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Chapter 1: Africa
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1) Which desert covers the northern third of the African continent?

A) Sonora

B) Sahara

C) Mojave

D) Kalahari

Answer: B

Learning Objective: LO: 1.1

Page Ref: 2

A-head: A Huge and Diverse Land

Skill Level: Remember the Facts
2) The origins of humanity lie in which of the following continents?

A) Asia


B) North America

C) Africa

D) Australia

Answer: C

Learning Objective: LO: 1.2

Page Ref: 2

A-head: The Birthplace of Humanity

Skill Level: Remember the Facts
3) The concept or term habilis in anthropology refers to __________.

A) wearing a habit

B) forming habits

C) using tools

D) living in a home

Answer: C

Learning Objective: LO: 1.2

Page Ref: 2

A-head: The Birthplace of Humanity

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts
4) The term homo sapiens refers to __________.

A) modern humans

B) modern chimpanzees

C) modern swine

D) modern fish

Answer: A

Learning Objective: LO: 1.2

Page Ref: 2

A-head: The Birthplace of Humanity

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts
5) Based on the image in 1-1, which aspects of the drawing suggest it is a hominid with similarities to modern humans?

A) diet and health

B) clothing and shoes

C) food and housing

D) skeletal structures

Answer: D

Learning Objective: LO: 1.2

Page Ref: 4

A-head: The Birthplace of Humanity

Skill Level: Analyze It
6) The kingdom of Kush was driven out of power by the __________.

A) Greeks

B) French

C) Persians

D) Assyrians

Answer: D

Learning Objective: LO: 1.3

Page Ref: 6

A-head: Ancient Civilizations and Old Arguments

Skill Level: Remember the Facts
7) Which empire conquered Egypt in 30 BCE?

A) Rome


B) Great Britain

C) Russia

D) Ottoman

Answer: A

Learning Objective: LO: 1.3

Page Ref: 5

A-head: Ancient Civilizations and Old Arguments

Skill Level: Remember the Facts
8) Which of the following transitions did ancient peoples make that first ushered in “civilization?”

A) fishing to hunting

B) the destruction of cities

C) hunting and gathering to agriculture

D) immigration to other countries

Answer: C

Learning Objective: LO: 1.3

Page Ref: 4

A-head: Ancient Civilizations and Old Arguments

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts
9) In which era did Egyptian leaders start using the title pharaoh?

A) unification

B) cultural decline

C) expansion

D) origin

Answer: C

Learning Objective: LO: 1.3

Page Ref: 5

A-head: Ancient Civilizations and Old Arguments

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts
10) Egyptian culture was strongly defined by which of the following attributes?

A) monotheism

B) matriarchy

C) patriarchy

D) class equality

Answer: C

Learning Objective: LO: 1.3

Page Ref: 5

A-head: Ancient Civilizations and Old Arguments

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts
11) Which statement best characterizes the power and status of women in ancient Egypt?

A) Women served as the rulers of Egypt because it was a matriarchal society.

B) Women were treated as property and were allowed no legal rights once married.

C) Women held a relatively high status, could own property, and be public officials.

D) Women lived in a separate society from men, rarely interacting with Egyptian society.

Answer: C

Learning Objective: LO: 1.3

Page Ref: 5

A-head: Ancient Civilizations and Old Arguments

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts
12) Egyptian religion was characterized by __________.

A) monotheism

B) no connections to the state

C) matriarchal priesthood

D) elites buried in royal tombs

Answer: D

Learning Objective: LO: 1.3

Page Ref:5

A-head: Ancient Civilizations and Old Arguments

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts
13) Ancient Egypt received which of the following influences from Nubia?

A) grain production and the concept of monarchy

B) naval warfare and the institution of slavery

C) city and town formation and design

D) highway and canal construction

Answer: A

Learning Objective: LO: 1.3

Page Ref: 5

A-head: Ancient Civilizations and Old Arguments

Skill Level: Apply What You Know
14) Ancient Egyptians __________.

