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Chapter 1: Police History
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. The police represent the__________power of government, rather than the__________power of government.

a.

civil, military

c.

administrative, political

b.

military, administrative

d.

military, civil

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: p. 3

OBJ: To acquaint you with the rich, colorful history of policing
2. The person known as the father of American policing is:

a.

O. W. Wilson

c.

August Vollmer

b.

Robert Peel

d.

John S. Dempsey

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: p. 19

OBJ: To introduce you to the history of policing in the first half of the twentieth century
3. The members of the military appointed by Roman Emperor Augustus to protect the palace and the emperor were called the:

a.

Royal Guard

c.

Roman Guard

b.

Praetorian Guard

d.

Praefectus Urbi

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: p. 3

OBJ: To acquaint you with the rich, colorful history of policing
4. The__________evolved into the Gendarmerie Nationale, which today polices the areas outside France’s major cities.

a.

Praefectus Urbi

c.

Maréchausée

b.

Praetorian Guard

d.

Magistrates

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: p. 4

OBJ: To acquaint you with the rich, colorful history of policing
5. Who formed the Bow Street Runners?

a.

Henry Fielding

c.

Patrick Colquhoun

b.

Sir Robert Peel

d.

Colonel Charles Rowan

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: p. 6

OBJ: To show you how the U.S. police and, indeed, the entire U.S. criminal justice system evolved from the English law enforcement experience
6. Who is generally credited with establishing the first police department in London, England?

a.

Henry Fielding

c.

Patrick Colquhoun

b.

Sir Robert Peel

d.

Sir Charles Rowan

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: p. 7

OBJ: To show you how the U.S. police and, indeed, the entire U.S. criminal justice system evolved from the English law enforcement experience
7. The first organized American police department (1838) in the North was created in what city?

a.

Chicago

c.

Philadelphia

b.

New York City

d.

Boston

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: p. 11

OBJ: To acquaint you with early American policing—both the colonial experience and the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries
8. What U.S. Supreme Court decision held that a black slave could not sue in court for his freedom because he was a piece of property, not a citizen?

a.

Dred Scott v. Sandford

b.

Mapp v. Ohio

c.

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka

d.

Mabury v. Madison

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: p. 10

OBJ: To acquaint you with early American policing—both the colonial experience and the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries
9. Many historians and scholars indicate that__________in the American South were the precursor to the modern American system of policing.

a.

Praetorian Guard

c.

thief-takers

b.

slave patrols

d.

Vigiles

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: p. 9

OBJ: To acquaint you with early American policing—both the colonial experience and the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries
10. The only law enforcement officers available on the American frontier were the__________and the __________.

a.

county sheriff, town marshal

c.

chief of police, county sheriff

b.

county marshal, town sheriff

d.

military provost, town marshal

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: p. 16

OBJ: To acquaint you with early American policing—both the colonial experience and the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries
11. The Statute of Winchester established the office of ___________, who was responsible for organizing and supervising the watch.

a.

county sheriff

c.

city marshal

b.

parish constable

d.

police chief

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: p. 5

OBJ: To acquaint you with the rich, colorful history of policing
12. ___________ were assistants to the constables and walked the streets removing vagrants.

a.

Beadles

c.

Marshals

b.

Deputies

d.

Roamers

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: p. 5

OBJ: To acquaint you with the rich, colorful history of policing
13. A form of community self-protection developed by King Alfred the Great in the latter part of the nineteenth-century England was/were the ___________.

a.

Vigiles

c.

shire-reeve

b.

hue and cry

d.

mutual pledge

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: p. 4

OBJ: To acquaint you with the rich, colorful history of policing
14. What statute made it a crime not to assist the night watch?

a.

Posse Comitatus Act of 1879

c.

Statute of Winchester

b.

Federal Judiciary Act of 1789

d.

Volstead Act

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: p. 5

OBJ: To acquaint you with the rich, colorful history of policing
15. The Federal Judiciary Act of 1789 created the ___________.

a.

bobbies

c.

FBI

b.

office of the U.S. marshal

d.

New York City Police Department

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: p. 16

OBJ: To acquaint you with early American policing—both the colonial experience and the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries
16. The first state police agency was the ___________.

a.

Arizona Rangers

c.

Texas Rangers

b.

New Mexico Mounted Patrol

d.

Nevada Posse

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: p. 16

OBJ: To acquaint you with early American policing—both the colonial experience and the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries
17. By the 1880s, what private national detective agency had offices in nearly two dozen cities?

a.

Brinks National Security

b.

