Name: Chapter 21 Test Date



Download 129.47 Kb.
Date conversion29.04.2016
Size129.47 Kb.


Name: __________________________ Chapter 21 Test Date: _____________
Use the following to answer questions 1-10:
Write the letter of the word or phrase that best matches the definition or example provided. Some terms may be used more than once; others may not be used at all.

Terms

a. Industrial Revolution

b. spinning jenny

c. water frame

d. body linen

e. Crystal Palace

f. iron law of wages

g. economic nationalism

h. tariff protection

i. class-consciousness

j. Factory Act of 1833

k. Mines Act of 1842

l. Combination Acts

m. Luddites

n. steam engine

o. separate spheres

p. Rocket




1. The location of the Great Exhibition in 1851 in London, an architectural masterpiece made entirely of glass and iron.
2. Theory proposed by English economist David Ricardo suggesting that the pressure of population growth prevents wages from rising above the subsistence level.
3. A spinning machine created by Richard Arkwright that had a capacity of several hundred spindles and used waterpower; it therefore required a larger and more specialized mill—a factory.
4. English laws passed in 1799 that outlawed unions and strikes, favoring capitalist businesspeople over skilled artisans. Bitterly resented and widely disregarded by many craft guilds, the acts were repealed by Parliament in 1824.
5. A simple, inexpensive, hand-powered spinning machine created by James Hargreaves in 1765.
6. The name given to George Stephenson's effective locomotive that was first tested in 1830 on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway at 16 miles per hour.
7. Group of handicraft workers who attacked whole factories in northern England in 1812 and after, smashing the new machines that they believed were putting them out of work.
8. A term first coined in the 1830s to describe the burst of major inventions and economic expansion that took place in certain industries, such as cotton textiles and iron.
9. A government's way of supporting and aiding its own economy by laying high taxes on imported goods from other countries, as when the French responded to cheaper British goods flooding their country by imposing high tariffs on some imported products.
10. English law that led to a sharp decline in the employment of children by limiting the hours that children over age nine could work and requiring younger children to attend factory-run elementary schools.
Choose the letter of the best answer.



11.

British economist Thomas Malthus argued that

a)

population pressure would always force wages down to subsistence levels.

b)

using young children in factories was immoral.

c)

population always grew faster than the food supply.

d)

the standard of living was a reflection of industrial capacity.

e)

Methodism was a key factor in keeping the working class from revolting.



12.

How did the expansion in cotton clothing affect Western dress?

a)

Most people began to wear underwear.

b)

Elaborate styles were abandoned for simple, unadorned styles.

c)

Greater color was added to clothing, since cotton holds dyes effectively.

d)

Fewer layers of clothes were worn, since cotton breathes in response to body temperature.

e)

Supporting material such as whalebone could be removed from clothing, since cotton is a coarse, stiff fabric.



13.

Why did eighteenth-century Britain have a shortage of wood?

a)

Wood had been over-harvested; it was the primary source of heat in all homes and a basic raw material in industry.

b)

The new industrial pollution began to destroy traditional old-growth forests.

c)

The vast expansion of the British navy in the wars against France led to a problem of deforestation.

d)

New beetles and diseases from the Americas affected and began to destroy British forests.

e)

The widespread building of canals and roads required large amounts of wood and had caused many forests to be cut through.



14.

To move from the laboratory into manufacturing, James Watt's steam engine needed all of the following except

a)

skilled workers.

d)

a large base of capital.

b)

precision parts.

e)

skills of salesmanship.

c)

a single, distinct industrial use.









15.

How did railroads affect the nature of production?

a)

The speed of rail travel required manufacturers to adopt more regularized work routines.

b)

Railroads permitted factories to be established anywhere, without concern for access to other resources.

c)

The availability of raw materials became more secure, supporting greater investment in machinery.

d)

Markets become broader, encouraging manufacturers to create larger factories with more sophisticated machines.

e)

Railroads allowed labor to move quickly to fill labor needs in new industries.



16.

Which one of the following best characterizes the British economy between 1780 and 1851?

a)

Much of the growth of the gross national product was eaten up by population growth.

b)

The large increase in wages resulted in a vast increase in personal consumption.

c)

Average consumption per person decreased as industrial work drove down wages.

d)

The large growth in population caused the gross national product to remain stagnant.

e)

The expansion of the gross national product was only possible as average consumption diminished.



17.

The difficulties faced by the continental economies in their efforts to compete with the British included all of the following except

a)

the low prices of British mass-produced goods.

b)

the complexity and expense of the new technology.

c)

the resistance of landowning elites.

d)

the scarcity of human capital.

e)

the devastation left by the Napoleonic Wars.