A) regarded themselves as "white," but actually exhibited a mixture of racial features

B) influenced the development and culture of Greece and later Western civilizations

C) were dependent on the Amazon for agriculture, transportation and communications

D) left very few remains of their civilization in any form

Answer: B

Learning Objective: LO: 1.3

Page Ref: 4

A-head: Ancient Civilizations and Old Arguments

Skill Level: Apply What You Know
15) How did Egypt and Nubia interact as civilizations during the second millennium BCE?

A) They experienced peaceful coexistence and pacifism.

B) Egypt colonized Nubia.

C) They were allies in warfare.

D) The nations were unknown to each other.

Answer: B

Learning Objective: LO: 1.3

Page Ref: 5

A-head: Ancient Civilizations and Old Arguments

Skill Level: Apply What You Know
16) In a situation similar to Egypt’s, ancient Mesopotamian civilization arose from which of the following natural forces?

A) lightning strikes

B) melting of the polar ice cap

C) earthquakes

D) river valley formation

Answer: D

Learning Objective: LO: 1.3

Page Ref: 4

A-head: Ancient Civilizations and Old Arguments

Skill Level: Apply What You Know
17) The nation of Axum is significant because its people __________.

A) overtook the Egyptians while the Great Pyramids were being built

B) were Semitic and it became the first Christian state in sub-Saharan Africa

C) became extremely wealthy through exploiting nearby iron resources

D) enjoyed a success that rested entirely upon trade fell with the decline of Rome

Answer: B

Learning Objective: LO: 1.3

Page Ref: 6-7

A-head: Ancient Civilizations and Old Arguments

Skill Level: Analyze It
18) According to Map 1-2, in what ways did the Egyptians use the Nile River Valley for settlement?

A) They settled along the river and at its mouth.

B) They settled away from the river.

C) They settled at the headwaters of the river.

D) They settled on the river in floating cities.

Answer: A

Learning Objective: LO: 1.3

Page Ref: 5

A-head: Ancient Civilizations and Old Arguments

Skill Level: Analyze It
19) What aspects of the image in 1-3 suggest Egyptian influence on the city of Meroe?

A) reddish sands

B) pyramids and hieroglyphics

C) hot temperatures and direct sunlight

D) the mountains in the background

Answer: B

Learning Objective: LO: 1.3

Page Ref: 6

A-head: Ancient Civilizations and Old Arguments

Skill Level: Analyze It
20) The nation of Ghana imported a variety of items from North Africa, particularly __________.

A) pepper

B) gold

C) slaves



D) salt

Answer: D

Learning Objective: LO: 1.4

Page Ref: 7

A-head: West Africa

Skill Level: Remember the Facts
21) Who were West Africa's chief trading partners in the trans-Sahara trade before the fifth century CE?

A) the Greeks

B) the Spanish and the French

C) Roman merchants and the Berbers

D) the Egyptians

Answer: C

Learning Objective: LO: 1.4

Page Ref:

A-head: West Africa

Skill Level: Remember the Facts
22) Ghana’s capital, Kumbi Saleh, included __________.

A) Islamic mosques, stone houses, and 20,000 people

B) Jewish temples, straw buildings, and 50,000 people

C) Christian churches, wood houses, and 100,000 people

D) pagan prayer rooms, iron barracks, and 200,000 people

Answer: A

Learning Objective: LO: 1.4

Page Ref: 9

A-head: West Africa

Skill Level: Remember the Facts
23) Mansa Musa, a ruler of the Mali Empire in the fourteenth century, __________.

A) was known for his extreme cruelty to his slaves

B) introduced Christianity to the West Sudan region

C) was one of the wealthiest rulers the world has known

D) was massacred by European armies after trying to stop the slave trade

Answer: C

Learning Objective: LO: 1.4

Page Ref: 10

A-head: West Africa

Skill Level: Remember the Facts
24) Which Songhai leader spread Islam in Africa and established the Sankore Mosque at Timbuktu?