Pinkerton’s National Detective Agency

c.

Wells Fargo Detection Services

d.

Rocky Mountain Detective Association

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: p. 17

OBJ: To acquaint you with early American policing—both the colonial experience and the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries
18. Which Massachusetts governor fired all the striking police officers during the Boston police strike and later became president of the United States?

a.

Woodrow Wilson

c.

Theodore Roosevelt

b.

Calvin Coolidge

d.

Ronald Reagan

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: p. 18

OBJ: To introduce you to the history of policing in the first half of the twentieth century
19. What legislation became law in 1920 and established National Prohibition?

a.

Olmstead Act

c.

Volstead Act

b.

Homestead Act

d.

Federal Judiciary Act of 1789

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: p. 18

OBJ: To introduce you to the history of policing in the first half of the twentieth century
20. The Latin term__________means “the power of the county.”

a.

terra nullius

c.

corpus delecti

b.

flagrante delicto

d.

posse comitatus

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: p. 16

OBJ: To acquaint you with early American policing—both the colonial experience and the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries
21. In 1929, President Herbert Hoover created the National Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement. This commission was known as the:

a.

Wickersham Commission

c.

Crime Commission

b.

Kefauver Commission

d.

Kerner Commission

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: pp. 18-19

OBJ: To introduce you to the history of policing in the first half of the twentieth century
22. Who served as chief of police in Berkeley and instituted many practices that started to professionalize the U.S. police, including incorporating university training as a part of police training?

a.

O. W. Wilson

b.

August Vollmer

c.

Raymond Blaine Fosdick

d.

Edgar Hoover

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: p. 19

OBJ: To introduce you to the history of policing in the first half of the twentieth century
23. Who is noted for developing modern management and administrative techniques for policing?

a.

James Q. Wilson

c.

O. W. Wilson

b.

Richard Sylvester

d.

Patrick V. Murphy

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: p. 20

OBJ: To introduce you to the history of policing in the first half of the twentieth century
24. The director of the FBI from 1924 to his death in 1972 was ___________.

a.

Tom Ridge

b.

J. Edgar Hoover

c.

Robert Gray

d.

O. W. Wilson

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: p. 20

OBJ: To introduce you to the history of policing in the first half of the twentieth century
25. What did the U.S. Supreme Court focus on during the 1960s?

a.

expanding governmental authority

c.

individual rights

b.

police rights

d.

corporate rights

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: p. 21

OBJ: To acquaint you with the history and development of recent policing, from the 1960s through the present time
26. Which U.S. Supreme Court case was responsible for applying the exclusionary rule to all state courts in America?

a.

Mapp v. Ohio

c.

Escobedo v. Illinois

b.

Miranda v. Arizona

d.

Brown v. Mississippi

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: p. 21

OBJ: To acquaint you with the history and development of recent policing, from the 1960s through the present time
27. Which U.S. Supreme Court case defined the constitutional right to counsel at police interrogation?

a.

Mapp v. Ohio

c.

Escobedo v. Illinois

b.

Miranda v. Arizona

d.

Brown v. Mississippi

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: p. 21

OBJ: To acquaint you with the history and development of recent policing, from the 1960s through the present time
28. Which U.S. Supreme Court case resulted in the police requirement that persons who are in police custody and will be interrogated must be advised of their constitutional rights?

a.

Mapp v. Ohio

c.

Escobedo v. Illinois

b.

Miranda v. Arizona

d.

Brown v. Mississippi

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: p. 21

OBJ: To acquaint you with the history and development of recent policing, from the 1960s through the present time
29. Which New York City police officer’s tales of corruption led to the Knapp Commission?

a.

David Owens

c.

Frank Serpico

b.

Whitman Knapp

d.

Julius LaRosa

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: p. 26

OBJ: To acquaint you with the history and development of recent policing, from the 1960s through the present time
30. The National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, also known as the ___________, released a report stating, “Our nation is moving toward two societies, one black, one white, separate and unequal.”

a.

Wickersham Commission

c.

Crime Commission

b.

Kefauver Commission

d.

Kerner Commission

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: p. 24

OBJ: To acquaint you with the history and development of recent policing, from the 1960s through the present time
31. The most turbulent eras for American policing were the:

a.

1920s and 1930s

c.

1960s and 1970s

b.

1940s and 1950s

d.

1980s and 1990s

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: p. 21

OBJ: To acquaint you with the history and development of recent policing, from the 1960s through the present time
32. William J. Bratton completely reengineered the New York City Police Department to make reducing crime its primary objective. What vehicle did he use to accomplish this mission?

a.

