism of the preceding decades and the conservatism that emerged in the 1980s?



107.

What do we mean when we say that Nixon was a “realist” in foreign affairs?



108.

Why did it take Nixon four years to reach a settlement with North Vietnam?



109.

How do you account for the Watergate scandal? What was its significance?



110.

What were the sources of growth for the women's rights movement?



111.

Why did enforcing civil rights prove more controversial than passing civil rights legislation?



112.

Why did the conservative/liberal alignment on judicial restraint change after 1954?



113.

Why did the United States enter an energy crisis in the 1970s?



114.

What were the major concerns of the environmentalist movement?



115.

What were the causes and effects of deindustrialization?



116.

Why did Jimmy Carter have so much trouble managing the economy?



117.

What distinguished Carter's conduct of foreign policy from Nixon's? Which foreign policy would you say was more successful? Nixon's or Carter's?



118.

How did the domestic policies of presidents Reagan, Bush, and Clinton reflect the rise of conservatism in American politics?



119.

What comparisons can you make between the Iran-Contra scandal of Ronald Reagan's administration and the impeachment crisis of Bill Clinton's?



120.

What new challenges did the end of the Cold War bring to American foreign policy?

Line length does not indicate the answer's length; some answers may contain more than one word.





121.

Before World War II, Ronald Reagan was a New Deal ____________.



122.

Like Ronald Reagan, __________ came to national prominence as a Republican conservative from the western states after World War II.



123.

In the South, white voters who had become hostile to federal support of civil rights for African Americans voted __________ in increasing numbers by the mid-1970s.



124.

In the 1980 campaign, President Jimmy Carter was renominated over ___________ by the Democratic Party.



125.

In the 1980 presidential campaign, ______________ ran as an Independent.



126.

One of President Ronald Reagan's early nicknames after he came into office was the “___________ president.”



127.

To cut taxes, President Reagan successfully pressured Congress to pass the ___________________, which reduced income tax rates paid by most Americans by 23 percent over three years.



128.

According to supply-side economic theory, high __________ siphon off capital that would otherwise be invested.



129.

The popular phrase “Star Wars” was applied to the Reagan administration's program of missile weapons defense known formally as the __________.



130.

__________, the first woman nominated for the vice presidency by a major party, was __________'s running mate in the 1984 election.



131.

In 1981, the Reagan administration had suspended aid to the _________ government of Nicaragua.



132.

In 1984, Congress passed the __________ to block military aid to the Contras in Nicaragua.



133.

The covert diversion of funds from arms sales to Iran to the Contra rebels in Nicaragua was the brainchild of National Security Council aide and U.S. marine lieutenant colonel __________.



134.

_________ was the first woman to serve on the U.S. Supreme Court.



135.

President Reagan elevated ______________, a Nixon appointee, to the position of chief justice of the Supreme Court in 1986.



136.

Ronald Reagan, to the surprise of many, ended his presidency by establishing a cordial relationship with the Soviet Union's new leader, __________.



137.

The fall of the Soviet regime was the result of _________________ from the United States and the _____________ of the Communist economy and society.



138.

Mikhail Gorbachev, leader of the Soviet Union in the mid-1980s, helped to end Communism in that country through his policies of _____________ and ______________.



139.

Michael Dukakis defeated __________, organizer of the Rainbow Coalition, to become the Democratic presidential candidate in 1988.



140.

Clarence Thomas, the second African American appointed to the Supreme Court, did not receive the support of the _____________ or the ____________, two major black civil rights organizations.



141.

The words “Read My Lips: __________,” drawn from George Bush's acceptance speech and used as a mantra in his 1988 presidential campaign, later came back to haunt him when he had to reverse his policy on the matter.



142.

The forty-two-day war for the “liberation of Kuwait” was a resounding success for the UN's coalition forces, which were predominantly __________.



143.

In 1994 the Republicans who captured control of the House, had as the centerpiece of their program a list of proposed legislation called the “__________.”



144.

In August 1996, President Clinton signed into law the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act, which required most adult welfare recipients to find work within __________ years.



145.

The House of Representatives impeached President Clinton for perjury and obstruction of justice involving his relationship with a former White House intern, __________.



146.

What were the key groups of the new Republican coalition? Were their goals complementary? Contradictory?



147.

What factors led to Ronald Reagan's election in 1980?



148.

What were the key elements of Reagan's domestic policy?



149.

What limits did Reagan face in promoting conservative goals? What successes did he achieve?



150.

What factors led to the end of the Cold War?



151.

How did the composition and decisions of the Supreme Court change during the Reagan-Bush administrations?



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