A) Sunni Ali

B) Mansa Musa

C) Sundiata Mali

D) Askia Muhammad Toure

Answer: D

Learning Objective: LO: 1.4

Page Ref: 11 

A-head: West Africa

Skill Level: Remember the Facts
25) African Americans come primarily from which region in Africa?

A) north


B) south

C) east


D) west

Answer: D

Learning Objective: LO: 1.4

Page Ref: 7

A-head: West Africa

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts
26) The peoples of the forest regions of West Africa are important in the study of African-American history because they __________.

A) were the first region to trade with Egypt and other Mediterranean areas

B) converted to Christianity in significant numbers

C) played an important role in the slave trade as traders and victims

D) were the first areas to receive colonists from the United States in the early 1800s

Answer: C

Learning Objective: LO: 1.4

Page Ref: 12

A-head: West Africa

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts
27) What is the connection between camels and African trade in the first century CE?

A) Camels had no role in shaping trade relations in the first century CE.

B) Camels helped to end trade in the region in the first century CE.

C) Camels facilitated long-distance trade in the first century CE.

D) Camels died out in the desert in the first century CE.

Answer: C

Learning Objective: LO: 1.4

Page Ref: 7

A-head: West Africa

Skill Level: Apply What You Know
28) How did extensive trade in West Africa shape political history in the region over time?

A) Arab merchants and the religion of Islam entered the region.

B) Sudanese empires ignored trade opportunities and embraced European Christianity.

C) The growth of cities declined in the region, leading to civilization collapse.

D) Trade led to greater isolation of the region.

Answer: A

Learning Objective: LO: 1.4

Page Ref: 10

A-head: West Africa

Skill Level: Apply What You Know
29) How did the Oyo people impose political unity over the Yoruba during the seventeenth century?

A) through free university education

B) through the religion of Christianity

C) with a well-trained cavalry

D) through immigration bans

Answer: C

Learning Objective: LO: 1.4

Page Ref: 13

A-head: West Africa

Skill Level: Apply What You Know
30) What role did European firearms play in African history?

A) Guns became a trade item that allowed the Akan states to expand.

B) Guns played no role in African politics.

C) Guns were used by Africans to take over the slave trade from Europeans.

D) Guns were used by Africans to sell to Asian civilizations for help against Europeans.

Answer: A

Learning Objective: LO: 1.4

Page Ref: 13

A-head: West Africa

Skill Level: Apply What You Know
31) Examine the two images in Map 1-3. What major differences existed between the two empires over time?

A) Mali expanded to the southern coast of Africa.

B) Ghana expanded to the Atlantic Ocean.

C) Mali and Ghana remained landlocked.

D) Mali expanded more than did Ghana.

Answer: D

Learning Objective: LO: 1.4

Page Ref: 8

A-head: West Africa

Skill Level: Analyze It
32) Regarding Ghana’s decline, cities in ancient Africa were frequently impacted by __________.

A) floods

B) earthquakes

C) capture and destruction by foreign enemies

D) Russian invasion

Answer: C

Learning Objective: LO: 1.4

Page Ref: 8

A-head: West Africa

Skill Level: Analyze It
33) Why were the kings of Ghana known to Europeans as some of the richest of monarchs?

A) They had successfully invaded Europe to take Europeans as slaves.

B) They controlled a vast trade network that dealt in many commodities.

C) They sailed to the Americas and formed colonies.

D) They possessed lucrative diamond mines.

Answer: B

Learning Objective: LO: 1.4

Page Ref: 7

A-head: West Africa

Skill Level: Analyze It
34) Map 1-4 compares Songhai, the Kongo, and the kingdoms of the West African forest region. In comparison to the other two, the Kongo __________.