SWAT

c.

CompStat

b.

use of helicopters

d.

community policing

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: p. 28

OBJ: To acquaint you with the history and development of recent policing, from the 1960s through the present time
33. In 1991, what Los Angeles incident inflamed police–community relations?

a.

Charles Manson’s arrest

c.

reinstatement of the death penalty

b.

the L.A. shootout

d.

Rodney King beating

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: p. 29

OBJ: To acquaint you with the history and development of recent policing, from the 1960s through the present time
34. What law gives law enforcement new ability to search, seize, detain, or eavesdrop in their pursuit of possible terrorists?

a.

Posse Comitatus Act

c.

Statute of Winchester

b.

USA Patriot Act

d.

Volstead Act

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: p. 33

OBJ: To acquaint you with the history and development of recent policing, from the 1960s through the present time
COMPLETION
1. __________ established the first large-scale, uniformed, paid, civil police force in London.

ANS: Sir Robert Peel

PTS: 1 REF: p. 7

OBJ: To show you how the U.S. police and, indeed, the entire U.S. criminal justice system evolved from the English law enforcement experience


2. The __________ were the members of the military appointed by Roman Emperor Augustus to protect the palace and the emperor.

ANS: Praetorian Guard

PTS: 1 REF: p. 3

OBJ: To acquaint you with the rich, colorful history of policing


3. __________ was a form of societal control where citizens grouped together to protect each other.

ANS: Mutual pledge

PTS: 1 REF: p. 4

OBJ: To show you how the U.S. police and, indeed, the entire U.S. criminal justice system evolved from the English law enforcement experience


4. __________ was the director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation from its inception until his death in 1972.

ANS: J. Edgar Hoover

PTS: 1 REF: p. 20

OBJ: To introduce you to the history of policing in the first half of the twentieth century


5. The form of social organization or mutual pledge created by King Alfred the Great in England that consisted of 10 families grouped together to protect one another and assume responsibility for the acts of the group’s members was called a __________.

ANS: tithing

PTS: 1 REF: p. 4

OBJ: To show you how the U.S. police and, indeed, the entire U.S. criminal justice system evolved from the English law enforcement experience


6. A rudimentary form of metropolitan policing called the __________ required all men in a given town to serve on the night watch, patrolling the streets; performing duties such as lighting street lamps, clearing garbage, and putting out fires; and enforcing the criminal law.

ANS: watch and ward

PTS: 1 REF: p. 5

OBJ: To show you how the U.S. police and, indeed, the entire U.S. criminal justice system evolved from the English law enforcement experience


7. The first specialized investigative unit in Rome was called __________, which means “trackers of murder.”

ANS: questors

PTS: 1 REF: p. 3

OBJ: To acquaint you with the rich, colorful history of policing


8. __________ is the author of the classic text on policing entitled Police Administration.

ANS: O. W. Wilson

PTS: 1 REF: p. 20

OBJ: To introduce you to the history of policing in the first half of the twentieth century


9. The Youth International Party was associated with the __________ movement.

ANS: antiwar

PTS: 1 REF: p. 23

OBJ: To acquaint you with the history and development of recent policing, from the 1960s through the present time


10. __________ is the computer-based management program that many say was responsible for New York City’s drop in crime in the mid- to late-1990s.

ANS: CompStat

PTS: 1 REF: p. 28 | p. 30

OBJ: To acquaint you with the history and development of recent policing, from the 1960s through the present time


TRUE/FALSE
1. The first state police agency was the Texas Rangers.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: p. 16

OBJ: To acquaint you with early American policing—both the colonial experience and the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries
2. Sir Charles Rowan founded the Bow Street Runners.

ANS: F PTS: 1 REF: p. 6

OBJ: To show you how computers and technology are revolutionizing to show you how the U.S. police and, indeed, the entire U.S. criminal justice system evolved from the English law enforcement experience
3. The man who is credited with establishing London’s first large-scale, civil police department in 1829 is Sir Robert Peel.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: p. 7

OBJ: To show you how the U.S. police and, indeed, the entire U.S. criminal justice system evolved from the English law enforcement experience
4. London’s first large-scale, civil police department consisted of more than 5,000 men.

ANS: F PTS: 1 REF: p. 7

OBJ: To show you how the U.S. police and, indeed, the entire U.S. criminal justice system evolved from the English law enforcement experience
5. Early American police were responsible for cleaning streets, caring for the homeless, and operating emergency ambulance services, in addition to their law enforcement duties.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: p. 14

OBJ: To acquaint you with early American policing—both the colonial experience and the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries
6. The concept of the sheriff can be traced back to the Praetorian Guard.