18.

The major breakthrough in energy and power supplies that catalyzed the Industrial Revolution was

a)

Thomas Newcomen's 1705 steam engine.

b)

the development of the internal combustion engine.

c)

the use of running water to power cotton-spinning machinery.

d)

James Watt's steam engine, developed and marketed between the 1760s and the 1780s.

e)

Sir Isaac Newton's discovery of the law of action and reaction.



19.

All of the following correctly characterize industrial growth patterns in Europe except

a)

Belgium led continental Europe in adopting British technology for production.

b)

Following the Napoleonic Wars, France experienced a boom in factory production as the economy shifted from wartime to peacetime production.

c)

Germany began a spectacular rise in industrialization after 1860.

d)

The United States began a spectacular rise in industrialization after 1860.

e)

Eastern and Southern Europe were the slowest regions to industrialize, with the process occurring after 1880.



20.

Friedrich List believed that industrial development should be pursued

a)

as part of a project of economic nationalism led by the state.

b)

only in those regions of the nation where natural resources were easily available.

c)

through the laissez-faire tradition of free trade and independence from government interference.

d)

as a supplement to agricultural development but never as a goal in itself.

e)

in colonies, so that the homeland would not be scarred by industrial pollution.



21.

How did the origins of industrialists change as the Industrial Revolution progressed?

a)

More industrialists emerged from the working classes as they became accustomed to the new machine technology.

b)

Industrialists increasingly emerged from the noble classes, for the nobility recognized the need to expand family wealth and used their political connections to obtain advantages for their new firms.

c)

More industrialists emerged from the working classes, as creditors recognized the vast profits in new enterprises and were willing to assume more risk in new ventures.

d)

Industrialists increasingly emerged from the migrant communities, who carried new technologies across borders.

e)

It became harder to form new firms, and instead industrialists were increasingly likely to have inherited their wealth.



22.

William Cockerill was

a)

the inventor of the spinning jenny.

b)

the chief financial backer of the first commercial railway in England.

c)

an English carpenter who built cotton-spinning equipment in Belgium.

d)

the prime minister of Britain who opposed the Factory Act of 1833.

e)

the British general at Waterloo.



23.

Who were the Luddites?

a)

German merchants who organized into corporations to finance new textiles factories

b)

Irish peasants who formed secret societies against British landowners

c)

Dutch agricultural workers who rebelled against their falling standard of living in comparison to the urban workers

d)

British handicraft workers who attacked factories and destroyed machinery they believed were putting them out of work

e)

Scottish Highlanders who formed community groups that worked building railroads across Great Britain



24.

How was the life of nonagricultural workers transformed between 1760 and 1830?

a)

Workers prospered most during years of war when their labor was most valuable.

b)

Workers' housing improved significantly when they moved into new factory towns.

c)

Workers worked in much more dangerous conditions.

d)

Workers ate poorer diets when they moved away from the countryside.

e)

Workers worked many more days per year.



25.

In The Condition of the Working Class in England, Friedrich Engels stated that

a)

the social problems in Britain were not a product of the Industrial Revolution.

b)

the British middle classes were guilty of “mass murder” and “wholesale robbery.”

c)

in general, the living conditions of the working class were slowly improving.

d)

the class-consciousness of the working class would lead to social revolution.

e)

the working class was itself responsible for most of the problems its members faced.



26.

Workers resisted moving from cottage work into factories for all of the following reasons except

a)

they had to follow the pace and work schedule of the machines.

b)

they had to be at work every day and follow a strict schedule.

c)

they were under the constant, demanding supervision of overseers.

d)

they received substantially lower wages than cottage work.

e)

they were consistently punished if they broke work rules.



27.

The Factory Act of 1833

a)

limited the work of children and thereby broke the pattern of families working together in factories.

b)

required employers to keep logs of all work-related injuries and accidents and provide copies to local authorities.

c)

established the first minimum wage for workers, although it did not apply to children.

d)

mandated a maximum workweek for adults of 60 hours if the adult operated machinery.

e)

authorized workers to form unions if the factory had more than twenty-five employees.



28.

In the “separate spheres” pattern of gender relationships,

a)

women were expected to produce sufficient income for the family to provide for themselves.

b)

men were made responsible for managing families' finances.

c)

women generally stopped working outside of the home after the first child was born.

d)

men took on significant childcare and domestic roles so that women could work outside of the home.

e)

women increasingly gained access to employment opportunities that had traditionally been reserved for men.



29.

The reformer Robert Owens sought to

a)

oppose industrial development as contrary to human happiness.

b)

create a single large national union for British workers.

c)

defend the rights of private property against socialist claims.

d)

free laborers from the restrictions of the Factory Acts.

e)

form a committee of industrialists to advise the government on industrial policy.