A) lies the farthest south along the Atlantic coast

B) lies exclusively in the interior of Africa

C) lies in North Africa

D) is the largest African empire

Answer: A

Learning Objective: LO: 1.4

Page Ref: 11

A-head: West Africa

Skill Level: Analyze It
35) Which of the following statements best describes the Akan states?

A) The rulers gave land to settlers and asked nothing in return.

B) The rulers refused to trade with Europeans.

C) The rulers used guns to prevent the Akan states from expanding.

D) The rulers used gold from mines to purchase slaves.

Answer: D

Learning Objective: LO: 1.4

Page Ref: 12

A-head: West Africa

Skill Level: Analyze It
36) Why did the kingdom of Benin eventually sell its own people into European slavery?

A) Its prosperity came to depend on the slave trade.

B) It desired access to Christianity.

C) Europeans would not buy other African trade goods.

D) It lacked access to European guns.

Answer: A

Learning Objective: LO: 1.4

Page Ref: 13

A-head: West Africa

Skill Level: Analyze It
37) According to Map 1-5, the routes of the trans-Saharan slave trade were characterized by __________.

A) extension to southern Africa

B) connections to the ocean in North Africa and the West African forest region

C) a wide geographical expansion across Saharan and North Africa

D) a direct terminus along the Atlantic Ocean along the West African coast

Answer: C

Learning Objective: LO: 1.4

Page Ref: 14

A-head: West Africa

Skill Level: Analyze It
38) What did Kongo and Angola have in common with West Africa?

A) They established colonies of people in the Americas.

B) They escaped connection to the slave trade.

C) Their people divided labor by gender and lived in villages of extended families.

D) They were similar in size.

Answer: C

Learning Objective: LO: 1.5

Page Ref: 14

A-head: Kongo and Angola

Skill Level: Analyze It
39) West Africa’s indigenous religions remained strongest in the __________.

A) Saharan desert

B) forest region

C) Nile River valley

D) Kongo

Answer: B

Learning Objective: LO: 1.6

Page Ref: 17

A-head: West African Society and Culture

Skill Level: Remember the Facts
40) West African artists excelled in the medium of __________.

A) gold


B) bronze

C) silver

D) marble

Answer: B

Learning Objective: LO: 1.6

Page Ref: 17

A-head: West African Society and Culture

Skill Level: Remember the Facts
41) West Africans used “fetishes” or figurines for rituals related to __________.

A) political changes in leadership

B) trade relationships with African governments

C) peace treaties with European governments

D) coming-of-age ceremonies

Answer: D

Learning Objective: LO: 1.6

Page Ref: 17

A-head: West African Society and Culture

Skill Level: Remember the Facts
42) Which musical instrument now commonly used in the U.S. has an African predecessor?

A) trumpet

B) saxophone

C) banjo


D) violin

Answer: C

Learning Objective: LO: 1.6

Page Ref: 18

A-head: West African Society and Culture

Skill Level: Remember the Facts
43) In West African culture, poetry became part of __________.

A) an oral culture expressed by commoners and elites alike

B) the forbidden culture controlled by women

C) European additions to African culture

D) an exclusively written culture

Answer: A

Learning Objective: LO: 1.6

Page Ref: 18

A-head: West African Society and Culture

Skill Level: Remember the Facts
44) How were West African prose tales significant for African-American history?

A) The tales played no role in African-American history.

B) The tales helped African Americans resign themselves to slavery.

C) The tales became allegories for struggles against slavery.

D) The tales helped African Americans become slave masters.

Answer: C

Learning Objective: LO: 1.6

Page Ref: 18

A-head: West African Society and Culture

Skill Level: Remember the Facts
45) Which of the following statements about the role of technology in West African culture is true?

A) It played an insignificant role because West Africa had almost no technology.

B) The use of silver to produce agricultural tools was common.

C) West Africans used technology to end African culture.

D) Iron refining and forging were common in the making of religious objects.