ANS: F PTS: 1 REF: p. 4

OBJ: To show you how the U.S. police and, indeed, the entire U.S. criminal justice system evolved from the English law enforcement experience
7. Richard Hill is known as the father of American policing.

ANS: F PTS: 1 REF: p. 19

OBJ: To acquaint you with early American policing—both the colonial experience and the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries
8. The word police comes from the Latin word politia, which means “civil administration.”

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: p. 3

OBJ: To acquaint you with the rich, colorful history of policing
9. In early U.S. colonial society, citizens were responsible for protecting themselves and maintaining an orderly society.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: p. 3

OBJ: To acquaint you with early American policing—both the colonial experience and the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries
10. Escobedo v. Illinois was the U.S. Supreme Court case that applied the exclusionary rule to all states in the United States.

ANS: F PTS: 1 REF: p. 21

OBJ: To acquaint you with the history and development of recent policing, from the 1960s through the present time
11. The system of mutual pledge was employed as a strategy for maintaining stability in England and providing a method for people living in villages to protect one another.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: p. 4

OBJ: To show you how the U.S. police and, indeed, the entire U.S. criminal justice system evolved from the English law enforcement experience
12. Until the late 1980s, women constituted only a very small percentage of U.S. police officers.

ANS: F PTS: 1 REF: p. 26

OBJ: To introduce you to the history of policing in the first half of the twentieth century
13. In the first half of the first decade of the 2000s, crime reductions continued to occur nationwide as the police adopted or continued aggressive crime-fighting techniques.

ANS: T PTS: 1 REF: pp. 30-31

OBJ: To acquaint you with the history and development of recent policing, from the 1960s through the present time
ESSAY
1. Describe the American colonial experience with policing.

ANS:


Answer varies.

PTS: 1 REF: pp. 9-10

OBJ: To acquaint you with early American policing—both the colonial experience and the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries
2. List five of the Nine Principles of Sir Robert Peel, and discuss the goals in policing they were designed to accomplish.

ANS:


Answer varies.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 7

OBJ: To show you how the U.S. police and, indeed, the entire U.S. criminal justice system evolved from the English law enforcement experience
3. Describe some of the developments in American policing and the criminal justice system during the colonial period, as well as the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, that were influenced by the English police experience. Provide specific examples.

ANS:


Answer varies.

PTS: 1 REF: pp. 4-17

OBJ: To show you how the U.S. police and, indeed, the entire U.S. criminal justice system evolved from the English law enforcement experience
4. Identify at least four persons throughout history who had a significant influence on the development and shape of twentieth-century American policing, and list some of their accomplishments.

ANS:


Answer varies.

PTS: 1 REF: pp. 4-35

OBJ: To introduce you to the history of policing in the first half of the twentieth century
5. How did the turbulent times of the 1960s and the early 1970s affect American policing?

ANS:


Answer varies.

PTS: 1 REF: pp. 21-26

OBJ: To acquaint you with the history and development of recent policing, from the 1960s through the present time
6. Discuss the concept of thief-takers and how this method of policing led to increased crime.

ANS:


Answer varies.

PTS: 1 REF: pp. 5-6

OBJ: To show you how the U.S. police and, indeed, the entire U.S. criminal justice system evolved from the English law enforcement experience
7. Compare and contrast the colonial northern watch with the southern slave patrols.

ANS:


Answer varies.

PTS: 1 REF: pp. 9-10

OBJ: To acquaint you with early American policing—both the colonial experience and the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries
8. How did technology influence policing in the early twentieth century?

ANS:


Answer varies.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 18

OBJ: To introduce you to the history of policing in the first half of the twentieth century
9. Detail the significance of the Wickersham Commission report.

ANS:


Answer varies.

PTS: 1 REF: pp. 18-19

OBJ: To introduce you to the history of policing in the first half of the twentieth century
10. What influenced the passage of the Pendleton Act?

ANS:


Answer varies.

PTS: 1 REF: p. 19

OBJ: To acquaint you with early American policing—both the colonial experience and the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries
11. In a major speech at the 2006 National Institute of Justice’s (NIJ’s) annual conference, Los Angeles Police Chief William Bratton reflected on the tension between criminal justice practitioners and researchers. Explain the tension that Chief Bratton described.

ANS:


Answer varies.

PTS: 1 REF: pp. 31-32



OBJ: To acquaint you with the history and development of recent policing, from the 1960s through the present time

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