30.

The key demand of the Chartist movement was that

a)

employers be required to provide basic education for child workers under the age of ten.

b)

women be paid equally to men.

c)

Britain permit the import of grain without duties attached in order to keep food prices low.

d)

all men be given the right to vote.

e)

employers give all employees a “workers' charter” that outlined their rights and responsibilities.

Answer 2 of the following questions with three or four sentences.





31.

Why did the cotton-spinning jenny and the water frame prove a crucial breakthrough for industrialization?



32.

Why did both mill owners and families initially favor the family unit form of employment?



33.

How did continental European countries, when they began to industrialize after 1815, have advantages that Great Britain had lacked?

Answer 2 of the following questions in a few paragraphs. Include specific examples that support your thesis and conclusions.





34.

Britain was the first industrial nation. Why?



35.

The Industrial Revolution profoundly affected the British working classes. Describe its impact on working-class men, women, and children. Overall, was the Industrial Revolution beneficial or harmful for the working class?


36.

How did the Industrial Revolution impact political and economic thought in eighteenth- and early-nineteenth-century Europe?



37.

The Industrial Revolution not only transformed British industry and society, it called forth a multifaceted reform effort to cope with the societal problems created by industrialization. What were the goals and motivations of both the parliamentary reform movement and the labor movement in nineteenth-century Britain? What were their successes and failures?



Answer Key


1.

e

2.

f

3.

c

4.

l

5.

b

6.

p

7.

m

8.

a

9.

h

10.

j

11.

c

12.

a

13.

a

14.

c

15.

d

16.

a

17.

d

18.

d

19.

b

20.

a

21.

e

22.

c

23.

d

24.

e

25.

b

26.

d

27.

a

28.

c

29.

b

30.

d

31.

The cotton-spinning jenny and the water frame permitted textile manufacturers to overcome the constant shortage of thread that inhibited the growth of the textile industry. The water frame, further, required waterpower and led to the creation of large specialized mills, which formed into factories. Cotton goods became much cheaper and widely demanded.

32.

By working as a family unit, families earned more money and thereby continued the labor practice to which they had been accustomed on the farm. Parents were able to watch over children while they worked, and mill owners permitted parents to discipline their children so that the firm discipline of the workshop would be socially acceptable.

33.

Continental countries had strong traditions of trade and urban crafts able to adapt to new market conditions. The continental economies could borrow technology from Great Britain that the British had taken decades to develop, as well as hire the engineers who built and ran the machinery. Some continental powers also had state governments willing to aid industrial development and fashion industrial policies.

34.

Students should thoroughly describe contributing factors, including the physical environment and the importance of water transport; the agricultural revolution; the Atlantic economy, cottage industry, government stability, and positive attitude toward commercial and industrial expansion; and the unified national market, human capital in terms of labor, and technological innovators. Following this descriptive section, the student should identify those factors unique to Britain. Finally, students should decide which factor was most important and justify this decision.

35.

This essay should describe the lives of the working class in terms of employment opportunities, working and living conditions, sexual division of labor, education, and political rights. Students should be sure to discuss the psychological effects of changes in the work process and the new urban environment. Reference to the testimony of the Ashley Mines Commission would reinforce students' arguments. The changing patterns of employment in the factory system, from pauper apprentices to family units to the male-dominated workforce, as well as the role of kinship networks in the labor market, should be addressed. Finally, students should provide an informed opinion regarding the optimist/pessimist debate on the benefits of the Industrial Revolution for the working people of Britain.

36.

Students should draw on the text's discussion of Thomas Malthus, David Ricardo, Friedrich List, Friedrich Engels, and Robert Owen. They should also address the emergence of the ideology of separate spheres for men and women in the context of the Industrial Revolution.

37.

Students should begin by briefly describing the problems: working conditions, living conditions, class conflict, and exploitation. Next, they should discuss the parliamentary reform effort, including motivations, information gathering, and relevant legislation. Then, students should turn to the labor movement; this section should discuss the efforts of such reformers as Owen, as well as the efforts of the working class itself to organize politically, to improve working and living conditions, and to ensure higher wages, job security, and other benefits. The rise of class-consciousness, the Combination Acts, and the emergence of the new model unions should be discussed. Successes include the Factory Act and Mines Act and the formation of the labor movement. Failures include Owen's grandiose schemes of societal reform and the primary aim of the Chartist movement—the right to vote. An astute students will conclude by assessing the impact of these early efforts on subsequent developments in labor relations.



Page


The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2016
send message

    Main page