Answer: D

Learning Objective: LO: 1.6

Page Ref: 18

A-head: West African Society and Culture

Skill Level: Remember the Facts
46) Ancient African architecture received its greatest influence from the religion of __________.

A) Islam


B) Christianity

C) Buddhism

D) Judaism

Answer: A

Learning Objective: LO: 1.6

Page Ref: 18

A-head: West African Society and Culture

Skill Level: Remember the Facts
47) Women in West African society __________.

A) had access to formal governmental offices and posts

B) were considered to be free and independent individuals

C) had more sexual freedom than women in Europe

D) were responsible for nothing other than the care of children

Answer: C

Learning Objective: LO: 1.6

Page Ref: 16

A-head: West African Society and Culture

Skill Level: Remember the Facts
48) In the hierarchal society of West Africa, slavery __________.

A) had no place and never existed until Europeans introduced it

B) was a permanent condition and the children of African slaves were always slaves

C) functioned as a means of assimilation into West African societies

D) was introduced by the Greeks and Romans

Answer: C

Learning Objective: LO: 1.6

Page Ref: 17

A-head: West African Society and Culture

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts
49) In a matrilineal society, rank and power __________.

A) pass through the female line

B) are not passed to future generations

C) pass through the male line

D) are controlled by foreign visitors

Answer: A

Learning Objective: LO: 1.6

Page Ref: 16

A-head: West African Society and Culture

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts
50) How is power maintained in stateless societies like the Igbo in West Africa?

A) Women maintained absolute power over villages.

B) Foreigners held power over villages.

C) Rulers prevented villagers from leaving.



D) Families, rather than central authorities, ruled villages.

Answer: D

Learning Objective: LO: 1.6

Page Ref: 13

A-head: West African Society and Culture

Skill Level: Apply What You Know
True/False Questions
51) Egyptian women never ruled Egypt as pharaohs.

Answer: FALSE

Learning Objective: LO: 1.3

Page Ref: 5

A-head: Ancient Civilizations and Old Arguments

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts
52) The first known kingdom in western Sudan was Ghana.

Answer: TRUE

Learning Objective: LO: 1.4

Page Ref: 7

A-head: West Africa

Skill Level: Remember the Facts
53) The people of Senegambia were politically united but did not speak closely related languages.

Answer: FALSE

Learning Objective: LO: 1.4

Page Ref: 12

A-head: West Africa

Skill Level: Remember the Facts
54) A sizable minority of African Americans can trace their ancestry to Central Africa.

Answer: TRUE

Learning Objective: LO: 1.6

Page Ref: 14

A-head: West African Society and Culture

Skill Level: Remember the Facts
55) Drought was an infrequent occurrence for African farmers on the savanna.

Answer: FALSE

Learning Objective: LO: 1.6

Page Ref: 16

A-head: West African Society and Culture

Skill Level: Remember the Facts
56) In patrilineal societies, social rank and property is passed down in the female line from mothers to sons.

Answer: FALSE

Learning Objective: LO: 1.6

Page Ref: 16

A-head: West African Society and Culture

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts
57) A “call-and-response” style of singing played a vital role in West African rituals.

Answer: TRUE

Learning Objective: LO: 1.6

Page Ref: 18

A-head: West African Society and Culture

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts
58) Both court poets and griots were women in West African society.

Answer: FALSE

Learning Objective: LO: 1.6

Page Ref: 18

A-head: West African Society and Culture

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts
59) Africans possessed stringed instruments in the ancient era.

Answer: TRUE

Learning Objective: LO: 1.6

Page Ref: 18

A-head: West African Society and Culture

Skill Level: Apply What You Know
Fill-in-the-Blank Questions
60) A large_________ stretches across Africa spanning Ethiopia to the Atlantic Ocean.

Answer: grassland

Learning Objective: LO: 1.1

Page Ref: 2

A-head: A Huge and Diverse Land

Skill Level: Remember the Facts
61) From north to south, Africa is divided into a series of __________ zones.

Answer: climatic

Learning Objective: LO: 1.1

Page Ref: 2

A-head: A Huge and Diverse Land

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts
62) Scientists who study the evolution and prehistory of humans are known as _________.

Answer: paleoanthropologists

Learning Objective: LO: 1.2

Page Ref: 2

A-head: The Birthplace of Humanity

Skill Level: Remember the Facts
63) Egypt began a long decline as a result of __________’s invasion in 331 BCE.

Answer: Alexander the Great

Learning Objective: LO: 1.3

Page Ref: 5

A-head: Ancient Civilizations and Old Arguments

Skill Level: Remember the Facts
64) The _________, Islamic Berbers from Morocco, captured Ghana in 1076 CE.

Answer: Almoravids

Learning Objective: LO: 1.3

Page Ref: 8

A-head: Ancient Civilizations and Old Arguments

Skill Level: Remember the Facts
65) The Egyptian religion included ________, god of the Nile.

Answer: Osiris

Learning Objective: LO: 1.3

Page Ref: 5

A-head: Ancient Civilizations and Old Arguments

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts
66) In 1591, the king of Morocco used Spanish ________ to capture Gao, capital of Songhai.

Answer: mercenaries

Learning Objective: LO: 1.4

Page Ref: 11

A-head: West Africa

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts
67) The Nok, one of the early peoples of the West African forest region, were known for their _________ technology.

Answer: ironworking

Learning Objective: LO: 1.4

Page Ref: 7

A-head: West Africa

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts
68) Mansa Musa’s connection to Mecca in 1324 entailed making a _________.

Answer: pilgrimage

Learning Objective: LO: 1.4

Page Ref: 10

A-head: West Africa

Skill Level: Apply What You Know
69) The people known as the _________are an example of an Akan state.

Answer: Ashantee

Learning Objective: LO: 1.4

Page Ref: 13

A-head: West Africa

Skill Level: Apply What You Know
Short Answer Questions
70) Examine Map 1-1. What aspects of African geography suggest limitations and possibilities for historical settlement?

Learning Objective: LO: 1.1

Page Ref: 3

A-head: A Huge and Diverse Land

Skill Level: Analyze It
71) Discuss the scholarly debate surrounding the race and extent of influence of the ancient Egyptians.

Learning Objective: LO: 1.3

Page Ref: 4-7

A-head: Ancient Civilizations and Old Arguments

Skill Level: Apply What You Know
72) Why is the Nile river called a “gift” for ancient Egypt?

Learning Objective: LO: 1.3

Page Ref: 4-5

A-head: Ancient Civilizations and Old Arguments

Skill Level: Analyze It
73) Based on the Voices segment of Al Bakri’s observations of Kumbi Saleh and Ghana’s royal court, explain the connection between physical display and authority within the political system of Ghana.

Learning Objective: LO: 1.4

Page Ref: 9

A-head: West Africa

Skill Level: Apply What You Know
74) Examine the Voices segment of a Dutch visitor to Benin City in 1602. How does the foreign visitor describe conditions in the city, and what cultural biases are evident in his description?

Learning Objective: LO: 1.4

Page Ref: 15

A-head: West Africa

Skill Level: Analyze it
Essay Questions
75) Why do scholars generate an intense debate surrounding the ancient origin of human beings as explained in the chapter?
Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should:

1. Outline the evolution of early hominids: Ardipithecines, Australopithecus, Homo habilis, and Homo erectus.

2. Outline the migration debate: Multiregional model: Modern humans evolved

from regional Homo sapiens and archaic homo erectus populations in Africa, Asia, and Europe

3. Note that the Out of Africa model: Modern humans evolved 200,000 years

ago in Africa and left 100,000 years ago, migrating to Asia and Europe and the Americas.

4. Conclude that both theories are consistent with archaeological evidence.
Learning Objective: LO: 1.2

Page Ref: 2-3

A-head: The Birthplace of Humanity

Skill Level: Analyze It
76) How did class, gender, and religion shape Egyptian life?
Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should:

1) Describe the Afrocentric debate regarding the racial origins and impact of Egyptian culture on Greece and Rome: Egyptians may or may not have been “black” in skin color, however it is clear that the civilization influenced Greece and Rome in profound ways.

2) Discuss the patriarchal nature of ancient Egyptian culture and the role of women as having some control over earnings, family development, and political power.

3) Explain the role of religion within the Egyptian political and social system as having a central role in augmenting the political power of the pharaoh.

4) Conclude that ancient Egypt was a founding civilization of world history and continues to provide new clues to its existence through archaeological discoveries.
Learning Objective: LO: 1.3

Page Ref: 4-5

A-head: Ancient Civilizations and Old Arguments

Skill Level: Analyze It
77) What were the most important economic, political, and cultural aspects of West African society? In what ways did geography impact cultural differences among West African civilizations?
Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should:

1) Describe the major West African kingdoms of the Sudan: Ghana, Mali, Songhai. All were politically competitive and involved in long distance trade relations.

2) Describe the major West African kingdoms of the forest region: Senegambia, Akan, Benin, Igboland. These all played major roles in the development of West African society through warfare, religious expansion, and trade.

3) Outline West African technology (iron production), religion (polytheism and Islam), trade systems based on iron, ivory, textiles; rigid class system, and family-based leadership systems.

4) Explain the role of the Sahara desert in creating North Africa and sub-Saharan Africa; the forests of West Africa provided many slaves to European colonies because of their close proximity to the coastline; the savanna or grasslands of central and southern Africa provided the home to large internal kingdoms involved in shaping West African national histories and the slave trade.

5) Conclude that geographical characteristics, primarily aridity, continue to shape modern African political and socioeconomic development.


Learning Objective: LO: 1.4, 1.6

Page Ref: 7-14, 15-19

A-head: West Africa, West African Society and Culture

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts
78) Explain the role, status, and power of African women in ancient Africa.
Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should:

1) Define “African” women as including North Africa and ancient Egyptian culture as well as West, Central, Southern, and Eastern African women.

2) Point out that women were often seen as the property of men, and men dominated African women to the point of widespread enslavement of women and polygamy.

3) Note that women did in some cultures have the right to own property, inherit property, control the income from property, and serve as government officials.

4) Note the irony that women who served as government officials were often slaves.

5) Provide an example of the power of African women: The Ashantee Queen held her own court to decide women’s affairs.

6) Conclude that women held considerable power over their sexuality; secret societies taught women to be virtuous.
Learning Objective: LO: 1.6

Page Ref: 16

A-head: West African Society and Culture

Skill Level: Apply What You Know

79) In what ways did Islam influence ancient African political, economic, and cultural development prior to European arrival? How does that impact manifest itself today?


Ideal Answer: The ideal answer should:

1) Define Muslim countries in ancient sub-Saharan Africa as Ghana, Mali, and Songhai. Islam arrived from North Africa by Arab merchants who also brought Arabic culture.

2) Explain that Arabs replaced Romans as the major foreign traders in Africa by the ninth century, leading to the conversion of African leaders to Islam.

3) Note that in Ghana, Arab Muslims dominated the monarchy and introduced writing into the culture.

4) Explain that Islam shaped African slavery. In Islamic regions of West Africa, masters had obligations to their slaves similar to those of a guardian for a ward.

5) Point out that Islam in many areas particularly of North and West Africa influenced African religion and African culture, including architecture, family life, and the roles of men and women in society.



6) Conclude that in modern Africa, the historical imprint of Islam remains strong in cultural, political, and religious influences that define modern national development in a time of expanding democracy.
Learning Objective: LO: 1.4, 1.6

Page Ref: 7-14, 15-19

A-head: West Africa, West African Society and Culture

Skill Level: Understand the Concepts


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